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  • 1.
    Arridge, Christopher S.
    et al.
    Mullard Space Science Laboratory, Department of Space and Climate Physics.
    Agnor, Craig B.
    University of Manchester, School of Physics and Astronomy.
    André, Nicolas
    Centre d’Etude Spatiale des Rayonnements, Toulouse.
    Baines, Kevin H.
    NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena.
    Fletcher, Leigh N.
    Gautier, Daniel
    LESIA, CNRS-Observatoire de Paris.
    Hofstadter, Mark D.
    NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena.
    Jones, Geraint H.
    Mullard Space Science Laboratory, Department of Space and Climate Physics.
    Lamy, Laurent
    LESIA, CNRS-Observatoire de Paris.
    Langevin, Yves
    Institut d'Astrophysique Spatiale.
    Mousis, Olivier
    Institut UTINAM, CNRS, OSU THETA.
    Nettelmann, Nadine
    Universität Rostock.
    Russell, Christopher T.
    Institute of Geophysics and Meteorology, University of Cologne.
    Stallard, Tom
    Physics and Astronomy Department, Ohio University.
    Tiscareno, Matthew S.
    Cornell University, Ithaca.
    Tobie, Gabriel
    LPG, CNRS.
    Bacon, Andrew
    Systems Engineering and Asssessment Ltd..
    Chaloner, Chris
    Systems Engineering and Asssessment Ltd..
    Guest, Michael
    Systems Engineering and Asssessment Ltd..
    Kemble, Steve
    EADS, Astrium.
    Peacocke, Lisa
    EADS, Astrium.
    Achilleos, Nicholas
    Physics and Astronomy Department, Ohio University.
    Andert, Thomas P.
    Universität der Bundeswehr.
    Banfield, Don
    Cornell University, Ithaca.
    Barabash, Stas
    Swedish Institute of Space Physics.
    Martin-Torres, Javier
    Centre for Astrobiology, Madrid.
    Zarka, Philippe
    LESIA, CNRS-Observatoire de Paris.
    Uranus Pathfinder: Exploring the origins and evolution of Ice Giant planets2012In: Experimental astronomy (Print), ISSN 0922-6435, E-ISSN 1572-9508, Vol. 33, no 2-3, 753-791 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The "Ice Giants" Uranus and Neptune are a different class of planet compared to Jupiter and Saturn. Studying these objects is important for furthering our understanding of the formation and evolution of the planets, and unravelling the fundamental physical and chemical processes in the Solar System. The importance of filling these gaps in our knowledge of the Solar System is particularly acute when trying to apply our understanding to the numerous planetary systems that have been discovered around other stars. The Uranus Pathfinder (UP) mission thus represents the quintessential aspects of the objectives of the European planetary community as expressed in ESA's Cosmic Vision 2015-2025. UP was proposed to the European Space Agency's M3 call for medium-class missions in 2010 and proposed to be the first orbiter of an Ice Giant planet. As the most accessible Ice Giant within the M-class mission envelope Uranus was identified as the mission target. Although not selected for this call the UP mission concept provides a baseline framework for the exploration of Uranus with existing low-cost platforms and underlines the need to develop power sources suitable for the outer Solar System. The UP science case is based around exploring the origins, evolution, and processes at work in Ice Giant planetary systems. Three broad themes were identified: (1) Uranus as an Ice Giant, (2) An Ice Giant planetary system, and (3) An asymmetric magnetosphere. Due to the long interplanetary transfer from Earth to Uranus a significant cruise-phase science theme was also developed. The UP mission concept calls for the use of a Mars Express/Rosetta-type platform to launch on a Soyuz-Fregat in 2021 and entering into an eccentric polar orbit around Uranus in the 2036-2037 timeframe. The science payload has a strong heritage in Europe and beyond and requires no significant technology developments. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  • 2.
    Atreya, Sushil
    et al.
    University of Michigan.
    Squyres, Steve
    Cornell University, Ithaca.
    Mahaffy, Paul
    Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland.
    Leshin, Laurie
    Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York.
    Franz, Heather
    Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland.
    Trainer, Melissa
    Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland.
    Wong, Michael
    University of Michigan.
    McKay, Christopher
    NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field.
    Navarro-Gonzalez, Rafael
    Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
    Martin-Torres, Javier
    Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC-INTA), Madrid.
    MSL/SAM Measurements of Non Condensable Volatiles, Comparison with Viking Lander, and Implications for Seasonal Cycle2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Bhardwaj, Anshuman
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    Martin-Torres, Javier
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    Identification and Mapping of Glacier-Like Forms (GLFs) Near Martian Subpolar Latitudes2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Bhardwaj, Anshuman
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    Sam, Lydia
    Department of Environmental Science, Sharda University.
    Akanksha, Akanksha
    Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi.
    Martin-Torres, Javier
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    Kumar, Rejesh
    Department of Environmental Science, Sharda University.
    UAVs as remote sensing platform in glaciology: Present applications and future prospects2016In: Remote Sensing of Environment, ISSN 0034-4257, E-ISSN 1879-0704, Vol. 175, 196-204 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Satellite remote sensing is an effective way to monitor vast extents of global glaciers and snowfields. However, satellite remote sensing is limited by spatial and temporal resolutions and the high costs involved in data acquisition. Unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV)-based glaciological studies are gaining pace in recent years due to their advantages over conventional remote sensing platforms. UAVs are easy to deploy, with the option of alternating the sensors working in visible, infrared, and microwave wavelengths. The high spatial resolution remote sensing data obtained from these UAV-borne sensors are a significant improvement over the data obtained by traditional remote sensing. The cost involved in data acquisition is minimal and researchers can acquire imagery according to their schedule and convenience. We discuss significant glaciological studies involving UAV as remote sensing platforms. This is the first review work, exclusively dedicated to highlight UAV as a remote sensing platform in glaciology. We examine polar and alpine applications of UAV and their future prospects in separate sections and present an extensive reference list for the readers, so that they can delve into their topic of interest. Because the technology is still widely unexplored for snow and glaciers, we put a special emphasis on discussing the future prospects of utilising UAVs for glaciological research.

