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  • 1.
    Granåsen, Magdalena
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Totalförsvarets forskningsinstitut, FOI.
    Exploring C2 Capability and Effectiveness in Challenging Situations: Interorganizational Crisis Management, Military Operations and Cyber Defence2019Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Modern societies are affected by various threats and hazards, including natural disasters, cyber-attacks, extreme weather events and inter-state conflicts. Managing these challenging situations requires immediate actions, suspension of ordinary procedures, decision making under uncertainty and coordinated action. In other words, challenging situations put high demands on the command and control (C2) capability. To strengthen the capability of C2, it is vital to identify the prerequisites for effective coordination and direction within the domain of interest. This thesis explores C2 capability and effectiveness in three domains: interorganizational crisis management, military command and control, and cyber defence operations. The thesis aims to answer three research questions: (1) What constitutes C2 capability? (2) What constitutes C2 effectiveness? and (3) How can C2 effectiveness be assessed? The work was carried out as two case studies and one systematic literature review. The main contributions of the thesis are the identification of perspectives of C2 capability in challenging situations and an overview of approaches to C2 effectiveness assessment. Based on the results of the three studies, six recurring perspectives of capability in the domains studied were identified: interaction (collaboration), direction and coordination, relationships, situation awareness, resilience and preparedness. In the domains there are differences concerning which perspectives that are most emphasized in order obtain C2 capability. C2 effectiveness is defined as the extent to which a C2 system is successful in achieving its intended result. The thesis discusses the interconnectedness of performance and effectiveness measures, and concludes that there is not a united view on the difference between measures of effectiveness and measures of performance. Different approaches to effectiveness assessment were identified, where assessment may be conducted based on one specific issue, in relation to a defined goal for a C2 function or using a more exploratory approach.

  • 2.
    Granåsen, Magdalena
    et al.
    Division for Information- and Aeronautical Systems, Swedish Defense Research Agency, Linköping, Sweden.
    Andersson, Dennis
    Division for Information- and Aeronautical Systems, Swedish Defense Research Agency, Linköping, Sweden.
    Measuring team effectiveness in cyber-defense exercises: A cross-disciplinary case study2016In: Cognition, Technology & Work, ISSN 1435-5558, E-ISSN 1435-5566, Vol. 18, no 1, p. 121-143Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2010, IT-security experts from northern European governments and organizations gathered to conduct the first of a series of NATO-led cyber-defense exercises in a pilot attempt of training cyber defense. To gain knowledge on how to assess team effectiveness in cyber-defense exercises, this case study investigates the role of behavioral assessment techniques as a complement to task-based performance measurement. The collected data resulted in a massive data set including system logs, observer reports, and surveys. Six different methods were compared for feasibility in assessing the teams’ performance, including automated availability check, exploratory sequential data analysis, and network intrusion detection system attack analysis. In addition, observer reports and surveys were used to collect aspects relating to team structures and processes, aiming to discover whether these aspects can explain differences in effectiveness. The crossdisciplinary approach and multiple metrics create possibilities to study not only the performance-related outcome of the exercise, but also why this result is obtained. The main conclusions found are (1) a combination of technical performance measurements and behavioral assessment techniques are needed to assess team effectiveness, and (2) cyber situation awareness is required not only for the defending teams, but also for the observers and the game control.

  • 3.
    Granåsen, Magdalena
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Marklund, Jenny
    Swedish Armed Forces, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Organizational effectiveness at the Kosovo Force Headquarters: a case study2014In: Assessing command and control effectiveness: dealing with a changing world / [ed] Peter Berggren, Staffan Nählinder and Erland Svensson, CRC Press, 2014, Vol. S. 161-176, p. 161-176Chapter in book (Refereed)
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