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  • 1. Capon, Rob
    et al.
    Hayes, Andrew
    Hagman, Mattias
    Univ Sydney, Sch Biol Sci A08, Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia.
    Shine, Richard
    Cane toad chemical ecology: controlling an invasive pest2008In: Planta Medica, ISSN 0032-0943, E-ISSN 1439-0221, Vol. 74, p. 1134-1134Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 2. Elmberg, Johan
    et al.
    Hagman, Mattias
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Löwenbrog, Kristin
    Kärvemo, Simon
    Snokens barnkammare försvinner2013In: Fauna och flora : populär tidskrift för biologi, ISSN 0014-8903, Vol. 108, no 1, p. 10-16Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 3. Forsman, Anders
    et al.
    Hagman, Mattias
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Association of Coloration Mode with Population Declines and Endangerment in Australian Frogs2009In: Conservation Biology, ISSN 0888-8892, E-ISSN 1523-1739, Vol. 23, p. 1535-1543Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Successful protection of biodiversity requires increased understanding of the ecological characteristics that predispose some species to endangerment. Theory posits that species with polymorphic or variable coloration should have larger distributions, use more diverse resources, and be less vulnerable to population declines and extinctions, compared with taxa that do not vary in color. We used information from literature on 194 species of Australian frogs to search for associations of coloration mode with ecological variables. In general, species with variable or polymorphic color patterns had larger ranges, used more habitats, were less prone to have a negative population trend, and were estimated as less vulnerable to extinction compared with nonvariable species. An association of variable coloration with lower endangerment was also evident when we controlled statistically for the effects of range size. Nonvariable coloration was not a strong predictor of endangerment, and information on several characteristics is needed to reliably identify and protect species that are prone to decline and may become threatened by extinction in the near future. Analyses based on phylogenetic-independent contrasts did not support the hypothesis that evolutionary transitions between nonvariable and variable or polymorphic coloration have been accompanied by changes in the ecological variables we examined. Irrefutable demonstration of a role of color pattern variation in amphibian decline and in the dynamics and persistence of populations in general will require a manipulative experimental approach.

  • 4.
    Forsman, Anders
    et al.
    Department of Biology and Environmental Science, University of Kalmar.
    Hagman, Mattias
    School of Biological Sciences A08, University of Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia.
    Calling is an honest indicator of paternal genetic quality in male poison frogs2006In: Evolution, ISSN 0014-3820, E-ISSN 1558-5646, Vol. 60, no 10, p. 2148-2157Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Several competing hypotheses have been put forward to explain why females of many species mate preferentially with males possessing the most conspicuous signals (e.g., ornaments, displays, or songs). We performed a laboratory experiment using two species of poison frogs, Dendrobates leucomelas and Epipedobates tricolor, to test the hypothesis that male calling performance is an honest indicator of parental quality. Our analyses are based on data from behavioral observations of mating activities of captive-reared individuals (and their offspring) that were housed in terraria for four consecutive breeding seasons. Male mating success increased with male calling rate and chirp duration in both species, suggesting that females preferred males with more elaborate calls. Because calling performance improved with age in D. leucomelas, female poison frogs that prefer males with more elaborate calls in the wild may end up mating with older males that have already proven their ability to survive. Females that mated with good callers obtained higher quality offspring. Eggs fertilized by males with high calling rates and long chirp durations had higher hatching success and produced tadpoles that were more likely to metamorphose into surviving frogs. As a consequence, females that mated with males with high calling performance obtained more surviving offspring per egg, compared to females that mated with poor callers. Collectively, our findings comply with the notion that female poison frogs prefer to mate with good callers because calling performance is a reliable predictor of offspring quality. The possible influence of maternal allocation and reasons for the strong effect size compared to previous studies are discussed.

  • 5. Hagman, Mattias
    Att odla riktigt små kryp hemma2001In: Terrariet, Vol. 8, no 7, p. 9-12Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 6.
    Hagman, Mattias
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology. Etologi.
    Behavioural responses by tadpoles of six Australian species to chemical cues from other tadpoles.2008In: Herpetological Conservation and Biology, Vol. 3, p. 239-246Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Hagman, Mattias
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Control methods for unwanted anurans2011Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Anurans (frogs and toads) worldwide are threatened by habitat loss, emerging infectious diseases, overexploitation, pollution, climatic change and introduction of exotic species. As a result of human activities, some anurans have actually increased their distribution and are now doing extremely well in places far outside of their natural range. But these anurans are often unwanted in the introduced range because they may disturb recipient ecosystems and pose a threat to indigenous fauna, including native amphibians. This book reviews anuran biology and discusses some life history traits that may be suitable for targeted control measures.

  • 8. Hagman, Mattias
    Costa Rica - den rika kusten2000In: Terrariet, Vol. 7, no 4, p. 3-12Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 9. Hagman, Mattias
    Dendrobates pumilio (Poison frog) poisoning2006In: Herpetological Review, ISSN 0018-084X, Vol. 37, p. 73-74Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 10. Hagman, Mattias
    Does the co-occurrence of multiple colour variants promote the ecological success of Australian frog populations?2007In: Australian Wildlife, Vol. 4, p. 21-Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 11. Hagman, Mattias
    Odling av en stor pilgiftsgroda - Dendrobates tinctorius ”Taffelberg”2000In: Terrariet, Vol. 7, no 7, p. 4-8Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 12.
    Hagman, Mattias
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Pheromone-induced life-history shifts: a novel approach to controlling invasive toads2010In: Communicative & Integrative Biology, ISSN 1942-0889, E-ISSN 1942-0889, Vol. 3, no 3, p. 238-239Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In a recent paper,1 we showed that recurrent exposure to alarm pheromones reduced development time and size at metamorphosis in larval cane toads (Bufo marinus). Subsequent measurements of post-metamorphic toads revealed larger parotoid glands relative to body size and increased amounts of bufalin (a toxic bufodienalide) in animals from the experimental treatment, suggesting increased investment in chemical defenses. These findings are of interest for evolutionary theory. But the study was also part of a larger conservation-based research program of which this pheromone work was an important component in the development of a management strategy for reducing the ecological impact of invasive cane toads in Australia. For example, our study1 aimed to quantify biochemical and life-history effects as well as assess the likely longterm impact of pheromone exposure on toads. In this addendum, I discuss the conservation potential of our research, with emphasis on exploiting alarm pheromones to induce viability reducing life-history shifts.

