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  • 1. Andersson, Anders G.
    et al.
    Westerberg, Lars-Göran
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Papathanasiou, T.D.
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Thessaly.
    Lundström, Staffan
    Flow through a two-scale porosity material2009In: Research Letters in Materials Science, ISSN 1687-6822, E-ISSN 1687-6830, 701512Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Flow through a two-scale porous medium is here investigated by a unique comparison between simulations performed with computational fluid dynamics and the boundary element method with microparticle image velocimetry in model geometries.

  • 2. Andersson, Anders G.
    et al.
    Westerberg, Lars-Göran
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Papathanasiou, Thanasis
    Lundström, Staffan
    Fluid flow through porous media with dual scale porosity2008In: Proceedings of the 19th International Symposium on Transport Phenomena (ISTP-19): Reykjavik, Iceland, August 17-21, 2008 / [ed] Sigurdur Brynjolfsson; Olafur Petur Palsson; Jong H. Kim, University of Iceland, Faculty of Industrial Engineering, Mechanical Engineering and Computer Science , 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Flow in two scale porous media takes place in applications such as advanced composites manufacturing. Knowledge of this flow is of general importance and is crucial for filtration mechanisms when functional filler-particles are added to the liquid resin impregnating the fibrous preform. Means to model and experimentally visualise this flow is here investigated. In particular simulations performed with computational fluid dynamics and the boundary element method are compared to micro particle image velocimetry in a model geometry.

  • 3. Baart, Pieter
    et al.
    Green, Torbjörn
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Li, Jinxia
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Lundström, T. Staffan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Westerberg, Lars-Göran
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Höglund, Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Lugt, Piet
    SKF Engineering & Research Center, Nieuwegein.
    Contaminant particle migration in a double restriction seal2013In: Proceedings of the STLE Annual Meeting and Exhibition 2013, Detroit MI, USA., STLE , 2013, 125- p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Microparticle image velocimetry (μPIV) is used to measure the grease velocity profile in small seal-like geometries and the radial migration of contaminant particles is predicted. In the first part, the influence of shaft speed, grease type, and temperatures on the flow of lubricating greases in a narrow double restriction sealing pocket is evaluated. Such geometries can be found in, for example, labyrinth-type seals. In a wide pocket the velocity profile is one-dimensional and the Herschel-Bulkley model is used. In a narrow pocket, it is shown by the experimental results that the side walls have a significant influence on the grease flow, implying that the grease velocity profile is two-dimensional. In this area, a single empirical grease parameter for the rheology is sufficient to describe the velocity profile.In the second part, the radial migration of contaminant particles through the grease is evaluated. Centrifugal forces acting on a solid spherical particle are calculated from the grease velocity profile. Consequently, particles migrate to a larger radius and finally settle when the grease viscosity becomes large due to the low shear rate. This behavior is important for the sealing function of the grease in the pocket and relubrication

  • 4. Baart, Pieter
    et al.
    Green, Torbjörn
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Li, Jinxia
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Lundström, T. Staffan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Westerberg, Lars-Göran
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Höglund, Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Lugt, Piet
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    The influence of speed, grease type, and temperature on radial contaminant particle migration in a double restriction seal2011In: Tribology Transactions, ISSN 1040-2004, E-ISSN 1547-397X, Vol. 54, no 6, 867-877 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Microparticle image velocimetry (μPIV) is used to measure the grease velocity profile in small seal-like geometries and the radial migration of contaminant particles is predicted. In the first part, the influence of shaft speed, grease type, and temperatures on the flow of lubricating greases in a narrow double restriction sealing pocket is evaluated. Such geometries can be found in, for example, labyrinth-type seals. In a wide pocket the velocity profile is one-dimensional and the Herschel-Bulkley model is used. In a narrow pocket, it is shown by the experimental results that the side walls have a significant influence on the grease flow, implying that the grease velocity profile is two-dimensional. In this area, a single empirical grease parameter for the rheology is sufficient to describe the velocity profile. In the second part, the radial migration of contaminant particles through the grease is evaluated. Centrifugal forces acting on a solid spherical particle are calculated from the grease velocity profile. Consequently, particles migrate to a larger radius and finally settle when the grease viscosity becomes large due to the low shear rate. This behavior is important for the sealing function of the grease in the pocket and relubrication.

  • 5.
    Baart, Pieter
    et al.
    SKF Engineering & Research Center, Nieuwegein.
    Lugt, Piet
    SKF Engineering & Research Center, Nieuwegein.
    Westerberg, Lars-Göran
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Green, Torbjörn
    Li, Jinxia
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Höglund, Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Lundström, T. Staffan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Sealing improvements by grease selection in double lip seals and labyrinth seals2012In: 17th ISC: International Sealing Conference ; Stuttgart, Germany, Sept. 13 - 14, 2012, Frankfurt am Main: Fachverband Fluidtechnik im VDMA e.V , 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Barabash, Victoria
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    Ejemalm, Johnny
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    Kuhn, Thomas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    Milz, Mathias
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    Molin, Sven
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Johansson, Jonny
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Westerberg, Lars-Göran
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Masters Programs in Space Science and Engineering in Northern Sweden2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Duenas Dobrowolski, Jan
    et al.
    Wrocław University of Science and Technology.
    Gawlinski, Marek
    Department of Design Fundamentals and Fluid-Flow Machinery, Wrocław University of Technology.
    Paszkowski, Maciej
    Department of Fundamentals of Machine Design and Tribology, Wrocław University of Technology.
    Westerberg, Lars-Göran
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Höglund, Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Experimental study of lubricating grease flow inside the gap of a labyrinth seal using micro Particle Image Velocimetry2017In: Tribology Transactions, ISSN 1040-2004, E-ISSN 1547-397XArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study the flow of lubricating greases in a labyrinth seal geometry is studied using micro Particle Image Velocimetry (µPIV). The aim is to evaluate the grease velocity distribution inside the gap of a labyrinth seal and to find a relationship between the grease consistency and the transferred speed from the rotating ring in order to choose the correct grease as a sealing medium. Also, the grease flow characteristics are important for the understanding of fracture due to grease layer displacement. For these purposes, four greases with different rheological properties were used in µPIV experiments. It was found that not only the grease consistency plays a crucial role in speed development but also the grease composition and the slip effect presence at the grease-rotating wall interface.