  • 5.
    Bhardwaj, Anshuman
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    Sam, Lydia
    Department of Environmental Science, Sharda University.
    Bhardwaj, Akanksha
    Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi.
    Martin-Torres, Javier
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    LiDAR remote sensing of the cryosphere: Present applications and future prospects2016In: Remote Sensing of Environment, ISSN 0034-4257, E-ISSN 1879-0704, Vol. 177, 125-143 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The cryosphere consists of frozen water and includes lakes/rivers/sea ice, glaciers, ice caps/sheets, snow cover, and permafrost. Because highly reflective snow and ice are the main components of the cryosphere, it plays an important role in the global energy balance. Thus, any qualitative or quantitative change in the physical properties and extents of the cryosphere affects global air circulation, ocean and air temperatures, sea level, and ocean current patterns. Due to the hardships involved in collecting ground control points and field data for high alpine glaciers or vast polar ice sheets, several researchers are currently using remote sensing. Satellites provide an effective space-borne platform for remotely sensing frozen areas at the global and regional scales. However, satellite remote sensing has several constraints, such as limited spatial and temporal resolutions and expensive data acquisition. Therefore, aerial and terrestrial remote sensing platforms and sensors are needed to cover temporal and spatial gaps for comprehensive cryospheric research. Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) antennas form a group of active remote sensors that can easily be deployed on all three platforms, i.e., satellite, aerial, and terrestrial. The generation of elevation data for glacial and snow-covered terrain from photogrammetry requires high contrast amongst various reflective surfaces (ice, snow, firn, and slush). Conventional passive optical remote sensors do not provide the necessary accuracy, especially due to the unavailability of reliable ground control points. However, active LiDAR sensors can fill this research gap and provide high-resolution and accurate Digital Elevation Models (DEMs). Due to the obvious advantages of LiDAR over conventional passive remote sensors, the number of LiDAR-based cryospheric studies has increased in recent years. In this review, we highlight studies that have utilised LiDAR sensors for the cryospheric research of various features, such as snow cover, polar ice sheets and their atmospheres, alpine glaciers, and permafrost. Because this technology shows immense promise for applications in future cryospheric research, we also emphasise the prospects of utilising LiDAR sensors. In this paper, a large compilation of relevant references is presented to allow readers to explore particular topics of interest.

  • 6.
    Bhardwaj, Anshuman
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    Sam, Lydia
    Institut für Kartographie, Technische Universität Dresden.
    Martin-Torres, Javier
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    Rock glaciers as proxies for identifying terrestrial and analogous Martian permafrost2016In: XI. International Conference On Permafrost: Book of Abstracts / [ed] Günther, F. and Morgenstern, A., Potsdam: Bibliothek Wissenschaftspark Albert Einstein , 2016, 535-537 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Bhardwaj, Anshuman
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    Sam, Lydia
    Institut für Kartographie, Technische Universität Dresden.
    Martin-Torres, Javier
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    Zorzano Mier, Maria-Paz
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    Fonseca, Ricardo
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    Martian slope streaks as plausible indicators of transient water activity2017In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 7, no 1, 7074Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Slope streaks have been frequently observed in the equatorial, low thermal inertia and dusty regions of Mars. The reason behind their formation remains unclear with proposed hypotheses for both dry and wet mechanisms. Here, we report an up-to-date distribution and morphometric investigation of Martian slope streaks. We find: (i) a remarkable coexistence of the slope streak distribution with the regions on Mars with high abundances of water-equivalent hydrogen, chlorine, and iron; (ii) favourable thermodynamic conditions for transient deliquescence and brine development in the slope streak regions; (iii) a significant concurrence of slope streak distribution with the regions of enhanced atmospheric water vapour concentration, thus suggestive of a present-day regolith-atmosphere water cycle; and (iv) terrain preferences and flow patterns supporting a wet mechanism for slope streaks. These results suggest a strong local regolith-atmosphere water coupling in the slope streak regions that leads to the formation of these fluidised features. Our conclusions can have profound astrobiological, habitability, environmental, and planetary protection implications

  • 8.
    Bhardwaj, Anshuman
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    Singh, Shaktiman
    Institut für Kartographie, Technische Universität Dresden.
    Sam, Lydia
    Institut für Kartographie, Technische Universität Dresden.
    Bhardwaj, Akanksha
    Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi.
    Martin-Torres, Javier
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    Singh, Atar
    Department of Environmental Science, Sharda University.
    Kumar, Rajesh
    Department of Environmental Science, Sharda University.
    MODIS-based estimates of strong snow surface temperature anomaly related to high altitude earthquakes of 20152017In: Remote Sensing of Environment, ISSN 0034-4257, E-ISSN 1879-0704, Vol. 188, 1-8 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The high levels of uncertainty associated with earthquake prediction render earthquakes some of the worst natural calamities. Here, we present our observations of MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)-derived Land Surface Temperature (LST) anomaly for earthquakes in the largest tectonically active Himalayan and Andean mountain belts. We report the appearance of fairly detectable pre-earthquake Snow Surface Temperature (SST) anomalies. We use 16 years (2000–2015) of MODIS LST time-series data to robustly conclude our findings for three of the most destructive earthquakes that occurred in 2015 in the high mountains of Nepal, Chile, and Afghanistan. We propose the physical basis behind higher sensitivity of snow towards geothermal emissions. Although the preliminary appearance of SST anomalies and their amplitudes vary, we propose employing a global-scale monitoring system for detecting and studying such spatio-temporal geophysical signals. With the advent of improved remote sensors, we anticipate that such efforts can be another step towards improved earthquake predictions.

  • 9.
    Bhardwaj, Anshuman
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology. Department of Environmental Science, Sharda University.
    Singh, Shaktiman
    Department of Environmental Science, Sharda University,.
    Sam, Lydia
    Department of Environmental Science, Sharda University,.
    Joshi, PK
    School of Environmental Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi.
    Bhardwaj, Akanksha
    Banaras Hindu University.
    Martín-Torres, Javier F.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology. Instituto Andaluz de Ciencias de la Tierra (CSIC-UGR).
    Kumar, Rajesh
    Department of Environmental Science, Sharda University.
    A review on remotely sensed land surface temperature anomaly as an earthquake precursor2017In: International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation, ISSN 0303-2434, Vol. 63, 158-166 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The low predictability of earthquakes and the high uncertainty associated with their forecasts make earthquakes one of the worst natural calamities, capable of causing instant loss of life and property. Here, we discuss the studies reporting the observed anomalies in the satellite-derived Land Surface Temperature (LST) before an earthquake. We compile the conclusions of these studies and evaluate the use of remotely sensed LST anomalies as precursors of earthquakes. The arrival times and the amplitudes of the anomalies vary widely, thus making it difficult to consider them as universal markers to issue earthquake warnings. Based on the randomness in the observations of these precursors, we support employing a global-scale monitoring system to detect statistically robust anomalous geophysical signals prior to earthquakes before considering them as definite precursors.