  • 13. Hagman, Mattias
    Pilgiftsgrodor1999In: Terrariet, ISSN 1404-7519, Vol. 6, no 12, p. 4-18Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 14.
    Hagman, Mattias
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Pond usage by anuran amphibians2011In: Ponds: Formation, Characteristics and Uses / [ed] Paul L. Meyer, New York: Nova Science Publishers, Inc., 2011, p. 1-36Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 15. Hagman, Mattias
    Terrarieteknik och växter2001In: Terrariet, Vol. 8, no 10, p. 3-12Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 16.
    Hagman, Mattias
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Vergiftigd door Oophaga pumilio : (Dutch translation by Peter de Jong)2012In: Dendrobatidae Nederland, ISSN 1574-3640, no 30 juni, p. 5-Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 17.
    Hagman, Mattias
    et al.
    James Cook University, Townsville, Australia; University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia.
    Alford, Ross
    Patterns of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis transmission between tadpoles in a high-elevation rainforest stream in tropical Australia.2015In: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms, ISSN 0177-5103, E-ISSN 1616-1580, Vol. 115, p. 213-221Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The highly virulent fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) poses a global threat to amphibian biodiversity. Streams and other water bodies are central habitats in the ecology of the disease, particularly in rainforests where they may transport and transmit the pathogen and harbor infected tadpoles that serve as reservoir hosts. We conducted an experiment using larval green-eyed tree frogs Litoria serrata in semi-natural streamside channels to test the hypotheses that (1) the fungus can be transmitted downstream in stream habitats and (2) infection affects tadpole growth and mouthpart loss. Our results showed that transmission can occur downstream in flowing water with no contact between individuals, that newly infected tadpoles suffered increased mouthpart loss in comparison with controls that were never infected and that infected tadpoles grew at reduced rates. Although recently infected tadpoles showed substantial loss of mouthparts, individuals with longstanding infections did not, suggesting that mouthparts may re-grow following initial loss. Our study suggests that any management efforts that can reduce the prevalence of infections in tadpoles may be particularly effective if applied in headwater areas, as their effects are likely to be felt downstream.

  • 18.
    Hagman, Mattias
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Elmberg, Johan
    Kärvemo, Simon
    Löwenborg, Kristin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Grass snakes (Natrix natrix) in Sweden decline together with their anthropogenic nesting-environments2012In: Herpetological Journal, ISSN 0268-0130, Vol. 22, no 3, p. 199-202Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we show that the number of grass snake (Natrix natrix L.) specimens deposited in Swedish museum collections has declined in the last eighty years, and that this is correlated with a dramatic national decrease in the number of livestock holdings. These results support the hypothesis that Swedish grass snakes are declining and that this may be linked to a loss of important nesting-environments provided by open manure heaps in small-scale farming. Our study suggests that information obtained from museum databases potentially may be used to explore population trends for snakes and other reptiles.

  • 19.
    Hagman, Mattias
    et al.
    Department of Biology and Environmental Sciences, Kalmar University.
    Forsman, Anders
    Department of Biology and Environmental Sciences, Kalmar University.
    Correlated evolution of conspicuous colouration and body size in the poison frog family Dendrobatidae2003In: Evolution, ISSN 0014-3820, E-ISSN 1558-5646, Vol. 57, no 12, p. 2904-2910Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Conspicuous coloration is often used in combination with chemical defenses to deter predators from attacking. Experimental studies have shown that the avoidance inducing effect of conspicuous prey coloration increases with increasing size of pattern elements and with increasing body size. Here we use a comparative approach to test the prediction from these findings, namely that conspicuous coloration will evolve in tandem with body size. In our analysis, we use a previously published mitochondrial DNA-based phylogeny and comparative analysis of independent contrasts to examine if evolutionary shifts in color pattern have been associated with evolutionary changes in body size in aposematic poison frogs (Anura: Dendrobatidae). Information on body size (snout to vent length) and coloration were obtained from the literature. Two different measures of conspicuousness were used, one based on rankings by human observers and the other based on computer analysis of digitized photographs. The results from comparative analyses using either measure of coloration indicated that avoidance inducing coloration and body size have evolved in concert in poison frogs. Results from reconstruction of character change further indicate that the correlated evolution of size and coloration has involved changes in both directions within each of the different clades of the phylogenetic tree. This finding is consistent with the hypothesis that selection imposed by visually guided predators has promoted the evolution of larger body size in species with conspicuous coloration, or enhanced evolution of conspicuous coloration in larger species.