  • 8.
    Farré-Lladós, Josep
    et al.
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, UPC - Technical University of Catalonia.
    Casals-Terré, Jasmina
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, UPC - Technical University of Catalonia.
    Voltas, Jordi
    Department of Graphic Expression, UPC - Technical University of Catalonia.
    Westerberg, Lars-Göran
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    The use of Rapid Prototyping techniques (RPT) to manufacture micro channels suitable for high operation pressures and µPIV2016In: Rapid prototyping journal, ISSN 1355-2546, E-ISSN 1758-7670, Vol. 22, no 1, 67-76 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose– This paper aims to present a new methodology to manufacture micro-channels suitable for high operating pressures and micro particle image velocimetry (μPIV) measurements using a rapid-prototyping high-resolution 3D printer. This methodology can fabricate channels down to 250 μm and withstand pressures of up to 5 ± 0.2 MPa. The manufacturing times are much shorter than in soft lithography processes. Design/methodology/approach– The novel manufacturing method developed takes advantage of the recently improved resolution in 3D printers to manufacture an rapid prototyping technique part that contains the hose connections and a micro-channel useful for microfluidics. A method to assemble one wall of the micro-channel using UV curable glue with a glass slide is presented – an operation required to prepare the channel for μPIV measurements. Once built, the micro-channel has been evaluated when working under pressure and the grease flow behavior in it has been measured using μPIV. Furthermore, the minimum achievable channels have been defined using a confocal microscopy study. Findings– This technique is much faster than previous micro-manufacturing techniques where different steps were needed to obtain the micro-machined parts. However, due to current 3D printers ' resolutions (around 50 μm) and according to the experimental results, channels smaller than 250-μm2 cross-section should not be used to characterize fluid flow behaviors, as inaccuracies in the channel boundaries can deeply affect the fluid flow behavior. Practical implications– The present methodology is developed due to the need to validate micro-channels using μPIV to lubricate critical components (bearings and gears) in wind turbines. Originality/value– This novel micro-manufacturing technique overcomes current techniques, as it requires less manufacturing steps and therefore it is faster and with less associated costs to manufacture micro-channels down to 250-μm2 cross-section that can withstand pressures higher than 5 MPa that can be used to characterize microfluidic flow behavior using μPIV.

  • 9.
    Farré-Lladós, Josep
    et al.
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, UPC - Technical University of Catalonia.
    Westerberg, Lars-Göran
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Casals-Terré, Jasmina
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, UPC - Technical University of Catalonia.
    New solution to preent excessive wear in wind turbine gears2014In: Society of Tribologists and Lubrication Engineers Annual Meeting and Exhibition 2014: Lake Buena Vista, United States, 18 - 22 May 2014, Society of Tribologists and Lubrication Engineers , 2014, Vol. 2, 548-550 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Farré-Lladós, Josep
    et al.
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, UPC - Technical University of Catalonia, KIC InnoEnergy S.E. - Location Iberia, Barcelona.
    Casals-Terré, Jasmina
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, UPC - Technical University of Catalonia, KIC InnoEnergy S.E. - Location Iberia, Barcelona.
    Westerberg, Lars-Göran
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    New Lubrication Device to Minimize Wear at the Pitch Gear2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Farré-Lladós, Josep
    et al.
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, UPC - Technical University of Catalonia, KIC InnoEnergy S.E. - Location Iberia, Barcelona.
    Casals-Terré, Jasmina
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, UPC - Technical University of Catalonia, KIC InnoEnergy S.E. - Location Iberia, Barcelona.
    Westerberg, Lars-Göran
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    New Lubrication Device to Minimize Wear at the Pitch Gear2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Farré-Lladós, Josep
    et al.
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, UPC - Technical University of Catalonia.
    Westerberg, Lars-Göran
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Casals-Terré, Jasmina
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, UPC - Technical University of Catalonia.
    Embedded Micro-nozzles in the Pitch Gear Deddendum to Minimize Wear at Zero Degree Position2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Farré-Lladós, Josep
    et al.
    Mechanical Engineering Department, UPC - Technical University of Catalonia, Terrassa.
    Westerberg, Lars-Göran
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Casals-Terré, Jasmina
    Mechanical Engineering Department, UPC - Technical University of Catalonia, Terrassa.
    New method for lubricating wind turbine pitch gears using embedded micro-nozzles2017In: Journal of Mechanical Science and Technology, ISSN 1738-494X, E-ISSN 1976-3824, Vol. 31, no 2, 797-806 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The increase of power generated by wind turbines has increased the stresses applied in all of its components, thereby causing premature failures. Particularly, pitch and yaw gears suffer from excessive wear mainly caused by inappropriate lubrication. This paper presents a novel method to automatically lubricate the wind turbine pitch gear during operation. A micro-nozzle to inject fresh grease continuously between the teeth in contact was designed, manufactured, and installed in a test bench of a 2 MW wind turbine pitch system. The test bench was used to characterize the fatigue behavior of the gear surface using conventional wind turbine greases under real cyclic loads. Measurements of wear evolution in a pitch gear with and without micro-nozzle show a decrease of 70 % of the wear coefficient after 2×104 cycles.

  • 14.
    Green, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Baart, Pieter
    Westerberg, Lars-Göran
    Lundström, Staffan
    Höglund, Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Lugt, Piet
    Li, Jinxia
    A new method to visualize grease flow in a double restriction seal using microparticle image velocimetry2011In: Tribology Transactions, ISSN 1040-2004, E-ISSN 1547-397X, Vol. 54, 784-792 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A new method to visualize and quantify grease flow in between two sealing lips or, in general, a double restriction seal is presented. Two setups were designed to mimic different types of seals; that is, a radial and an axial shaft seal. The flow of the grease inside and in between the sealing restrictions was measured using microparticle image velocimetry. The results show that grease flow due to a pressure difference mainly takes place close to the rotating shaft surface with an exponentially decaying velocity profile in the radial direction. Consequently, contaminants may be captured in the stationary grease at the outer radius, which explains the sealing function of the grease.