  • 10.
    Bish, D.L.
    et al.
    Indiana University, Department of Geological Sciences, Bloomington.
    Blake, D.F.
    NASA Ames.
    Vaniman, D.T.
    Planetary Science Institute, Tucson.
    Chipera, S.J.
    CHK Energy.
    Morris, R.V.
    NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston.
    Ming, D.W.
    NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston.
    Treiman, A.H.
    Lunar and Planetary Institute, Houston.
    Sarrazin, P.
    In-Xitu, Campbell, California.
    Morrison, S.M.
    Department of Geology, University of Arizona, Tucson.
    Downs, R.T.
    Department of Geology, University of Arizona, Tucson.
    Achilles, C.N.
    ESCG/UTC Aerospace Systems, Houston.
    Yen, A.S.
    Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena.
    Bristow, T.F.
    NASA Ames.
    Crisp, J.A.
    Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena.
    Morookian, J.M.
    NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena.
    Farmer, J.D.
    Department of Geological Sciences, Arizona State University, Tempe.
    Rampe, E.B.
    NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston.
    Stolper, E.M.
    California Institute of Technology, Pasadena.
    Spanovich, N.
    Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena.
    Martin-Torres, Javier
    Centro de Astrobiología (CAB).
    X-ray diffraction results from Mars Science Laboratory: Mineralogy of Rocknest at Gale Crater2013In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 341, no 6153, 1238932Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Mars Science Laboratory rover Curiosity scooped samples of soil from the Rocknest aeolian bedform in Gale crater. Analysis of the soil with the Chemistry and Mineralogy (CheMin) x-ray diffraction (XRD) instrument revealed plagioclase (~An57), forsteritic olivine (~Fo62), augite, and pigeonite, with minor K-feldspar, magnetite, quartz, anhydrite, hematite, and ilmenite. The minor phases are present at, or near, detection limits. The soil also contains 27 ± 14 weight percent x-ray amorphous material, likely containing multiple Fe3+- and volatile-bearing phases, including possibly a substance resembling hisingerite. The crystalline component is similar to the normative mineralogy of certain basaltic rocks from Gusev crater on Mars and of martian basaltic meteorites. The amorphous component is similar to that found on Earth in places such as soils on the Mauna Kea volcano, Hawaii.

  • 11.
    Bridges, N.T.
    et al.
    Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, Laurel.
    Blaney, D.L.
    Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena.
    Day, M.D.
    Department of Geological Sciences, Jackson School of Geosciences, University of Texas at Austin.
    Herkenhoff, K.E.
    U.S. Geological Survey, Flagstaff.
    Lanza, N.L.
    Los Alamos National Laboratory.
    Mouélic, S. Le
    CNRS/Université de Nantes.
    Martin-Torres, Javier
    Instituto Andaluz de Cienccias de la Tierra (CSIC-UGR), Grenada.
    Maurice, S.
    IRAP, CNRS-Université Toulouse.
    Newman, C.E.
    Ashima Research, Pasadena.
    Newsom, H.E.
    Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque.
    Wiens, R.C.
    Los Alamos National Laboratory.
    Zorzano, M.-P.
    Centro de Astrobiologia, INTA-CSIC, Madrid.
    Rock abrasion and landscape modification by windblown sand as documented by the MSL Curiosity rover2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Buch, Aranaud
    et al.
    LGPM, Ecole Centrale Paris, Chatenay-Malabry.
    Freissinet, Caroline
    NASA Goddard Space Flight Center.
    Szopa, Cyril
    LATMOS, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Université Versailles Saint-Quentin & CNRS, Guyancourt.
    Glavin, Danny
    NASA Goddard Space Flight Center.
    Coll, Patrice
    Laboratoire Interuniversitaire des Systèmes Atmosphériques, Université Paris-Est Créteil, Université Paris Diderot and CNRS, Créteil.
    Cabane, Michel
    LATMOS, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Université Versailles Saint-Quentin & CNRS, Guyancourt.
    Eigenbrode, Jen
    NASA Goddard Space Flight Center.
    Navarro-Gonzalez, Rafael
    Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
    Stern, Jen
    NASA Goddard Space Flight Center.
    Coscia, David
    LATMOS, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Université Versailles Saint-Quentin & CNRS, Guyancourt.
    Teinturier, Samuel
    LATMOS, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Université Versailles Saint-Quentin & CNRS, Guyancourt.
    Dworkin, Jason
    NASA Goddard Space Flight Center.
    Mahaffy, Paul
    NASA Goddard Space Flight Center.
    Martin-Torres, Javier
    Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC-INTA), Madrid.
    Wet Chemistry on SAM: How it Helps to Detect Organics on Mars2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Cabane, Michel
    et al.
    LATMOS, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Université Versailles Saint-Quentin & CNRS, Guyancourt.
    Coll, Patrice
    Laboratoire Interuniversitaire des Systèmes Atmosphériques, Université Paris-Est Créteil, Université Paris Diderot and CNRS, Créteil.
    Szopa, Cyril
    LATMOS, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Université Versailles Saint-Quentin & CNRS, Guyancourt.
    Coscia, David
    LATMOS, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Université Versailles Saint-Quentin & CNRS, Guyancourt.
    Buch, Aranaud
    LGPM, Ecole Centrale Paris, Chatenay-Malabry.
    Teinturier, Samuel
    LATMOS, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Université Versailles Saint-Quentin & CNRS, Guyancourt.
    Navarro-Gonzalez, Rafael
    Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
    Gaboriaud, Alain
    CNES.
    Mahaffy, Paul
    NASA Goddard Space Flight Center.
    Martin-Torres, Javier
    Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC-INTA), Madrid.
    Gas-chromatographic analysis of Mars soil samples at Rocknest site with the SAM instrument onboard Curiosity2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 14.
    Castro, Juan Francisco Buenestado
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    Mier, Maria-Paz Zorzano
    Centro de Astrobiologia, INTA-CSIC, Madrid.
    Martin-Torres, Javier
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    Liquid water at crater Gale, Mars2015In: Journal of Astrobiology and Outreach, ISSN 2332-2519, Vol. 3, no 3, 131Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Suspicion that Mars could have transient liquid water on its surface through deliquescence of salts to form aqueous solutions or brines is an old proposal whose inquiry was boosted by Phoenix Lander observations. It provided some images of what were claimed to be brines, the presence of which at its landing site was compatible with the atmospheric parameters and the composition of the soil observed. On the other hand, the so called Recurrent Slope Lineae (RSL) often imaged by orbiters, were considered as another clue pointing to the occurrence of the phenomenon, since it was thought that they might be caused by it. Now, Curiosity rover has performed the first in-situ multi-instrumental study on Mars’ surface, having collected the most comprehensive environmental data set ever taken by means of their instruments Rover Environmental Monitoring Station (REMS), Dynamic Albedo of Neutrons (DAN), and Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM). REMS is providing continuous and accurate measurements of the relative humidity and surface and air temperatures among other parameters, and DAN and SAM provide the water content of the regolith and the atmosphere respectively. Analysis of these data has allowed to establish the existence of a present day active water cycle between the atmosphere and the regolith, that changes according to daily and seasonal cycles, and that is mediated by the presence of brines during certain periods of each and every day. Importantly, the study shows that the conditions for the occurrence of deliquescence are favourable even at equatorial latitudes where, at first, it was thought they were not due to the temperature and relative humidity conditions. This study provides new keys for the understanding of martian environment, and opens interesting lines of research and studies for future missions which may even have a bearing on extant microbial life.