  • 20.
    Hagman, Mattias
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, Ethology.
    Hayes, Andrew
    Capon, Rob
    Shine, Richard
    Alarm cues experienced by cane toad tadpoles affect post-metamorphic morphology and chemical defences2009In: Functional Ecology, ISSN 0269-8463, E-ISSN 1365-2435, Vol. 23, p. 126-132Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

     Summary: In many anuran species, larvae modify their developmental trajectories and behaviour in response to chemical cues that predict predator risk. Recent reviews highlight a dearth of studies on delayed (post-metamorphic) consequences of larval experience.

  • 2 We raised cane toad (Bufo marinus) tadpoles either under control conditions or in the presence of non-lethal predator cues (crushed conspecifics).
  • 3 Exposure to these chemical cues massively reduced size at metamorphosis, as predicted by theory. Parotoid glands were larger relative to body size in post-metamorphic animals from the experimental treatment, suggesting higher investment in chemical defences.
  • 4 Exposure to chemical cues from crushed conspecifics during larval life reduced total bufadienolide content of metamorphs, but increased amounts of one specific bufadienolide (bufalin).
  • 5 Hence, cane toads respond to perceived predation risk in the aquatic environment by metamorphosing at a smaller size and modifying their investment in defensive toxins during post-metamorphic life.
  • 6 Phenotypically flexible responses to larval conditions vary among amphibian taxa, and can involve significant carry-over effects into post-metamorphic life.
  • 21.
    Hagman, Mattias
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Kärvemo, Simon
    Elmberg, Johan
    Löwenborg, Kristin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Life at the edge: the nesting ecology of the world’s most northerly oviparous snake and its implications for conservation2013In: Reptiles in Research: Investigations of Ecology, Physiology and Behavior from Desert to Sea / [ed] William I. Lutterschmidt, New York: Nova Science Publishers, Inc., 2013, p. 247-264Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 22.
    Hagman, Mattias
    et al.
    University of New South Wales, Australia.
    Löwenborg, Kristin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Shine, Richard
    University of Sydney, Australia.
    Determinants of anti-predator tactics in hatchling grass snakes (Natrix natrix)2015In: Behavioural Processes, ISSN 0376-6357, E-ISSN 1872-8308, Vol. 113, p. 60-65Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many organisms exhibit diverse anti-predator tactics, influenced by genetics and prior experience. In ectothermic taxa, offspring phenotypes are often sensitive to developmental temperatures. If the effectiveness of alternative anti-predator responses depends on thermally sensitive traits, then the temperatures experienced during embryonic life should also affect how offspring respond to an approaching predator. We incubated 16 clutches of Swedish grass snakes (Natrix natrix) at a range of developmental temperatures, and scored body size, colour pattern, locomotor performance and anti-predator responses of 213 hatchlings from those clutches. A hatchling snake’s size and locomotor abilities were affected by its clutch of origin, its developmental temperature, and by an interaction between these two factors. Anti-predator tactics were strongly linked to locomotor ability, such that slower snakes tended to rely upon aggressive displays rather than flight. Incubation temperatures that generated slow (and thus aggressive) snakes also modified the colour of the snake’s nuchal spot. Temperatures in the low to medium range generated mostly cream, white and orange spots, whereas medium to high temperatures generated more yellow spots. Incubation effects, and gene X environment interactions, thus may generate complex correlations between morphology, locomotor ability, and anti-predator tactics.

  • 23.
    Hagman, Mattias
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology. University of New South Wales, Australia.
    Ord, Terry J.
    Many Paths to a Common Destination: Morphological Differentiation of a Functionally Convergent Visual Signal2016In: American Naturalist, ISSN 0003-0147, E-ISSN 1537-5323, Vol. 188, no 3, p. 306-318Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Understanding the interacting outcomes of selection and historical contingency in shaping adaptive evolution remains a challenge in evolutionary biology. While selection can produce convergent outcomes when species occupy similar environments, the unique history of each species can also influence evolutionary trajectories and result in different phenotypic end points. The question is to what extent historical contingency places species on different adaptive pathways and, in turn, the extent to which we can predict evolutionary outcomes. Among lizards there are several distantly related genera that have independently evolved an elaborate extendible dewlap for territorial communication. We conducted a detailed morphological study and employed new phylogenetic comparative methods to investigate the evolution of the underlying hyoid that powers the extension of the dewlap. This analysis showed that there appear to have been multiple phenotypic pathways for evolving a functionally convergent dewlap. The biomechanical complexity that underlies this morphological structure implies that adaptation should have been constrained to a narrow phenotypic pathway. However, multiple adaptive solutions have been possible in apparent response to a common selection pressure. Thus, the phenotypic outcome that subsequently evolved in different genera seems to have been contingent on the history of the group in question. This blurs the distinction between convergent and historically contingent adaptation and suggests that adaptive phenotypic diversity can evolve without the need for divergent natural selection.

  • 24.
    Hagman, Mattias
    et al.
    Universutyof Sydney.
    Pape, Tomas
    Schulte, Rainer
    Flesh fly myiasis in Peruvian poison frogs genus Epipedobates (Anura, Dendrobatidae)2005In: Phyllomedusa, ISSN 1519-1397, Vol. 4, no 1, p. 69-73Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 25.
    Hagman, Mattias
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, Ethology.
    Phillips, Ben
    Shine, Richard
    Fatal attraction: adaptations to prey on native frogs imperil snakes after invasion of toxic toads.2009In: Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8452, E-ISSN 1471-2954, Vol. 276, p. 2813-2818Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Adaptations that enhance fitness in one situation can become liabilities if circumstances change. In tropical Australia, native snake species are vulnerable to the invasion of toxic cane toads. Death adders (Acanthophis praelongus) are ambush foragers that (i) attract vertebrate prey by caudal luring and (ii) handle anuran prey by killing the frog then waiting until the frog's chemical defences degrade before ingesting it. These tactics render death adders vulnerable to toxic cane toads (Bufo marinus), because toads elicit caudal luring more effectively than do native frogs, and are more readily attracted to the lure. Moreover, the strategy of delaying ingestion of a toad after the strike does not prevent fatal poisoning, because toad toxins (unlike those of native frogs) do not degrade shortly after the prey dies. In our laboratory and field trials, half of the death adders died after ingesting a toad, showing that the specialized predatory behaviours death adders use to capture and process prey render them vulnerable to this novel prey type. The toads' strong response to caudal luring also renders them less fit than native anurans (which largely ignored the lure): all toads bitten by adders died. Together, these results illustrate the dissonance in behavioural adaptations that can arise following the arrival of invasive species, and reveal the strong selection that occurs when mutually naive species first interact.