  • 15.
    Green, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Baart, Pieter
    Westerberg, Lars-Göran
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Lundström, T. Staffan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Höglund, Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Lugt, Piet
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Li, Jinxia
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Visualisering och kvantifiering av fettströmning i lagertätningar med µPIV2011Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 16. Johansson, Simon
    et al.
    Geza, Vadims
    Faculty of Physics and Mathematics, University of Latvia.
    Westerberg, Lars-Göran
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Jakovics, Andris
    Faculty of Physics and Mathematics, University of Latvia.
    Characteristics of flow and temperature distribution in a Ruthner process2010In: Proceedings of Modeling for Material Processing, 6th International Scientific Colloquium: Modelling for maerial processing, Rīga, September 16-17, 2010, University of Latvia Press, 2010, 317-322 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study is devoted to CFD modelling of the gas flow and particle dynamics inside the reactor of a furnace used for regeneration of hydrochloric acid from iron chloride - a rest product from the pickling process in the steel industry. The understanding of the dynamics inside the reactor has shown to be of great importance in order to optimize the process. So far the process has been a black box, where only the inflow conditions are known together with the quality of the final product. In this work the gas flow is resolved together with the thermal distribution and the particle trajectory for the injected acid molecules.

  • 17.
    Johansson, Simon
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Westerberg, Lars-Göran
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Simuleringar av dyspositionens inverkan på flöde och temperturdistribution i en ruthner process2011Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Saltsyra (HCl) används inom stålindustrin för att beta järnoxider (Fe2O3) efter varmvalsning av plåt innan den förädlas i produktionslinan. Stora mängder HCl förbrukas, vilket både är kostsamt och miljöfarlig om den inte återvinns. Återvinningen sker oftast på stålverken med en metod som kallas Ruthner process. Den kan illustreras av en cylindrisk ugn med konisk nedre del, där det strax ovanför den koniska delen sitter naturgasbrännare tangentiellt till ugnen. Den förbrukade saltsyran, som består av vatten (H2O) och järnklorid (FeCl2), tillförs genom en till fyra dysor i toppen av ugnen. Återvinningen sker - något förenklat - genom att H2O först förångas från dropparna, därefter reagerar FeCl2 med syre (O2) och H2O och bildar HCl och Fe2O3. HCl återförs till betningsprocessen och Fe2O3 kan exempelvis säljas till elektronikindustrin.Denna studie syftar till att öka förståelsen av processen så att det i framtiden är möjligt att säkerställa god kvalité av restprodukten Fe2O3. Simuleringar görs i Ansys CFX med en tvåvägskopplad Euler/Lagrange-ansats där Eulerfasen består av gas och dropparna av förbrukad HCl är på Lagrangeform. Produkten från naturgasbrännarna ges som randvillkor till inloppet. I modellen är det första steget i återvinningsprocessen då droppar förångas implementerad. Även lyftkraft p.g.a. olika gastemperaturer, energiförluster genom väggar, och dragkraft på partiklar är implementerade i modellen. Som turbulensmodell används k-ε.Ur Figur 2 ses att både temperaturfördelning och hastighetsprofil förändras med olika dyspositioner. En korrelation mellan bilderna finns; i områden med låg temperatur är hastigheten riktad nedåt. Med dysan placerad 3,5 m från centrum förskjuts dock området för negativ vertikal hastighet bort från väggen. Detta beroende på att den varma gasen från brännare stiger längs väggen. De stora skillnaderna i temperaturfördelning är att dysposition 0.5 m från centrum ger en hög utloppstemperatur samt att dysposition 0.5 m och 3.5 m ger en högre temperatur i botten. Tendensen i hastighetsprofilen är lika för de tre fallen med dysan närmast väggen. När dysan placeras i mitten blir det ett kallras i centrum. För att få en klarare bild av processen krävs det även att partiklar analyseras samt att i framtiden även implementera kemiska reaktioner.

  • 18.
    Johansson, Simon
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Westerberg, Lars-Göran
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Lundström, T. Staffan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Gas and particle flow in a spray roaster2014In: Journal of Applied Fluid Mechanics, ISSN 1735-3572, E-ISSN 1735-3645, Vol. 7, no 2, 187-196 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the steel industry, waste hydrochloric acid is produced through the process to pickle steel slabs for removal of corrosion. Regenerated hydrochloric acid is obtained by separating the chloride gas from the waste product through spray roasting. This process also produces a by-product in the form of iron oxide which is sold to different industries. The present study is a continuation of a study arising from the need to better understand the dynamics inside the regeneration reactor, which in turn will improve possibilities to optimize the regeneration process, which to date has been manually adjusted by trial and error. In this study the velocity and temperature distribution inside the reactor is numerically modelled together with the droplet motion through the reactor. The main objective is to investigate the influence of a changed spray nozzle position on the flow characteristics of the continuous and dispersed phase, and the relation between temperature and energy efficiency and the regeneration process. Numerical models of the type of flow present in the regeneration reactor are not represented to any major extent in the literature, making the present study relevant to the engineers and researchers active in the steel industry and the application in question.

  • 19. Kluge, Jimmy
    et al.
    Lundström, Staffan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Ljung, Anna-Lena
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Westerberg, Lars-Göran
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Nyman, Tony
    Saab Aeronautics, SE-582 54 Linköping, SWEDEN.
    An Experimental Study of Temperature Distribution in an Autoclave2016In: Journal of reinforced plastics and composites (Print), ISSN 0731-6844, E-ISSN 1530-7964, Vol. 35, no 7, 566-578 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work, the temperature distribution on an industrial mold tool is monitored during autoclave runs with three settings. In one of the settings, the temperature and pressure follow a scheme used in real moldings, while in the other two cases, the temperature is increased as fast as possible with and without an applied pressure. The temperature difference over the tool is relatively large and varies between 29℃ and 76℃ validating a detailed investigation of the temperature at different points. Two results of this are that positions on the up-stream side of the tool are heated faster than positions down-stream and the heating over the tool is symmetric while that within is asymmetric. Roughly estimated heat transfer coefficients reveal that the temperature ramping has no significant effect on the local heat transfer coefficients while the applied pressure more than doubled them. In addition flow field measurements with particle image velocimetry are performed, revealing a very slow flow near the roof of the autoclave and a velocity peak near the floor of it, indicating that the flow profile within the autoclave and variation in heat transfer coefficients should be considered in autoclave simulations.