  • 15.
    Castro, Juan Francisco Buenestado
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    Mier, Maria-Paz Zorzano
    Centro de Astrobiologia, INTA-CSIC, Madrid.
    Martin-Torres, Javier
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    Planetary exploration; Mars on the scope2015In: Journal of Astrobiology and Outreach, ISSN 2332-2519, Vol. 3, no 3, 133Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article summarizes a practical case of introduction to research and planetary exploration through the analysis of data from the Rover Environmental Monitoring Station (REMS), one of the ten scientific instruments on board the Curiosity rover of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL), currently operating at the impact crater Gale, on Mars. It is the main aim of this work to show how the data that are publicly available at the Planetary Data System (PDS) can be used to introduce undergraduate students and the general public into the subject of surface exploration and the environment of Mars. In particular, the goal of this practice was to investigate and quantify the heat flux between the rover spacecraft and the Martian surface, the role of the atmosphere in this interaction, and its dependence with seasons, as well as to estimate the thermal contamination of the Martian ground produced by the rover. The ground temperature sensor (GTS) of the REMS instrument has measured in-situ, for the first time ever, the diurnal and seasonal variation of the temperature of the surface on Mars along the rover traverse. This novel study shows that the rover radiative heat flux varies between 10 and 22 W/m2 during the Martian year, which is more than 10% of the solar daily averaged insolation at the top of the atmosphere. In addition, it is shown that the radiative heat flux from the rover to the ground varies with the atmospheric dust load, being the mean annual amplitude of the diurnal variation of the surface temperature of 76 K, as a result of solar heating during the day and infrared cooling during the night. As a remarkable and unexpected outcome, it has been established that the thermal contamination produced by the rover alone induces, on average, a systematic shift of 7.5 K, which is indeed about 10% of the one produced by solar heating. This result may have implications for the design and operation of future surface exploration probes such as InSight.

  • 16.
    Clarmann, T. Von
    et al.
    Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Institut für Meteorologie und Klimaforschung Karlsruhe.
    Ceccherini, S.
    Istituto di Fisica Applicata “Nello Carrara,”, Florence.
    Doicu, A.
    Deutsches Zentrum für Luft-und Raumfahrt (DLR).
    Dudhia, A.
    Atmospheric, Oceanic, and Planetary Physics, Oxford University.
    Funke, B.
    Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía CSIC, Granada.
    Grabowski, U.
    Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Institut für Meteorologie und Klimaforschung Karlsruhe.
    Hilgers, S.
    Deutsches Zentrum für Luft-und Raumfahrt (DLR).
    Jay, V.
    Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Oxfordshire.
    Linden, A.
    Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Institut für Meteorologie und Klimaforschung Karlsruhe.
    López-Puertas, M.
    Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía CSIC, Granada.
    Martin-Torres, Javier
    Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Institut für Meteorologie und Klimaforschung Karlsruhe, Analytical Services and Materials Inc., Hampton.
    Payne, V.
    Atmospheric, Oceanic, and Planetary Physics, Oxford University.
    Reburn, J.
    Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Oxfordshire.
    Ridolfi, M.
    Dipertemento di Chimica Fisica e Inorganica, Universitá di Bologna.
    Schreier, F.
    Deutsches Zentrum für Luft-und Raumfahrt (DLR).
    Schwarz, G.
    Deutsches Zentrum für Luft-und Raumfahrt (DLR).
    Siddans, R.
    Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Oxfordshire.
    Steck, T.
    Institut für Meteorologie und Klimaforschung, Universität Karlsruhe.
    A blind test retrieval experiment for infrared limb emission spectrometry2003In: Journal of Geophysical Research - Atmospheres, ISSN 2169-897X, E-ISSN 2169-8996, Vol. 108, no D23Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The functionality and characteristics of six different data processors (i.e., retrieval codes in their actual software and hardware environment) for analysis of high-resolution limb emission infrared spectra recorded by the space-borne Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS) have been validated by means of a blind test retrieval experiment based on synthetic spectra. For this purpose a self-consistent set of atmospheric state parameters, including pressure, temperature, vibrational temperatures, and abundances of trace gases and aerosols, has been generated and used as input for radiative transfer calculations for MIPAS measurement geometry and configuration. These spectra were convolved with the MIPAS field of view, spectrally degraded by the MIPAS instrument line shape, and, finally, superimposed with synthetic measurement noise. These synthetic MIPAS measurements were distributed among the participants of the project “Advanced MIPAS level-2 data analysis” (AMIL2DA), who performed temperature and species abundance profile retrievals by inverse radiative transfer calculations. While the retrieved profiles of atmospheric state parameters reflect some characteristics of the individual data processors, it was shown that all the data processors under investigation are capable of producing reliable results in the sense that deviations of retrieved results from the reference profiles are within the margin that is consistent with analytical error estimation.