  • 26.
    Hagman, Mattias
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology. Etologi.
    Phillips, Ben
    Shine, Richard
    Tails of enticement: caudal luring by an ambush-foraging snake (Acanthophis praelongus, Elapidae)2008In: Functional Ecology, Vol. 22, p. 1134-1139Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 27. Hagman, Mattias
    et al.
    Schulte, Rainer
    Leptodeira annulata (Banded Cat-Eyed Snake) prey2007In: Herpetological Review, ISSN 0018-084X, Vol. 38, p. 90-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 28.
    Hagman, Mattias
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, Ethology.
    Shine, Richard
    Factors influencing responses to alarm pheromones by tadpoles of invasive cane toads (Bufo marinus)2009In: Journal of Chemical Ecology, ISSN 0098-0331, E-ISSN 1573-1561, Vol. 35, p. 265-271Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    If pheromonal communication systems of invasive species differ from those of native biota, it may be possible to control the invader by exploiting that difference. When injured, the larvae of cane toads, Bufo marinus, an invasive species of major concern in tropical Australia, produce species-specific chemical cues that alert conspecific tadpoles to danger. Repeated exposure to the alarm chemical reduces tadpole survival rates and body sizes at metamorphosis and, thus, could help control toad populations. To evaluate the feasibility of this approach, we need to know how the intensity of toad tadpole response to the alarm chemical is affected by factors such as water temperature, time of day, larval stage and feeding history, geographic origin of the tadpoles, and habituation. Information on these topics may enable us to optimize deployment, so that tadpoles encounter pheromone at the times and places that confer maximum effect. In our studies, tadpole density, nutritional state, larval stage, and geographic origin had little effect on the intensity of the alarm response, but tadpoles reacted most strongly in higher water temperatures and during daylight hours. Repeated, once-daily exposure to pheromone did not induce habituation, but repeated exposure at 15-min interva

  • 29.
    Hagman, Mattias
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Shine, Richard
    Larval alarm pheromones as a potential control for invasive cane toads (Bufo marinus) in tropical Australia2009In: Chemoecology, ISSN 0937-7409, E-ISSN 1423-0445, Vol. 19, p. 211-217Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Novel approaches to control invasive species are urgently needed. Cane toads (Bufo marinus) are large, highly toxic anurans that are spreading rapidly through tropical Australia. Injured toad larvae produce an alarm pheromone that elicits rapid avoidance by conspecifics but not by frog larvae. Experiments in outdoor ponds show that repeated exposure to the pheromone reduced toad tadpole survival rates (by > 50%) and body mass at metamorphosis (by 20%). The alarm pheromone did not induce tadpoles to seek shelter, but accelerated ontogenetic differentiation. Perhaps reflecting mortality of weaker individuals during larval life, growth rates post-metamorphosis were higher in animals emerging from the pheromone exposure treatment than from the control treatment. Nonetheless, body size differentials established at metamorphosis persisted through the first 8 days of post-metamorphic life. We will need substantial additional research before evaluating whether the alarm pheromone provides a way to reduce cane toad recruitment in nature, but our field trials are encouraging in this respect.

  • 30.
    Hagman, Mattias
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, Ethology.
    Shine, Richard
    Species-specific communication systems in an introduced toad compared with native frogs in Australia2009In: Chemoecology, ISSN 0937-7409, E-ISSN 1423-0445, Vol. 19, no 4, p. 211-217Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Novel approaches to control invasive species are urgently needed. Cane toads (Bufo marinus) are large, highly toxic anurans that are spreading rapidly through tropical Australia. Injured toad larvae produce an alarm pheromone that elicits rapid avoidance by conspecifics but not by frog larvae. Experiments in outdoor ponds show that repeated exposure to the pheromone reduced toad tadpole survival rates (by >50%) and body mass at metamorphosis (by 20%). The alarm pheromone did not induce tadpoles to seek shelter, but accelerated ontogenetic differentiation. Perhaps reflecting mortality of weaker individuals during larval life, growth rates post-metamorphosis were higher in animals emerging from the pheromone exposure treatment than from the control treatment. Nonetheless, body size differentials established at metamorphosis persisted through the first 8 days of post-metamorphic life. We will need substantial additional research before evaluating whether the alarm pheromone provides a way to reduce cane toad recruitment in nature, but our field trials are encouraging in this respect.