  • 20. Kluge, Jimmy
    et al.
    Lundström, Staffan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Westerberg, Lars-Göran
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Nyman, Tony
    Saab Aeronautics, SE-582 54 Linköping, SWEDEN.
    Modelling Heat Transfer Inside an Autoclave: Effect of Radiation2016In: Journal of reinforced plastics and composites (Print), ISSN 0731-6844, E-ISSN 1530-7964, Vol. 35, no 14, 1126-1142 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work, computational fluid dynamics simulations are performed to predict the temperature distribution on a part during an autoclave run. Data from an experimental study are used as input to the simulations and also for comparison with the numerical results. A conjugate heat transfer approach was used for the simulations, where best agreement with experiments was obtained from the simulation that included thermal radiation and utilized an experimentally obtained velocity profile as inlet velocity. A yet more detailed inlet velocity profile and more advanced turbulent model could result in an even better agreement.

  • 21. Kluge, Jimmy
    et al.
    Lundström, T. Staffan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Westerberg, Lars-Göran
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Olofsson, Kurt
    Swerea SICOMP AB.
    Compression moulding of sheet moulding compound: Modelling with computational fluid dynamics and validation2015In: Journal of reinforced plastics and composites (Print), ISSN 0731-6844, E-ISSN 1530-7964, Vol. 34, no 6, 479-492 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Compression moulding experiments of sheet moulding compound, visual observations of a vacuum test with prepregs and numerical models with two main approaches for computational fluid dynamics simulations of the mould filling phase are presented. One assumes that there are layers near the mould surfaces with much less viscosity and the other only use one viscosity model. The numerical experiments showed that the pressure could be accurately predicted with both approaches. The property necessary to predict correct pressure with altered mould closing velocities was that the bulk material had to obey shear-thinning effects. Preheating effects before compression were neglected, but altering the heating time until the prepreg was assumed to start flow had a significant effect. The experiments confirmed that the pressure is predominantly affected by the mould closing velocity. Regardless of the considered process settings, a first pressure top always appeared approximately at the logarithmic strain 0.25. A second top was associated with a slowdown of the press. The location of this was affected by the velocity and the vacuum, the latter indicating that vacuum assistance prevents a build-up of back pressure. Furthermore, heated prepreg above a critical temperature is observed to swell immediately as vacuum assistance is applied.

  • 22.
    Li, Jinxia
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Höglund, Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Westerberg, Lars-Göran
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Grease Free Surface Flow on a Rotating Plate: a Combined Experimental and Analytical Analysis2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 23.
    Li, Jinxia
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Höglund, Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Westerberg, Lars-Göran
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Green, Torbjörn
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Lundström, T. Staffan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Lugt, Piet
    SKF Engineering & Research Center, Nieuwegein.
    Baart, Pieter
    µPIV measurement of grease velocity profiles in channels with two different types of flow restrictions2012In: Tribology International, ISSN 0301-679X, E-ISSN 1879-2464, Vol. 54, 94-99 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Grease is commonly used to lubricate various machine components such as rolling bearings and seals. In this paper the flow of lubricating grease passing restrictions is described. Such flow occurs in rolling bearings during relubrication events where the grease is flowing in the transverse (axial) direction through the bearing and is hindered by guide rings, flanges et cetera, as well as in seals where transverse flow occurs, for example during so-called breathing caused by temperature fluctuations in the bearing. This study uses a 2D flow model geometry consisting of a wide channel with rectangular cross-section and two different types of restrictions to measure the grease velocity vector field, using the method of Micro Particle Image Velocimetry. In the case of a single restriction, the horizontal distance required for the velocity profile to fully develop is approximately the same as the height of the channel. In the corner before and after the restriction, the velocities are very low and part of the grease is stationary. For the channel with two flow restrictions, this effect is even more pronounced in the “pocket” between the restrictions. Clearly, a large part of the grease is not moving. This condition particularly applies to the cases with a low-pressure drop and where high consistency grease is used. In practice this means that grease is not replaced in such “corners” and that some aged/contaminated grease will remain in seal pockets.

  • 24.
    Li, Jinxia
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Höglund, Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Westerberg, Lars-Göran
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Zhmud, Boris
    Applied Nano Surfaces.
    Rheology of Lubricating Grease2015In: Lube Magazine, ISSN 1744-5418, Vol. 126, 12-18 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 25.
    Li, Jinxia
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Westerberg, Lars-Göran
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Green, Torbjörn
    Lundström, Staffan
    Lugt, Piet
    Baart, Pieter
    Measurements of grease flow in channels with restrictions using μPIV2010In: 14th Nordic Symposium on Tribology: NORDTRIB 2010 : Storforsen, Sweden, June 8-11, 2010, Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Grease is commonly used to lubricate various machine components such as rolling element bearings, open gears etc. Better understanding of the flow properties of grease will contribute to understanding the lubrication mechanism in bearings and flow in lubrication systems. In an earlier paper Micro Particle Image Velocimetry (μPIV) techniques were used to study the flow in a rectangular channel. The present paper is an extension of this work where restrictions were applied in such a channel, which creates a much more complex velocity field. The grease is seeded with fluorescent particles, which are illuminated by a double-pulsed laser. The test geometries that are used in this study are a channel with one flat restriction and one with two flow restrictions in a similar channel. The stationary grease mass-flow and the two dimensional velocity fields have been monitored for different pressure drops. For the channel with one flat restriction, the flow was measured to be symmetric at the inlet and outlet, and the distance for the flow to fully develop is comparable with the height of the channel; Slow motion was followed near the step corner at the inlet. For the channel with two flow restrictions, the vector profiles show that the maximum velocity appears at the restrictions; In-between the two restrictions, a part of the grease is not moving. This particularly applies to cases with low-pressure drop and where high consistency grease was used.