  • 17.
    Cockell, C.S.
    et al.
    UK Centre for Astrobiology, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Edinburgh.
    Bush, T.
    UK Centre for Astrobiology, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Edinburgh.
    Bryce, C.
    UK Centre for Astrobiology, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Edinburgh.
    Direito, S.
    UK Centre for Astrobiology, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Edinburgh.
    Fox-Powell, M.
    UK Centre for Astrobiology, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Edinburgh.
    Harrison, J.P
    UK Centre for Astrobiology, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Edinburgh.
    Lammer, H.
    Austrian Academy of Sciences, Space Research Institute, Graz.
    Landenmark, H.
    UK Centre for Astrobiology, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Edinburgh.
    Martin-Torres, Javier
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    Nicholson, N.
    UK Centre for Astrobiology, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Edinburgh.
    Noack, L.
    Department of Reference Systems and Planetology, Royal Observatory of Belgium, Brussels.
    O'Malley-James, J.
    School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St Andrews, St Andrews.
    Payler, S.J.
    UK Centre for Astrobiology, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Edinburgh.
    Rushby, A.
    Centre for Ocean and Atmospheric Science (COAS), School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich.
    Samuels, T.
    UK Centre for Astrobiology, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Edinburgh.
    Schwendner, P.
    UK Centre for Astrobiology, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Edinburgh.
    Wadsworth, J.
    UK Centre for Astrobiology, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Edinburgh.
    Mier, Maria-Paz Zorzano
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    Habitability: a review2016In: Astrobiology, ISSN 1531-1074, E-ISSN 1557-8070, Vol. 16, no 1, 89-117 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Habitability is a widely used word in the geoscience, planetary science, and astrobiology literature, but what does it mean? In this review on habitability, we define it as the ability of an environment to support the activity of at least one known organism. We adopt a binary definition of “habitability” and a “habitable environment.” An environment either can or cannot sustain a given organism. However, environments such as entire planets might be capable of supporting more or less species diversity or biomass compared with that of Earth. A clarity in understanding habitability can be obtained by defining instantaneous habitability as the conditions at any given time in a given environment required to sustain the activity of at least one known organism, and continuous planetary habitability as the capacity of a planetary body to sustain habitable conditions on some areas of its surface or within its interior over geological timescales. We also distinguish between surface liquid water worlds (such as Earth) that can sustain liquid water on their surfaces and interior liquid water worlds, such as icy moons and terrestrial-type rocky planets with liquid water only in their interiors. This distinction is important since, while the former can potentially sustain habitable conditions for oxygenic photosynthesis that leads to the rise of atmospheric oxygen and potentially complex multicellularity and intelligence over geological timescales, the latter are unlikely to. Habitable environments do not need to contain life. Although the decoupling of habitability and the presence of life may be rare on Earth, it may be important for understanding the habitability of other planetary bodies

  • 18.
    Conrad, P.G.
    et al.
    NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland.
    Eigenbrode, J.L.
    NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland.
    Atreya, S.K.
    University of Michigan, Ann Arbor.
    Blake, D.F.
    NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field.
    Coll, P.J.
    LISA, Université Paris-Est Créteil, Université Denis Diderot & CNRS Center, Créteil.
    Juarez, M. de la Torre
    Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena.
    Edgett, K.S.
    Malin Space Science Systems.
    Fairen, A.
    Cornell University, Ithaca.
    Fisk, M.R.
    Oregon State University, Corvallis.
    Franz, H.
    NASA Goddard Space Flight Center.
    Glavin, D.P.
    NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland.
    Gómez, F.G.
    Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC-INTA), Madrid.
    Haberle, R. M.
    NASA Ames Research Center.
    Hamilton, V.E.
    Southwest Research Institute, Boulder.
    Leshin, L.A.
    Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York.
    Martin-Torres, Javier
    Instituto Andaluz de Ciencias de la Tierra, Granada.
    Martinez-Frias, J.
    Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC-INTA), Madrid.
    McAdam, A.
    NASA Goddard Space Flight Center.
    McKay, C.P.
    NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field.
    Ming, D.W.
    NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston.
    Navarro-Gonzalez, R.
    Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
    Pavlov, A.
    NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland.
    Steele, A.
    Carnegie Institution of Washington, Washington, DC..
    Stern, J.C.
    NASA Goddard Space Flight Center.
    Zorzano, M.
    Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC-INTA), Madrid.
    Grotzinger, J.P.
    California Institute of Technology, Pasadena.
    Environmental Dynamics and the Habitability Potential at Gale Crater, Mars2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The assessment of environmental habitability potential involves measurement of the chemical and physical attributes of the system as well as their dynamic interplay. The environmental dynamics describe the availability of both energy sources and raw materials for meeting the requirements of organisms and for altering the environment. Energetic exchange can also determine the preservation potential for organic materials in the rock record. During its first year at Gale Crater, the Mars Science Laboratory payload has directly measured the chemistry and physical attributes, e.g., temperature, humidity, radiation, pressure, etc. of the martian atmosphere. Curiosity has also acquired chemical and mineralogical data, both from a wind drift deposit of fines and from two examples of a sedimentary rock formation in a region of Gale Crater called Yellowknife Bay, some 445 meters to the east of Bradbury Landing, where Curiosity initially touched down. These data enabled inferences to be made regarding depositional environment and past habitability potential at Gale Crater. The rock chemistry data reveal signs of aqueous interaction i.e., H2O, OH and H2 and sufficient elemental basis (C, H, O, S and possibly N) for plausible nutrient supply, should Mars have ever had autotrophic prokaryotes to exploit it, and a range of redox conditions tolerable to Earth microbes is indicated by the presence of clay minerals. Curiosity’s observations of the chemical, physical and geologic features of Yellowknife Bay point to a formerly habitable environment.

  • 19.
    Cousin, A.
    et al.
    Los Alamos National Laboratory.
    Meslin, P.Y.
    Institut de Recherche en Astrophysique et Planetologie, Toulouse.
    Wiens, R.C.
    Los Alamos National Laboratory.
    Rapin, W.
    Institut de Recherche en Astrophysique et Planetologie, Toulouse.
    Mangold, N.
    Laboratoire Planétologie et Géodynamique, LPGNantes, CNRS UMR 6112, Université de Nantes.
    Fabre, C.
    Université de Lorraine, Nancy.
    Gasnault, O.
    Institut de Recherche en Astrophysique et Planetologie, Toulouse.
    Forni, O.
    Institut de Recherche en Astrophysique et Planetologie, Toulouse.
    Tokar, R.
    Planetary Science Institute, Tucson.
    Ollila, A.
    University of New Mexico, Albuquerque.
    Schröder, S.
    Institut de Recherche en Astrophysique et Planetologie, Toulouse.
    Lasue, J.
    Institut de Recherche en Astrophysique et Planetologie, Toulouse.
    Maurice, S.
    Institut de Recherche en Astrophysique et Planetologie, Toulouse.
    Sautter, V.
    Museum National d’Histoire Naturelle, Paris.
    Newsom, H.
    University of New Mexico, Albuquerque.
    Vaniman, D.
    Planetary Science Institute, Tucson.
    Mouélic, S. Le
    Laboratoire Planétologie et Géodynamique, LPGNantes, CNRS UMR 6112, Université de Nantes.
    Dyar, D.
    Mount Holyoke College, South Hadley.
    Berger, G.
    Institut de Recherche en Astrophysique et Planetologie, Toulouse.
    Blaney, D.
    Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena.
    Nachon, M.
    Laboratoire Planétologie et Géodynamique, LPGNantes, CNRS UMR 6112, Université de Nantes.
    Dromart, G.
    Laboratoire de Géologie de Lyon.
    Lanza, N.
    Los Alamos National Laboratory.
    Clark, B.
    Space Science Institute, Boulder, Colorado.
    Clegg, S.
    Los Alamos National Laboratory.
    Delapp, D.
    Los Alamos National Laboratory.
    Compositions of coarse and fine particles in martian soils at gale: A window into the production of soils2015In: Icarus (New York, N.Y. 1962), ISSN 0019-1035, E-ISSN 1090-2643, Vol. 249, 22-42 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ChemCam instrument onboard the Curiosity rover provides for the first time an opportunity to study martian soils at a sub-millimeter resolution. In this work, we analyzed 24 soil targets probed by ChemCam during the first 250 sols on Mars. Using the depth profile capability of the ChemCam LIBS (Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy) technique, we found that 45% of the soils contained coarse grains (>500 μm). Three distinct clusters have been detected: Cluster 1 shows a low SiO2 content; Cluster 2 corresponds to coarse grains with a felsic composition, whereas Cluster 3 presents a typical basaltic composition. Coarse grains from Cluster 2 have been mostly observed exposed in the vicinity of the landing site, whereas coarse grains from Clusters 1 and 3 have been detected mostly buried, and were found all along the rover traverse. The possible origin of these coarse grains was investigated. Felsic (Cluster 2) coarse grains have the same origin as the felsic rocks encountered near the landing site, whereas the origin of the coarse grains from Clusters 1 and 3 seems to be more global. Fine-grained soils (particle size < laser beam diameter which is between 300 and 500 μm) show a homogeneous composition all along the traverse, different from the composition of the rocks encountered at Gale. Although they contain a certain amount of hydrated amorphous component depleted in SiO2, possibly present as a surface coating, their overall chemical homogeneity and their close-to-basaltic composition suggest limited, or isochemical alteration, and a limited interaction with liquid water. Fine particles and coarse grains from Cluster 1 have a similar composition, and the former could derive from weathering of the latter. Overall martian soils have a bulk composition between that of fine particles and coarse grains. This work shows that the ChemCam instrument provides a means to study the variability of soil composition at a scale not achievable by bulk chemical analyses.