  • 31.
    Hagman, Mattias
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology. Etologi.
    Shine, Richard
    Tadpoles of invasive cane toads (Bufo marinus) do not respond behaviourally to chemical cues from tadpoles of four species of Australian frogs.2008In: Australian Journal of Zoology, Vol. 56, p. 1-3Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 32.
    Hagman, Mattias
    et al.
    Univ Sydney, Sch Biol Sci A08, Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia.
    Shine, Rick
    Univ Sydney, Sch Biol Sci A08, Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia.
    Australian tadpoles do not avoid chemical cues from invasive cane toads (Bufo marinus)2008In: Wildlife research (East Melbourne), ISSN 1035-3712, E-ISSN 1448-5494, Vol. 35, no 4, p. 59-64Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In previous work, we have shown that tadpoles of invasive cane toads (Bufo marinus) strongly avoid scent cues from crushed conspecific tadpoles. Thus, identifying the identity of the chemical involved may provide novel approaches to toad control, by manipulating the behaviour of toad tadpoles. A first step in the search for that chemical is to see whether toad tadpoles are similarly repelled by chemical cues from crushed tadpoles of other species. Our experimental trials with four native Australian frogs (three hylids, one myobatrachid) show that toads do not respond to chemical cues from these taxa. Hence, the specific chemicals that induce avoidance cannot be generic ones (e.g. body fluids, tissue fragments) but instead, must reflect some underlying chemical divergence in body composition between the tadpoles of cane toads versus the other anurans that we have tested.

  • 33.
    Hagman, Mattias
    et al.
    Univ Sydney, Sch Biol Sci, Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia.
    Shine, Rick
    Univ Sydney, Sch Biol Sci, Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia.
    Deceptive digits: the functional significance of toe waving by cannibalistic cane toads (Bufo marinus)2008In: Animal Behaviour, ISSN 0003-3472, E-ISSN 1095-8282, Vol. 75, p. 123-131Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many ambush foraging predators possess specialized structures and behaviours that plausibly function to attract prey, but this hypothesis has rarely been subject to direct empirical tests. If luring evolved to attract specific prey types then we predict that it will be manifested only if that prey type is present, and only by predators of the size class that feed on that prey type. Also, luring should induce closer approach by prey; and aspects of the behaviour (e. g. frequency of movement of the lure) should have been. ne tuned by selection to induce maximal response from prey. We describe a novel luring system: small- and medium-sized ( but not metamorph and large) cane toads, Chaunus marinus, wave the long middle toe of the hind-foot up and down in an obvious display. In keeping with the functional hypothesis, toe waving is elicited by moving edible-sized objects such as crickets or metamorphic toads. Metamorphic toads are attracted to this stimulus, and trials with a mechanical model show that both the colour and the vibrational frequency of the toe correspond closely with those most effective at attracting smaller conspecifics towards the lure. The independent evolution of visual luring systems in many animal lineages provides a powerful opportunity for robust empirical tests of adaptive hypotheses about signal design.

  • 34.
    Hagman, Mattias
    et al.
    Univ Sydney, Sch Biol Sci, Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia.
    Shine, Rick
    Univ Sydney, Sch Biol Sci, Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia.
    Effects of invasive cane toads on Australian mosquitoes: does the dark cloud have a silver lining?2007In: Biological Invasions, ISSN 1387-3547, E-ISSN 1573-1464, Vol. 9, no 4, p. 445-452Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research on the ecological impacts of invasive organisms typically looks only for negative impacts, ignoring the possibility that the wider community might see benefits in some of these effects. To truly understand the impact of invasive species, we need to look as broadly as possible, and incorporate studies on a diversity of variables. The spread of the South American cane toad (Bufo marinus) through tropical Australia is widely viewed as an ecological catastrophe, but anecdotal reports suggest that the invasion of toads may reduce the numbers of mosquitoes (and thus, potentially, the risk they pose to human health). We conducted experiments to determine whether the presence of toad tadpoles affects survival rates, adult body sizes and/or rates of oviposition of four species of disease-carrying mosquitoes. In the laboratory, the presence of toad tadpoles significantly reduced the sizes of adult mosquitoes at emergence, and also reduced survival rates of the larvae of one mosquito species. In field trials, mosquitoes were less likely to oviposit in waterbodies containing toad tadpoles. Accordingly, these data suggest (but do not prove) that toad invasion may reduce mosquito abundance. More generally, any overall evaluation of the impact of an invasive species needs to consider possible benefits (e.g. to human health) as well as negative effects (e.g. to native species). Both types of information are essential to inform community decisions about the management of feral taxa such as the cane toad in Australia.

  • 35.
    Hagman, Mattias
    et al.
    Univ Sydney, Sch Biol Sci A08, Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia .
    Shine, Rick
    Univ Sydney, Sch Biol Sci A08, Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia .
    Spawning-site selection by feral cane toads (Bufo marinus) at an invasion front in tropical Australia2006In: Austral ecology (Print), ISSN 1442-9985, E-ISSN 1442-9993, Vol. 31, no 5, p. 551-558Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Spawning sites are a critical and often scarce resource for aquatic-breeding amphibians, including invasive species such as the cane toad (Bufo marinus). If toads select spawning sites based on habitat characteristics, we can potentially manipulate those characteristics to either enhance or reduce their suitability as breeding sites. We surveyed 25 spawning sites used by cane toads, and 25 adjacent unused sites, in an area of tropical Australia recently invaded by these feral anurans. Water chemistry (pH, conductivity, salinity, turbidity) was virtually identical between the two sets of waterbodies, but habitat characteristics were very different. Toads selectively oviposited in shallow pools with gradual rather than steep slopes, and with open (unvegetated) gradually sloping muddy banks. They avoided flowing water, and pools with steep surrounds. In these respects, cane toads broadly resemble previously studied toad species in other parts of the world, as well as conspecifics within their natural range in South America.