  • 26.
    Li, Jinxia
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Westerberg, Lars-Göran
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Höglund, Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Baart, Pieter
    SKF Engineering & Research Center, Nieuwegein.
    Lugt, Piet
    SKF Engineering & Research Center, Nieuwegein.
    Experimental study of free surface grease flow subjected to centrifugal forces2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to improve the understanding of grease flow in various applications such as gears, seals and rolling bearings, the free surface flow of different greases under different running conditions has been investigated. A rotating disc has been used to study grease flow as the grease was subjected to a centrifugal force. The grease flow and mass loss was measured for greases with different rheology on different surfaces and with surface textures. It is shown that the speed at which grease starts to move is mostly determined by grease type and yield stress, while the impact of the surface material and roughness is less pronounced. The mass loss is shown to be influenced both by the rheology of the grease and the surface material

  • 27.
    Li, Jinxia
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Westerberg, Lars-Göran
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Höglund, Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Lugt, Piet
    SKF ERC.
    Baart, Pieter
    SKF ERC.
    Lubricating Grease Shear Flow and Boundary Layers in a Concentric Cylinder Configuration2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Grease is extensively used to lubricate various machine elements such as rolling bearings, seals, and gears. Understanding the flow dynamics of grease is relevant for the prediction of grease distribution for optimum lubrication and for the migration of wear and contaminant particles. In this study, grease flow is visualized using micro Particle Image Velocimetry (μPIV). The experimental setup includes a concentric cylinder configuration with a rotating shaft to simulate the grease flow in a double restriction seal geometry with two different grease pocket sizes. It is shown that the grease is partially yielded in the large grease pocket geometry and fully yielded in the small grease pocket. For the small grease pocket, it is shown that three distinct grease flow layers are present: a high shear rate region close to the stationary wall, a bulk flow layer, and a high shear rate boundary region near the rotating shaft. The grease shear thinning behavior and its wall slip effects have been identified. The μPIV experimental results have been compared with a numerical model for both the large and small gap size. It is shown that the flow is close to one-dimensional in the center of the small pocket. A one-dimensional analytical model based on the Herschel-Bulkley rheology model has been developed, showing good agreement with the measured velocity profiles in the small grease pocket. Furthermore, wall slip effects and shear banding are observed, where the latter imply that using the assumption of uniform shear in conventional concentric cylinder rheometers may result in erroneous rheological results.

  • 28.
    Li, Jinxia
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Westerberg, Lars-Göran
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Höglund, Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Lugt, Piet
    Baart, Pieter
    SKF Engineering & Research Center, Nieuwegein.
    Lubricating grease shear flow and boundary layers in a concentric cylinder configuration2014In: Tribology Transactions, ISSN 1040-2004, E-ISSN 1547-397X, Vol. 57, no 6, 1106-1115 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Grease is extensively used to lubricate various machine elements such as rolling bearings, seals, and gears. Understanding the flow dynamics of grease is relevant for the prediction of grease distribution for optimum lubrication and for the migration of wear and contaminant particles. In this study, grease flow is visualized using microparticle image velocimetry (μPIV). The experimental setup includes a concentric cylinder configuration with a rotating shaft to simulate the grease flow in a double restriction seal geometry with two different grease pocket sizes. It is shown that the grease is partially yielded in the large grease pocket geometry and fully yielded in the small grease pocket. For the small grease pocket, it is shown that three distinct grease flow layers are present: a high shear rate region close to the stationary wall, a bulk flow layer, and a high shear rate boundary region near the rotating shaft. The grease shear thinning behavior and its wall slip effects have been identified. The μPIV experimental results have been compared with a numerical model for both the large and small gap size. It is shown that the flow is close to one-dimensional in the center of the small pocket. A one-dimensional analytical model based on the Herschel-Bulkley rheology model has been developed, showing good agreement with the measured velocity profiles in the small grease pocket. Furthermore, wall slip effects and shear banding are observed, where the latter imply that using the assumption of uniform shear in conventional concentric cylinder rheometers may result in erroneous rheological results.

  • 29.
    Li, Jinxia
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Westerberg, Lars-Göran
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Höglund, Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Lundström, T. Staffan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Design of test rig for visualizations of cylindrical shear and pressure driven Couette flow using μPIV2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Couette flow is often encountered in concentric cylinder application such as rheometers etc. Being able to visualize such flows is of interest both from a fundamental point of view to understand the dynamics of complex fluids, but also in specific applications such as lubricants flowing through seal geometries. In this study a concentric cylinder test rig has been designed to visualize Couette flow in both radial and axial direction using micro Particle Image Velocimetry. The rig allows for control of the flow motion; the rotating inner cylinder creates a peripheral flow and an applied pressure in the axial direction creates a pressure driven flow. Thus, a single flow direction or a combination of directions can be analyzed. To demonstrate the technique a flow of a non-Newtonian shear thinning fluid in the form of lubricating grease was investigated and discussed. It is found that it is possible to capture the yield behavior of the grease, with regions of fully and partially yielded flow visible. The influence of temperature creep flow is also presented. Grease with both high and low yield stress are measured and compared could be measured and compared in a pocket with variable size. Furthermore, non-homogeneous effects such as shear banding and wall slip can be visualized. The test rig has thus a high potential to investigate the influence of wall material and wettability between fluids and the housing on the flow and wall slip behavior as long as the fluid is optically transparent.

  • 30.
    Li, Jinxia
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Westerberg, Lars-Göran
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Höglund, Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Lundström, T. Staffan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Grease free surface flow on a rotating plate2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to improve the understanding of grease flow in various applications such as gears, seals and rolling element bearings, free surface flow of different greases under different running conditions has been investigated. A rotating disc has been used to study grease flow as the grease is subjected to a centrifugal force. The adhesion and mass loss was detected for greases with different rheology on different surfaces and surface textures. It is shown that the speed at which grease starts to move is mostly determined by grease type, yield stress and bleeding properties rather than surface material. Also, the surface adhesion is shown to be influenced both by the rheology of the grease and the surface material.

  • 31.
    Li, Jinxia
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Westerberg, Lars-Göran
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Höglund, Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Lundström, T. Staffan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Baart, Pieter
    SKF Engineering & Research Center, Nieuwegein.
    Lugt, Piet
    SKF Engineering & Research Center, Nieuwegein.
    Lubricating grease shear flow and boundary layers in a concentric cylinder configuration2013In: Proceedings of the 3rd International Tribology Symposium of IFoMM (International Federation for the Promotion of Mechanism and Machine Science), Luleå, March 19-21, 2013, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Grease is extensively used to lubricate various machine elements such as rollingbearings, seals, and gears. Understanding the flow dynamics of grease is relevant forthe prediction of the grease distribution for optimum lubrication and the migration ofwear- and contaminant particles. In this study grease flow is visualized using themethod of micro Particle Image Velocimetry; the experimental setup comprises aconcentric cylinder with rotating shaft to simulate the grease flow in a DoubleRestriction Seal (DRS) geometry with two different grease pocket heights. It is shownthat grease may be partially yielded in the large grease pocket geometry and fullyyielded in the small grease pocket geometry. For the small grease pocket geometry, itis shown that three distinct grease flow layers are present: a high shear rate regionclose to the stationary wall, a bulk flow layer, and a high shear rate boundary regionnear the rotating shaft. The grease shear thinning behaviour and its wall slip effectshave been detected and discussed.