  • 20.
    Delgado-Bonal, A.
    et al.
    Instituto Andaluz de Ciencias de la Tierra (CSIC-UGR).
    Martin-Torres, Javier
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    Human vision is determined based on information theory2016In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 6, 36038Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is commonly accepted that the evolution of the human eye has been driven by the maximum intensity of the radiation emitted by the Sun. However, the interpretation of the surrounding environment is constrained not only by the amount of energy received but also by the information content of the radiation. Information is related to entropy rather than energy. The human brain follows Bayesian statistical inference for the interpretation of visual space. The maximization of information occurs in the process of maximizing the entropy. Here, we show that the photopic and scotopic vision absorption peaks in humans are determined not only by the intensity but also by the entropy of radiation. We suggest that through the course of evolution, the human eye has not adapted only to the maximum intensity or to the maximum information but to the optimal wavelength for obtaining information. On Earth, the optimal wavelengths for photopic and scotopic vision are 555 nm and 508 nm, respectively, as inferred experimentally. These optimal wavelengths are determined by the temperature of the star (in this case, the Sun) and by the atmospheric composition.

  • 21.
    Delgado-Bonal, Alfonso
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    Martin-Torres, Javier
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    Evaluation of the Atmospheric Chemical Entropy Production of Mars2015In: Entropy, ISSN 1099-4300, E-ISSN 1099-4300, Vol. 17, no 7, 5047-5062 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Thermodynamic disequilibrium is a necessary situation in a system in which complex emergent structures are created and maintained. It is known that most of the chemical disequilibrium, a particular type of thermodynamic disequilibrium, in Earth's atmosphere is a consequence of life. We have developed a thermochemical model for the Martian atmosphere to analyze the disequilibrium by chemical reactions calculating the entropy production. It follows from the comparison with the Earth atmosphere that the magnitude of the entropy produced by the recombination reaction forming O 3 (O + O 2 + CO 2 O 3 + CO 2) in the atmosphere of the Earth is larger than the entropy produced by the dominant set of chemical reactions considered for Mars, as a consequence of the low density and the poor variety of species of the Martian atmosphere. If disequilibrium is needed to create and maintain self-organizing structures in a system, we conclude that the current Martian atmosphere is unable to support large physico-chemical structures, such as those created on Earth.

  • 22.
    Delgado-Bonal, Alfonso
    et al.
    Centro de Astrobiologia, INTA-CSIC, Madrid.
    Martin-Torres, Javier
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    Solar cell temperature on Mars2015In: Solar Energy, ISSN 0038-092X, E-ISSN 1471-1257, Vol. 118, 74-79 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The operating temperature of a solar cell determines its efficiency and performance. This temperature depends on the materials used to build the cell but also on the environmental variables surrounding it (i.e., radiation, ambient temperature, wind speed and humidity). Several equations have been proposed to calculate this temperature, depending on these variables. Also, for Earth conditions, simplifiedequations have been developed, but are not valid for other planets, as Mars, where the environmental conditions are extremely different.In this paper, we develop a simplified equation to calculate the temperature of a solar cell under Mars environmental conditions and discuss the effect that altitude and wind on Mars might have on the solar cell temperature. The correct determination of the operating temperature of the cell will help to optimize the design of the next solar cell powered rovers for the exploration of Mars.

  • 23.
    Delgado-Bonal, Alfonso
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    Martin-Torres, Javier
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    Martín, Sandra Vázquez
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    Mier, Maria-Paz Zorzano
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    Solar and wind exergy potentials for Mars2016In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 102, 550-558 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The energy requirements of the planetary exploration spacecrafts constrain the lifetime of the missions, their mobility and capabilities, and the number of instruments onboard. They are limiting factors in planetary exploration. Several missions to the surface of Mars have proven the feasibility and success of solar panels as energy source. The analysis of the exergy efficiency of the solar radiation has been carried out successfully on Earth, however, to date, there is not an extensive research regarding the thermodynamic exergy efficiency of in-situ renewable energy sources on Mars. In this paper, we analyse the obtainable energy (exergy) from solar radiation under Martian conditions. For this analysis we have used the surface environmental variables on Mars measured in-situ by the Rover Environmental Monitoring Station onboard the Curiosity rover and from satellite by the Thermal Emission Spectrometer instrument onboard the Mars Global Surveyor satellite mission. We evaluate the exergy efficiency from solar radiation on a global spatial scale using orbital data for a Martian year; and in a one single location in Mars (the Gale crater) but with an appreciable temporal resolution (1 h). Also, we analyse the wind energy as an alternative source of energy for Mars exploration and compare the results with those obtained on Earth. We study the viability of solar and wind energy station for the future exploration of Mars, showing that a small square solar cell of 0.30 m length could maintain a meteorological station on Mars. We conclude that the low density of the atmosphere of Mars is responsible of the low thermal exergy efficiency of solar panels. It also makes the use of wind energy uneffective. Finally, we provide insights for the development of new solar cells on Mars.