  • 36.
    Hagman, Mattias
    et al.
    Univ Sydney, Sch Biol Sci, Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia.
    Shine, Rick
    Univ Sydney, Sch Biol Sci, Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia.
    Understanding the toad code: behavioural responses of cane toad (Chaunus marinus) larvae and metamorphs to chemical cues2008In: Austral Ecology, Vol. 33, no 1, p. 37-44Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Larvae of many anuran taxa display strong behavioural responses to chemical cues, including alarm signals from injured conspecific tadpoles. We exposed tadpoles and metamorphs from an Australian population of the invasive cane toad (Chaunus [Bufo] marinus) to a range of chemical stimuli and quantified their responses both in the laboratory and in the field. Filtered fluids containing scent cues from crushed conspecifics elicited strong avoidance from tadpoles, whereas other cues (e.g. scent of food, of native-range fish or urodele predators, and thermal stimuli) did not. Apparent aggregation of tadpoles in response to scent cues proved to be an artifact of tank design, and was an indirect consequence of avoidance of those cues. Field trials confirmed that free-ranging toad tadpoles and metamorphs avoided chemical cues from crushed conspecifics, suggesting that the chemicals inducing this response might provide an opportunity to develop targeted control methods for this invasive species.

  • 37. Hayes, Andrew
    et al.
    Crossland, Michael
    Hagman, Mattias
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Capon, Rob
    Shine, Richard
    Ontogenetic variation in the chemical defenses of cane toads (Bufo marinus): toxin profiles and effects on predators.2009In: Journal of Chemical Ecology, ISSN 0098-0331, E-ISSN 1573-1561, Vol. 35, p. 391-399Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We conducted a quantitative and qualitative chemical analysis of cane toad bufadienolides-the cardioactive steroids that are believed to be the principal cane toad toxins. We found complex shifts in toxin composition through toad ontogeny: (1) eggs contain at least 28 dominant bufadienolides, 17 of which are not detected in any other ontogenetic stage; (2) tadpoles present a simpler chemical profile with two to eight dominant bufadienolides; and (3) toxin diversity decreases during tadpole life but increases again after metamorphosis (larger metamorph/juvenile toads display five major bufadienolides). Total bufadienolide concentrations are highest in eggs (2.64 +/- 0.56 mu mol/mg), decreasing during tadpole life stages (0.084 +/- 0.060 mu mol/mg) before rising again after metamorphosis (2.35 +/- 0.45 mu mol/mg). These variations in total bufadienolide levels correlate with toxicity to Australian frog species. For example, consumption of cane toad eggs killed tadpoles of two Australian frog species (Limnodynastes convexiusculus and Litoria rothii), whereas no tadpoles died after consuming late-stage cane toad tadpoles or small metamorphs. The high toxicity of toad eggs reflects components in the egg itself, not the surrounding jelly coat. Our results suggest a dramatic ontogenetic shift in the danger that toads pose to native predators, reflecting rapid changes in the types and amounts of toxins during toad development.

  • 38. Kelehear, Crystal
    et al.
    Webb, JK
    Hagman, Mattias
    Univ Sydney, Sch Biol Sci A08, Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia.
    Shine, Rick
    Interactions between infective helminth larvae and their anuran host2011In: Herpetologica, ISSN 0018-0831, E-ISSN 1938-5099, Vol. 67, no 4, p. 378-385Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Detailed observations on interactions between parasites and prospective hosts during the infection process can clarify (1) the routes by which parasites enter the host and (2) the ability of prospective hosts to detect, avoid, or resist potential parasites. Such information can clarify determinants of host vulnerability. Infective larvae of the nematode Rhabdias pseudosphaerocephala entered the bodies of their anuran host the Cane Toad (Rhinella marina, formerly Bufo marinus) primarily through the orbit (i.e., by crawling over the surface of the toad's eye) rather than by burrowing through the skin (believed to be the usual route of infection for rhabditid parasites). In our experimental infections, metamorph Cane Toads detected infective R. pseudosphaerocephala larvae but did not avoid them, nor did they manage to restrict rates of infective larvae penetration by using behavioral means (the toads kicked at infective larvae but failed to dislodge them). Rhabdias pseudosphaerocephala cause damage to their toad host during the process of host entry and throughout the ensuing infection. Despite the high cost of infection and the low cost of avoidance, metamorph Cane Toads seem to lack effective parasite avoidance strategies.

  • 39.
    Löwenborg, Kristin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Gotthard, Karl
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Hagman, Mattias
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    How a thermal dichotomy in nesting environments influences offspring of the world's most northerly oviparous snake, Natrix natrix (Colubridae)2012In: Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, ISSN 0024-4066, E-ISSN 1095-8312, Vol. 107, no 4, p. 833-844Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Temperature has a major influence on the rate of embryonic development in ectothermic organisms. While incubation experiments unambiguously show that constant high temperature accelerates development and shortens embryonic life, studies on the effect of fluctuating temperatures have generated contradictory results. Grass snakes (Natrix natrix) occur at latitudes and altitudes that are unusually cool for an oviparous reptile. In these cool climates females typically lay their eggs in heat-generating anthropogenic microhabitats that provide either a highly fluctuating (compost piles) or a relatively constant (manure heaps) thermal nesting environment. A laboratory experiment with fluctuating and constant incubation temperatures mimicking those recorded in such nests in the field showed that this nest-site dichotomy influences the development of the embryos, and the morphology and locomotor performance of the hatchlings. The incubation period increased at fluctuating temperatures and the fact that the rate of embryonic development showed a decelerating pattern with temperature suggests that periods of low temperature had a relatively larger influence on average development than periods of high temperature. Our study demonstrates how a dichotomy in the nesting environments available to female grass snakes in cool climates can affect variation in the duration of the incubation period and offspring phenotypes in ways that may have consequences for fitness.