  • 32.
    Olsson, Jimmy
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Westerberg, Lars-Göran
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Lundström, T. Staffan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Nyman, Tonny
    Saab Aeronautics, SE-582 54 Linköping, SWEDEN.
    Flow and heat transfer inside an autoclave2012In: Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Flow Processing in Composite Materials, 2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This work, that involves both experiments and numerical simulations, concerns autoclave molding. An autoclave is basically a pressure vessel, where the entrapped and often highly compressed gas is heated and circulated in order to heat the components that have been placed inside the vessel. In the autoclaveprocess, the desirable state would be that an even and optimal temperature existed in the whole part that is manufactured. Unfortunately, this is not always the case. All in all we need to get a better understanding of the flow inside an autoclave and the convective heat transfer from the heated gas to the composite components. In this work we have therefore investigated the flow behavior by performing qualitative measurements with particle image velocimetry inside an autoclave. The concept is to dope the gas within the autoclave with smoke and illuminate the smoke with a thin sheet of laser light. Captured images of the moving smoke are then cross correlated to give velocity fields. We have also investigated the heat transfer to the tool by measuring the temperature at multiple locations during heating. The obtained velocity field is used to produce inlet condition for the simulations, performed with Computational Fluid Dynamics, which subsequently are compared with the experimentally obtained tool temperature. The simulation technique may then be used to optimize both the tools, and the actual location of the tools inside the autoclave in order to improve quality and reduce costs.

  • 33.
    Sarkar, Chiranjit
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Westerberg, Lars-Göran
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Höglund, Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Lundström, Staffan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Numerical simulations of lubricating grease flow in a rectangular channel with- and without restrictions2017In: Tribology Transactions, ISSN 1040-2004, E-ISSN 1547-397XArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents numerical simulations of the laminar flow of lubricating greases in a channel with rectangular cross section. Three greases with different consistencies (NLGI grades 00, 1 and 2 respectively) have been considered in three different configurations comprised by a rectangular channel without restrictions, one rectangular step restriction, and one double lip restriction. The driving pressure drop over the channel spans from 30 kPa to 250 kPa. The grease rheology is described by the Herschel-Bulkley rheology model, and both the numerical code and rheology model have been validated with analytical solutions and flow measurements using micro Particle Image Velocimetry.

  • 34.
    Schillings, Audrey
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology. Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Kiruna.
    Nilsson, Hans
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology. Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Kiruna.
    Slapak, Rikard
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    Yamauchi, Masatoshi
    Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Kiruna.
    Westerberg, Lars-Göran
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Relative outflow enhancements during majorgeomagnetic storms: Cluster observations2017In: Annals of Geophysics, ISSN 1593-5213, E-ISSN 2037-416XArticle in journal (Refereed)
  • 35.
    Schillings, Audrey
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    Slapak, Rikard
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    Nilsson, Hans
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    Yamauchi, Masatoshi
    Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Kiruna.
    Westerberg, Lars-Göran
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Atmospheric loss during major geomagnetic storms: Cluster observations2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 36.
    Slapak, Rikard
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    Nilsson, Hans
    Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Kiruna.
    Schillings, Audrey
    Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Kiruna.
    Yamauchi, Masatoshi
    Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Kiruna.
    Westerberg, Lars-Göran
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Dandouras, Iannis
    CNSR, Institut de Recherche en Astrophysique et Planetologie, Toulouse.
    Atmospheric outflow from the terrestrial magnetosphere: implications forescape on evolutionary time scales2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 37.
    Slapak, Rikard
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering.
    Nilsson, Hans
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    Westerberg, Lars-Göran
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    A statistical study on O+ flux in the dayside magnetosheath2013In: Annales Geophysicae, ISSN 0992-7689, E-ISSN 1432-0576, Vol. 31, 1005-1010 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Studies on terrestrial oxygen ion (O+) escape into the interplanetary space have considered a number of different escape paths. Recent observations however suggest a yet insufficiently investigated additional escape route for hot O+: along open magnetic field lines in the high altitude cusp and mantle. Here we present a statistical study on O+ flux in the high-latitude dayside magnetosheath. The O+ is generally seen relatively close to the magnetopause, consistent with observations of O+ flowing primarily tangentially to the magnetopause. We estimate the total escape flux in this region to be ~ 7 × 1024 s−1, implying this escape route to significantly contribute to the overall total O+ loss into interplanetary space.

  • 38.
    Slapak, Rikard
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering.
    Nilsson, Hans
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    Westerberg, Lars-Göran
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Eriksson, Anders
    Swedish Institute of Space Physics / Institutet för rymdfysik.
    Observations of oxygen ions in the dayside magnetosheath associated with southward IMF2012In: Journal of Geophysical Research, ISSN 0148-0227, E-ISSN 2156-2202, Vol. 117Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a case study of high energy oxygen ions (O+) observed in the dayside terrestrial magnetosheath, in the southern hemisphere. It is shown that the presence of O+ is strongly correlated to the IMF direction: O+ is observed only for Bz<0. Three satellites observe O$^+ immediately at both sides of the magnetopause and about 2 RE outside the magnetopause. These conditions indicate escape along open magnetic field lines. We show that if outflowing O+ is heated and accelerated sufficiently in the cusp, it takes 15-20 minutes for it to reach the magnetopause, allowing the ions to escape along newly opened field lines on the dayside. Earlier studies show evidence of strong heating and high velocities in the cusp and mantle at high altitudes, strengthening our interpretation. The observed magnetosheath O+ fluxes are of the same order as measured in the ionospheric upflow, which indicates that this loss mechanism is significant when it takes place.