  • 24.
    Delgado-Bonal, Alfonso
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    Martin-Torres, Javier
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    Mier, Maria-Paz Zorzano
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    Martian Top of the Atmosphere 10–420 nm spectral irradiance database and forecast for solar cycle 242016In: Solar Energy, ISSN 0038-092X, E-ISSN 1471-1257, Vol. 134, 228-235 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ultraviolet radiation from 10 to 420 nm reaching Mars Top of the Atmosphere (TOA) and surface is important in a wide variety of fields such as space exploration, climate modeling, and spacecraft design, as it has impact in the physics and chemistry of the atmosphere and soil. Despite the existence of databases for UV radiation reaching Earth TOA, based in space-borne instrumentation orbiting our planet, there is no similar information for Mars. Here we present a Mars TOA UV spectral irradiance database for solar cycle 24 (years 2008–2019), containing daily values from 10 to 420 nm. The values in this database have been computed using a model that is fed by the Earth-orbiting Solar Radiation and Climate Experiment (SORCE) data. As the radiation coming from the Sun is not completely isotropic, in order to eliminate the geometrically related features but being able to capture the general characteristics of the solar cycle stage, we provide 3-, 7- and 15-days averaged values at each wavelength. Our database is of interest for atmospheric modeling and spectrally dependent experiments on Mars, the analysis of current and upcoming surface missions (rovers and landers) and orbiters in Mars. Daily values for the TOA UV conditions at the rover Curiosity location, as well as for the NASA Insight mission in 2016, and ESA/Russia ExoMars mission in 2018 are provided.

  • 25.
    Downs, R.T.
    et al.
    University of Arizona, Department of Geosciences, University of Arizona, Tucson, Department of Geology, University of Arizona, Tucson.
    Martin-Torres, Javier
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    Determining Mineralogy on Mars with the CheMin X-Ray Diffractometer2015In: Elements, ISSN 1811-5209, E-ISSN 1811-5217, Vol. 11, no 1, 45-50 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The rover Curiosity is conducting X-ray diffraction experiments on the surface of Mars using the CheMin instrument. The analyses enable identification of the major and minor minerals, providing insight into the conditions under which the samples were formed or altered and, in turn, into past habitable environments on Mars. The CheMin instrument was developed over a twenty-year period, mainly through the efforts of scientists and engineers from NASA and DOE. Results from the first four experiments, at the Rocknest, John Klein, Cumberland, and Windjana sites, have been received and interpreted. The observed mineral assemblages are consistent with an environment hospitable to Earth-like life, if it existed on Mars.

  • 26.
    Echle, Georg
    et al.
    Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Institut für Meteorologie und Klimaforschung Karlsruhe.
    Clarmann, Thomas von
    Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Institut für Meteorologie und Klimaforschung Karlsruhe.
    Dudhia, Anu
    Atmospheric, Oceanic, and Planetary Physics, Oxford University.
    Flaud, Jean-Marie
    Laboratoire de Photophysique Moléculaire, CNRS, Université Paris-Sud, Orsay.
    Funke, Bernd
    Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Institut für Meteorologie und Klimaforschung Karlsruhe.
    Glatthor, Norbert
    Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Institut für Meteorologie und Klimaforschung Karlsruhe.
    Kerridge, Brian
    Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Oxfordshire.
    López-Puertas, Manuel
    Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía CSIC, Granada.
    Martin-Torres, Javier
    Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Institut für Meteorologie und Klimaforschung Karlsruhe.
    Stiller, Gabriele P.
    Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Institut für Meteorologie und Klimaforschung Karlsruhe.
    Optimized spectral microwindows for data analysis of the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding on the Environmental Satellite2000In: Applied Optics, ISSN 1559-128X, E-ISSN 2155-3165, Vol. 39, no 30, 5531- p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For data analysis of the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS) atmospheric limb emission spectroscopic experiment on Environmental Satellite microwindows, i.e., small spectral regions for data analysis, have been defined and optimized. A novel optimization scheme has been developed for this purpose that adjusts microwindow boundaries such that the total retrieval error with respect to measurement noise, parameter uncertainties, and systematic errors is minimized. Dedicated databases that contain optimized microwindows for retrieval of vertical profiles of pressure and temperature, H2O, O3, HNO3, CH4, N2O, and NO2 have been generated. Furthermore, a tool for optimal selection of subsets of predefined microwindows for specific retrieval situations has been provided. This tool can be used further for estimating total retrieval errors for a selected microwindow subset. It has been shown by use of this tool that an altitude-dependent definition of microwindows is superior to an altitude-independent definition. For computational efficiency a dedicated microwindow-related list of spectral lines has been defined that contains only those spectral lines that are of relevance for MIPAS limb sounding observations.

  • 27.
    Ekman, Jonas
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Antti, Marta-Lena
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Martin-Torres, Javier
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    Emami, Reza
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    Törlind, Peter
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Kuhn, Thomas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    Nilsson, Hans
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Minami, Ichiro
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Öhrwall Rönnbäck, Anna
    Gustafsson, Magnus
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Zorzano Mier, Maria-Paz
    Milz, Mathias
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    Grahn, Mattias
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Chemical Engineering.
    Parida, Vinit
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Behar, Etienne
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering.
    Wolf, Veronika
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    Dordlofva, Christo
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Mendaza de Cal, Maria Teresa
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    Jamali, Maryam
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    Roos, Tobias
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    Ottemark, Rikard
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    Nieto, Chris
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    Soria Salinas, Álvaro Tomás
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    Vázquez Martín, Sandra
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    Nyberg, Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Neikter, Magnus
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Lindwall, Angelica
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Fakhardji, Wissam
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Projekt: Rymdforskarskolan2015Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    The Graduate School of Space Technology