  • 40.
    Löwenborg, Kristin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Hagman, Mattias
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Scale asymmetries and lateral rib duplication in snakes: correlates and effects on locomotor performance2017In: Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, ISSN 0024-4066, E-ISSN 1095-8312, Vol. 120, no 1, p. 189-194Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Thermally-induced scale asymmetries in reptiles are often considered to be indicative of underlying osteological deformities that incur fitness costs. However, this typically rests on subjective plausibility arguments and anecdotal reports about links between deformities and fitness, as well as between superficial asymmetries and deeper deformities rather than on empirical data. To shed light on these issues, we used a combination of Xrays of museum specimens and locomotor performance trials of hatchlings grass snakes (Natrix natrix) incubated in the laboratory at either 25 degrees C or 31 degrees C. We found that 30% of the museum specimens with asymmetrical ventral scales also had a rib duplication on one side of the underlying vertebrae associated with a scale asymmetry. In some cases, there was also a second extra rib on the opposite side of the vertebrae. However, although there was a statistically significant association between asymmetric ventral scales and rib duplication, a relatively weak correlation coefficient (r(s) = 0.35) indicated that scale asymmetries are not a very strong predictor of rib duplication. In the performance trials, scale asymmetries had a significant effect on terrestrial but not aquatic locomotor ability of the hatchlings, and the magnitude of this effect depended on the temperature regimes that they experienced as embryos during incubation. Although both asymmetrical and normal snakes incubated at the higher temperature had more stamina than their respective counterparts incubated at the lower temperature, asymmetrical hatchlings overall became exhausted much sooner than normal snakes across the two treatments.

  • 41.
    Löwenborg, Kristin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Kärvemo, Simon
    Hagman, Mattias
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Snokens vanor kartläggs2009In: Fauna och Flora, ISSN 0014-8903, Vol. 104, no 2, p. 42-45Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 42.
    Löwenborg, Kristin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Kärvemo, Simon
    Tiwe, Alma
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Hagman, Mattias
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Agricultural by-products provide critical habitat components for cold-climate populations of an oviparous snake (Natrix natrix)2012In: Biodiversity and Conservation, ISSN 0960-3115, E-ISSN 1572-9710, Vol. 21, no 10, p. 2477-2488Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Populations of snakes and other reptiles are declining worldwide. Habitat loss and degradation is thought to be a significant factor in these declines, so to improve management strategies it is important to increase our understanding of reptilian habitat requirements. Modern agriculture is abandoning the tradition of gathering compost and manure in large heaps. Consequently these unusually warm environments are disappearing from the landscape. This may imperil populations of grass snakes (Natrix natrix) that rely on these anthropogenic heat sources to incubate their eggs. We conducted a relocation experiment to examine if eggs can develop successfully in other more natural environments that grass snakes potentially could utilize in the absence of manure heaps and compost piles. We found that hatching success was high (71 %) when we placed eggs in manure heaps and non-existent (0 %) when we placed them in potential ‘natural’ nests. Placement in compost piles resulted in intermediate (43 %) hatching success. Eggs in manure heaps hatched earlier than eggs in compost piles and thermal data from the nests showed that temperatures were higher and more stable in manure heaps than in compost piles and potential ‘natural’ nests. Jointly these results suggest that manure heaps generally provide a better nesting habitat than compost piles, attributable to thermal differences between the environments. Our findings facilitate improvement of current management strategies and have implications for conservation of oviparous reptiles in general.

  • 43.
    Löwenborg, Kristin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Shine, R.
    Hagman, Mattias
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Fitness disadvantages to disrupted embryogenesis impose selection against suboptimal nest-site choice by female grass snakes, Natrix natrix (Colubridae)2011In: Journal of Evolutionary Biology, ISSN 1010-061X, E-ISSN 1420-9101, Vol. 24, no 1, p. 177-183Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Phenotypic traits of hatchling reptiles are strongly influenced by incubation regimes (e.g. of temperature and moisture), suggesting that maternal choice of suitable nest-sites should be under intense selection. Our laboratory incubation of 209 eggs (17 clutches) from wild-caught Swedish grass snakes (Natrix natrix) showed that scale abnormalities (half-scales on one side of the body, often reflecting lateral asymmetry in the number of ribs) occurred more frequently if eggs were incubated under cooler conditions. Especially at low incubation temperatures, individuals with scale asymmetries took longer to hatch than did symmetric conspecifics, were smaller in body length at hatching and were slower in trials of locomotor speed. Anti-predator tactics also covaried with scale asymmetry. These patterns suggest that individuals with asymmetric scales should have lower fitness and hence should rarely survive to adulthood in the wild. We tested this prediction by examining 201 field-collected snakes from museum collections. As predicted, scale asymmetries were seen primarily in small snakes, and rarely in larger animals. We interpret these data to suggest that scale asymmetries in this species offer an index of developmental instability and that fitness disadvantages to disrupted embryogenesis impose selection against suboptimal nest-site choice by females.