  • 39.
    Slapak, Rikard
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    Nilsson, Hans
    Westerberg, Lars-Göran
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Larsson, Richard
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    O+ transport in the dayside magnetosheath and its dependence on the IMF direction2015In: Annales Geophysicae, ISSN 0992-7689, E-ISSN 1432-0576, Vol. 33, 301-307 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent studies have shown that the escape of oxygen ions (O+) into the magnetosheath along open magnetic field lines from the terrestrial cusp and mantle is significant. We present a study of how O+ transport in the dayside magnetosheath depends on the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) direction. There are clear asymmetries in the O+ flows for southward and northward IMF. The asymmetries can be understood in terms of the different magnetic topologies that arise due to differences in the location of the reconnection site, which depends on the IMF direction. During southward IMF, most of the observed magnetosheath O+ is transported downstream. In contrast, for northward IMF we observe O+ flowing both downstream and equatorward towards the opposite hemisphere. We observe evidence of dual-lobe reconnection occasionally taking place during strong northward IMF conditions, a mechanism that may trap O+ and bring it back into the magnetosphere. Its effect on the overall escape is however small: we estimate the upper limit of trapped O+ to be 5%, a small number considering that ion flux calculations are rough estimates. The total O+ escape flux is higher by about a factor of 2 during times of southward IMF, in agreement with earlier studies of O+ cusp outflow.

  • 40.
    Slapak, Rikard
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    Schillings, Audrey
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    Nilsson, Hans
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    Yamauchi, Masatoshi
    Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Kiruna.
    Westerberg, Lars-Göran
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Atmospheric loss from the dayside open polar region and its dependence on geomagnetic activity: Implications for atmospheric escape on evolutionary time scales2017In: Annales Geophysicae, ISSN 0992-7689, E-ISSN 1432-0576, Vol. 35, no 3, 721-731 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 41.
    Westerberg, Lars-Göran
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Modelling of Lubricating Grease FlowUsing Computational Fluid Dynamics2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, numerical simulations of lubricating grease flow usingComputational Fluid Dynamics is presented. The grease is treated as asingle-phase Herschel-Bulkley fluid, where three different rheologicalproperties, corresponding to NLGI grade 00, 1 and 2, respectively, havebeen considered in two different configurations comprised by arestricted straight channel, and a double restriction seal with andwithout ring. The numerical code and rheology model have beenvalidated with analytical solutions and flow measurements using microparticleimage velocimetry. The grease velocity distribution in thegeometries are obtained and the motion of contaminant particlesinserted into the flow is investigated. The latter is of special interest inseal geometries which intend to protect the moving mechanicalcomponents from contamination.

  • 42.
    Westerberg, Lars-Göran
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Solar wind interaction with the terrestrial magnetopause2007Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The solar wind interaction with the terrestrial magnetosphere is a source for many spectacular phenomena on or close the Earth's surface. A key question during the last fifty years have been how the solar wind plasma can enter the terrestrial magnetic shield represented by the magnetosphere and its outermost layer called the magnetopause. This have been the seed for many controversies among researchers throughout the years. Today we know that there are several possibilities for the solar wind to break through the magnetic boundary of the Earth. The main plasma transport mechanism at the magnetopause is called magnetic reconnection, where the magnetic energy stored in the solar wind is converted to kinetic energy through a localized break-down of the ideal frozen-in condition of the magnetic field within the plasma. Since its introduction to the space-physical community in the late 1950's, reconnection research have had its primary focus on understanding the onset mechanisms inside the diffusion region where the solar wind magnetic field is reconnected with the magnetospheric magnetic field. In this thesis work we put the context well out of the diffusion region and focuses on the implications of magnetic reconnection onto the surrounding solar wind plasma, rather than on the main mechanisms which initiates the process. We present solutions for the structure of the plasma flow through the magnetopause surface during conditions of ongoing reconnection. This is done through viscous-resistive reconnection models together with models where finite gyro-radius effects are considered. In order to validate the viscous-resistive model we also couple the analytical solutions with \textit{in situ} measurements made by the Cluster spacecraft fleet. This results in an entirely new way of determining the magnetopause transition layer thickness and the location of the reconnection site from spacecraft data.

  • 43.
    Westerberg, Lars-Göran
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Solar wind interaction with the terrestrial magnetopause2005Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Magnetic reconnection plays an important role in the transfer of mass, energy and momentum from the solar wind to the terrestrial magnetosphere. The earliest contributions to the theory of magnetic reconnection dates from the beginning of the 1930's. However, it took until the end of the 1950's when Sweet and Parker made their first reconnection model, for the concept to reach a somewhat solid ground. During the years since then magnetic reconnection has walked through the phase of reaching mythical proportions where some researchers believed in it, and some not, to the acceptance it has today where the main issue not is whether the process happens or not, but rather the main physical properties and the implications of it. During the last fifteen years much of the research due to the rapid increase in computer capacity, treats numerical simulations of magnetic reconnection. Theoretical analysis keeps though its position as a cornerstone for the understanding of the process. But also for the base of new implemented models. Much of the theoretical work accomplished to this day has its focus on magnetic reconnection itself; applications for different conditions, and the onset of the process - something which still is under much discussion among researchers. This work focuses on the implications of magnetic reconnection in combination with the outer magnetosheath flow. The analysis treats a two-dimensional and three-dimensional case. For the 3D case, the magnetosheath plasma flow is considered to be incompressible, while we for the 2D case also treat a compressible magnetosheath plasma. Magnetic reconnection is assumed to occur in a region stretching from the sub-solar point to the north, at an arbitrary point for the 2D case, and along a line parallel to the y-axis for the 3D case. The analysis is based on the MHD equations including dissipative effects such as viscosity and resistivity, where the equations are solved approximately by the use of an ordinary perturbation expansion for large Reynolds and Lundqvist numbers. The objective of the 2D study treating an incompressible plasma flow, is to get a description of the current transition layer in combination with the outer magnetosheath and boundary layer flow. The solutions are asymptotically matched with an existing model for the magnetosheath magnetic field. For the 2D compressible case and 3D analysis, the objective is to study the development of the magnetic field and total velocity during the transition from the magnetosheath to the magnetosphere.