  • 44.
    Löwenborg, Kristin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Shine, Richard
    Kärvemo, Simon
    Hagman, Mattias
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Grass snakes exploit anthropogenic heat sources to overcome distributional limits imposed by oviparity2010In: Functional Ecology, ISSN 0269-8463, E-ISSN 1365-2435, Vol. 24, no 5, p. 1095-1102Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    P>1. A lack of warm nest-sites prevents oviparous reptile species from reproducing in cool climates; such areas are dominated by viviparous species because sun-seeking pregnant females can maintain high temperatures for their developing offspring. 2. Our field and laboratory studies show that one oviparous species (the grass snake, Natrix natrix) escapes this cold-climate constraint (and hence, extends much further north in Europe than do other oviparous taxa) by ovipositing in a thermally distinctive man-made microhabitat (manure heaps on farms). 3. In the field, temperatures inside manure heaps averaged 30 center dot 7 degrees C, much higher than compost heaps (20 center dot 6 degrees C) or potential natural nest-sites under logs and rocks (15 center dot 5 degrees C). 4. In the laboratory, higher incubation temperatures not only hastened hatching, but also increased hatching success and modified the body sizes, colours, and locomotor abilities of hatchlings. Incubation temperatures typical of manure heaps (rather than alternative nest-sites) resulted in larger, faster offspring that hatched earlier in the season. 5. Thus, anthropogenic activities have generated potential nest-sites offering thermal regimes not naturally available in the region; and grass snakes have exploited that opportunity to escape the thermal limits that restrict geographic distributions of other oviparous reptile taxa.

  • 45. Ord, Terry J.
    et al.
    Emblen, Jack
    Hagman, Mattias
    University of New South Wales Evolution and Ecology Research Centre and the School of Biological Kensington NSW, Australia.
    Shofner, Ryan
    Unruh, Sarah
    Manipulation of habitat isolation and area implicates deterministic factors and limited neutrality in community assembly2017In: Ecology and Evolution, ISSN 2045-7758, E-ISSN 2045-7758, Vol. 7, no 15, p. 5845-5860Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 46. Ord, Terry
    et al.
    Klomp, Danielle
    Garcia-Porta, Joan
    Hagman, Mattias
    University of New South Wales, Kensington, Australia.
    Repeated evolution of exaggerated dewlaps and other throat morphology in lizards.2015In: Journal of Evolutionary Biology, ISSN 1010-061X, E-ISSN 1420-9101, Vol. 28, p. 1948-1964Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The existence of elaborate ornamental structures in males is often assumed to reflect the outcome of female mate choice for showy males. However, female mate choice appears weak in many iguanian lizards, but males still exhibit an array of ornament-like structures around the throat. We performed a phylogenetic comparative study to assess whether these structures have originated in response to male–male competition or the need for improved signal efficiency in visually difficult environments. We found little evidence for the influence of male–male competition. Instead, forest species were more likely to exhibit colourful throat appendages than species living in open habitats, suggesting selection for signal efficiency. On at least three independent occasions, throat ornamentation has become further elaborated into a large, conspicuously coloured moving dewlap. Although the function of the dewlap is convergent, the underlying hyoid apparatus has evolved very differently, revealing the same adaptive outcome has been achieved through multiple evolutionary trajectories. More generally, our findings highlight that extravagant, ornament-like morphology can evolve in males without the direct influence of female mate choice and that failure to consider alternative hypotheses for the evolution of these structures can obscure the true origins of signal diversity among closely related taxa.

  • 47. Rödin-Mörch, Patrik
    et al.
    Forsman, Anders
    Hagman, Mattias
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Taxonomic patterns of tadpole behavioural responses to alarm cues2011In: Frogs: Biology, Ecology and Uses / [ed] James L. Murray, New York: Nova Science Publishers, Inc., 2011, p. 123-139Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 48. Shine, Rick
    et al.
    Brown, GP
    Phillips, BL
    Webb, JK
    Hagman, Mattias
    The biology, impact and control of cane toads: an overview of the University of Sydney research program2006In: Proceedings of the Cane Toad Workshop, CRC for Invasive Animals / [ed] K.L. Molloy & W.R. Henderson, Canberra: Invasive Animals Cooperative Research Centre, University of Canberra , 2006, p. 18-32Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 49. Shine, Rick
    et al.
    Hagman, Mattias
    Potential short-term control measures for cane toads - focusing on spawning site preferences and trapping of tadpole and juvenile cane toads2007Report (Other academic)
  • 50.
    Tegelaar, Karolina
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Hagman, Mattias
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Glinwood, Robert
    Petterson, Jan
    Leimar, Olof
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology. Wissenschaftskolleg zu Berlin, Germany.
    Ant-aphid mutualism: the influence of ants on the aphid summer cycle2012In: Oikos, ISSN 0030-1299, E-ISSN 1600-0706, Vol. 121, no 1, p. 61-66Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There are few longtime studies on the effects on aphids of being tended by ants. The aim of this study is to investigate how the presence of ants influences settling decisions by colonizing aphids and the post-settlement growth and survival of aphid colonies. We conducted a field experiment using the facultative myrmecophile Aphis fabae and the ant Lasius niger. The experiment relied on natural aphid colonization of potted plants of scentless mayweed Tripleurospermum perforatum placed outdoors. Ants occurred naturally at the field site and had access to half of the pots and were prevented from accessing the remainder. The presence of winged, dispersing aphids, the growth and survival of establishing aphid colonies, and the presence of parasitoids were measured in relation to presence or absence of ants, over a period of five weeks. The presence of ants did not significantly influence the pattern of initial host plant colonization or the initial colony growth, but ant-tended aphids were subject to higher parasitism by hymenopteran parasitoids. The net result over the experimental period was that the presence of ants decreased aphid colony productivity, measured as the number of winged summer migrants produced from the colonized host plants. This implies that aphids do not always benefit from the presence of ants, but under some conditions rather pay a cost in the form of reduced dispersal.

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