  • 44.
    Westerberg, Lars-Göran
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Farré-Lladós, Josep
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, UPC - Technical University of Catalonia.
    Li, Jinxia
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Höglund, Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Casals-Terré, Jasmina
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, UPC - Technical University of Catalonia.
    Grease flow in elbow channel2014In: Society of Tribologists and Lubrication Engineers Annual Meeting and Exhibition 2014, Society of Tribologists and Lubrication Engineers , 2014, Vol. 1, 398-400 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 45.
    Westerberg, Lars-Göran
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Farré-Lladós, Josep
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, UPC - Technical University of Catalonia.
    Li, Jinxia
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Höglund, Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Casals-Terré, Jasmina
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, UPC - Technical University of Catalonia.
    Grease flow in an elbow channel2015In: Tribology letters, ISSN 1023-8883, E-ISSN 1573-2711, Vol. 57, no 3, 30Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The flow of lubricating greases in an elbow channel has been modeled and validated with velocity profiles from flow visualizations using micro-particle image velocimetry. The elbow geometry induces a nonsymmetric distribution of shear stress throughout its cross section, as well as varying shear rates through the transition from the elbow inlet to the outlet. The flow has been modeled both for higher flow rates and for creep flow. The influence of the grease rheology and flow conditions to wall slip, shear banding and an observed stick–slip type of motion observed for low flow rates are presented. The effect on the flow of the applied pressure is also modeled showing that the flow is sensitive to the pressure in the angular ( ϕ ) direction of the elbow. For high pressures, it is shown that the flow is reversed adjacent to the elbow walls.

  • 46.
    Westerberg, Lars-Göran
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Geza, Vadims
    Faculty of Physics and Mathematics, University of Latvia.
    Jacovics, Andris
    Faculty of Physics and Mathematics, University of Latvia.
    Lundström, T. Staffan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Burner backflow reduction in regeneration furnace2011In: Engineering Applications of Computational Fluid Mechanics, ISSN 1994-2060, E-ISSN 1997-003X, Vol. 5, no 3, 372-383 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the present case from the steel industry, waste hydrochloric acid from the pickling process is regenerated using spray roasting. The process is driven by four burners placed symmetrically along the periphery of the cylindrical main section of the reactor. Severe problems with gas backflow and sintering of iron oxide inside the burner chamber have led to a complete shut down of the process 1-2 times every week, which is a frequency which significantly affects the productivity. In this study the influence of a kick-out on the gas flow in the vicinity of the burner chamber is investigated numerically. It is shown that the kick-out geometry creates a vortical low pressure region preventing the inflow of gas and hence the sintering of iron oxide. This has led to a significant increase in the productivity with no additional shut-downs than needed for the ordinary maintenance every 6-8 weeks.

  • 47.
    Westerberg, Lars-Göran
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Geza, Vadims
    Faculty of Physics and Mathematics, University of Latvia.
    Jakovics, Andris
    Faculty of Physics and Mathematics, University of Latvia.
    Lundström, T. Staffan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Johansson, Simon
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Numerisk modellering av flöde i reaktor för saltsyraregenerering E: reduktion av inflöde i brännarkammar2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Saltsyra används inom stålindustrin för att beta järnoxider efter varmvalsning av plåt innan den förädlas i produktionslinan. Stora mängder saltsyra förbrukas, vilket både är kostsamt och miljöfarlig om den inte återvinns. Återvinningen sker oftast på stålverken i en Ruthner process; den illustreras av en cylindrisk ugn med konisk nedre del, där fyra naturgasbrännare placerade tangentiellt till ugnen driver processen. Den förbrukade saltsyran som består av vatten och järnklorid, tillförs genom en till fyra dysor i toppen av reaktorn. Återvinningen sker genom att vatten först förångas från dropparna, varefter järnklorid reagerar med syre och vatten och bildar saltsyra och järnklorid. Den regenererade saltsyran återförs till betningsprocessen och järnoxiden går vidare till försäljning.Behovet av denna studie baseras på problem som uppstått då gas flödar in brännarkammaren, vilket i sin tur medför att järnoxid sintras och täpper igen brännaröppningen. Detta medför produktionsstopp och ekonomiska förluster. Vi har använt CFD för att modellera strömningsförloppet i reaktorn, och speciellt fokuserat på dynamiken kring brännaröppningen. Genom att lägga till en så kallad kick-out i anslutning till brännaröppningen ändras strömningsfältet så att inflödet stoppas. Effekterna av tre olika geometrier har jämförts.

  • 48.
    Westerberg, Lars-Göran
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Green, Torbjörn
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Li, Jinxia
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Baart, Pieter
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics.
    Lundström, T. Staffan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Höglund, Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Lugt, Piet
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Understanding grease flow through optical visualizations2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The flow dynamics of a lubrication mechanism is very complex, much due to the complex rheology and composition of the grease. In order to obtain an optimal lubrication, both the initial amount of grease and the position of the grease is highly important as too much grease will contribute to an increased friction, and grease in the wrong place will negatively affect the replenishment through oil bleeding. To understand the flow dynamics of grease hence is highly important for the understanding of the lubrication mechanism. Using micro Particle Image Velocimetry (μPIV) we have in a series of studies investigated the dynamics of grease flow in 2D straight channels with- and without restrictions, and in a full 3D configuration comprising a double restriction seal geometry. Velocity profiles for greases of different thickness have been measured, showing the influence of the grease rheology on the grease flow behaviour. KEYWORDS: Lubricants:Greases, Lubricant Physical Analysis:Non-Newtonian Behavior, Lubricant Physical Analysis:Rheology.

  • 49.
    Westerberg, Lars-Göran
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Höglund, Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Li, Jinxia
    Lugt, Piet
    SKF ERC, University of Twente/SKF ERC.
    Baart, Pieter
    SKF ERC.
    Free-Surface Flow of Lubricating Greases2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Grease lubrication is traditionally used in a great variety of mechanicalsystems such as rolling bearings, seals, and gears where it has beenshown more advantageous than oil, mainly due to its consistencyallowing the grease to stay inside the system and not leak out. Freesurface effects play an important role in rolling bearings and opengears as the configuration normally is filled with about 30% grease toavoid heavy churning. In this study an analytical model of thestationary uniform flow on a rotating disc is developed and validatedwith experiments. The model results in the velocity profile for the flowin the thin fully yielded viscous layer in connection to the surface aswell as an expression for the plug flow region on top of the viscouslayer. Experiments with two different greases having NLGI grade 1 and2 respectively shows it is possible to obtain a good fit with theanalytically obtained thickness using the rheological parameters foractual greases.

  • 50.
    Westerberg, Lars-Göran
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Höglund, Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Sarkar, Chiranjit
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Modelling and experimental validation of grease flow2016In: Eurogrease Magazine, no 4, 17-32 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
12 1 - 50 of 75
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