  • 28.
    Farley, K.A.
    et al.
    Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology.
    Malespin, C.
    NASA Goddard Space Flight Center.
    Mahaffy, P.
    NASA Goddard Space Flight Center.
    Grotzinger, J.P.
    Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology.
    Vasconcelos, P.M.
    School of Earth Sciences, University of Queensland, Brisbane.
    Milliken, R.E.
    Department of Geological Sciences, Brown University, Providence.
    Malin, M.
    Malin Space Science Systems.
    Edgett, K.S.
    Malin Space Science Systems.
    Pavlov, A.A.
    NASA Goddard Space Flight Center.
    Hurowitz, J.A.
    Department of Geosciences, Stony Brook University.
    Grant, J.A.
    Center for Earth and Planetary Studies, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution, Washington.
    Miller, H.B.
    Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology.
    Arvidson, R.
    Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Washington University, St. Louis.
    Beegle, L.
    Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena.
    Calef, F.
    Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena.
    Conrad, P.G.
    NASA Goddard Space Flight Center.
    Dietrich, W.E.
    Earth and Planetary Science Department, University of California, Berkeley.
    Eigenbrode, J.
    NASA Goddard Space Flight Center.
    Gellert, R.
    Department of Physics, University of Guelph, Ontario.
    Gupta, S.
    Department of Earth Science and Engineering, Imperial College London.
    Hamilton, V.
    Southwest Research Institute, Boulder.
    Hassler, D.M.
    Southwest Research Institute, Boulder.
    Lewis, K.W.
    Department of Geosciences, Princeton University, New Jersey.
    McLennan, S.M.
    Department of Geosciences, Stony Brook University.
    Ming, D.
    NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston.
    Wimmer-Schweingruber, R.F.
    University of Kiel.
    In situ radiometric and exposure age dating of the martian surface2014In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 343, no 6169, 1247166Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We determined radiogenic and cosmogenic noble gases in a mudstone on the floor of Gale Crater. A K-Ar age of 4.21 ± 0.35 billion years represents a mixture of detrital and authigenic components and confirms the expected antiquity of rocks comprising the crater rim. Cosmic-ray-produced 3He, 21Ne, and 36Ar yield concordant surface exposure ages of 78 ± 30 million years. Surface exposure occurred mainly in the present geomorphic setting rather than during primary erosion and transport. Our observations are consistent with mudstone deposition shortly after the Gale impact or possibly in a later event of rapid erosion and deposition. The mudstone remained buried until recent exposure by wind-driven scarp retreat. Sedimentary rocks exposed by this mechanism may thus offer the best potential for organic biomarker preservation against destruction by cosmic radiation.

  • 29.
    Freissinet, C.
    et al.
    Solar System Exploration Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland.
    Glavin, D.P.
    Solar System Exploration Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland.
    Mahaffy, P.R.
    Solar System Exploration Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland.
    Miller, K.E.
    Department of Earth, Atmospheric and Planetary Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge.
    Eigenbrode, J.L.
    Solar System Exploration Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland.
    Summons, R.E.
    Department of Earth, Atmospheric and Planetary Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge.
    Brunner, A.E.
    Solar System Exploration Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland.
    Buch, A.
    Laboratoire de Génie des Procédés et les Matériaux, Ecole Centrale Paris.
    Szopa, C.
    Laboratoire Atmosphères, Milieux, Observations Spatiales, Univ. Pierre et Marie Curie, Univ. Versailles Saint-Quentin & CNRS, Paris.
    Archer Jr., P.D.
    Jacobs Technology, NASA Johnson Space Center.
    Franz, H.B.
    Solar System Exploration Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland.
    Atreya, S.K.
    Department of Atmospheric, Oceanic and Space Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor.
    Brinckerhoff, E.B.
    Solar System Exploration Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland.
    Cabane, M.
    Laboratoire Atmosphères, Milieux, Observations Spatiales, Univ. Pierre et Marie Curie, Univ. Versailles Saint-Quentin & CNRS, Paris.
    Coll, P.
    Laboratoire Interuniversitaire des Systèmes Atmosphériques, Université Paris-Est Créteil, Univ. Paris Diderot and CNRS.
    Conrad, P.G.
    Solar System Exploration Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland.
    Marais, D.J. Des
    Exobiology Branch, NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, Kalifornien.
    Dworkin, J.P.
    Solar System Exploration Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland.
    Fairén, A.G.
    Department of Astronomy, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York.
    François, P.
    Department of Atmospheric, Oceanic and Space Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor.
    Grotzinger, J.P.
    Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology.
    Kashyap, S.
    Solar System Exploration Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland.
    Kate, I.L. ten
    Earth Sciences Department, Utrecht University.
    Leshin, L.A.
    Department of Earth and Environmental Science and School of Science, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York.
    Malespin, C.A.
    Solar System Exploration Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland.
    Martin-Torres, Javier
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    Zorzano, María-Paz
    Centro de Astrobiologia, INTA-CSIC, Madrid.
    Organic molecules in the Sheepbed Mudstone, Gale Crater, Mars2015In: Journal of Geophysical Research - Planets, ISSN 2169-9097, E-ISSN 2169-9100, Vol. 120, no 3, 495-514 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument [Mahaffy et al., 2012] onboard the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Curiosity rover is designed to conduct inorganic and organic chemical analyses of the atmosphere and the surface regolith and rocks to help evaluate the past and present habitability potential of Mars at Gale Crater [Grotzinger et al., 2012]. Central to this task is the development of an inventory of any organic molecules present to elucidate processes associated with their origin, diagenesis, concentration and long-term preservation. This will guide the future search for biosignatures [Summons et al., 2011]. Here we report the definitive identification of chlorobenzene (150–300 parts per billion by weight (ppbw)) and C2 to C4 dichloroalkanes (up to 70 ppbw) with the SAM gas chromatograph mass spectrometer (GCMS), and detection of chlorobenzene in the direct evolved gas analysis (EGA) mode, in multiple portions of the fines from the Cumberland drill hole in the Sheepbed mudstone at Yellowknife Bay. When combined with GCMS and EGA data from multiple scooped and drilled samples, blank runs and supporting laboratory analog studies, the elevated levels of chlorobenzene and the dichloroalkanes cannot be solely explained by instrument background sources known to be present in SAM. We conclude that these chlorinated hydrocarbons are the reaction products of martian chlorine and organic carbon derived from martian sources (e.g. igneous, hydrothermal, atmospheric, or biological) or exogenous sources such as meteorites, comets or interplanetary dust particles.

  • 30.
    Freissinet, Caroline
    et al.
    NASA Goddard Space Flight Center.
    McAdam, Amy
    NASA Goddard Space Flight Center.
    Archer, Doug
    NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston.
    Buch, Arnaud
    Ecole Centrale Paris, Chatenay-Malabry.
    Eigenbrode, Jen
    NASA Goddard Space Flight Center.
    Franz, Heather
    NASA Goddard Space Flight Center.
    Glavin, Daniel
    NASA Goddard Space Flight Center.
    Ming, Doug
    NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston.
    Navarro-Gonzalez, Rafael
    Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
    Steele, Andrew
    Carnegie Institution of Washington, Washington, DC..
    Stern, Jen
    NASA Goddard Space Flight Center.
    Mahaffy, Paul
    NASA Goddard Space Flight Center.
    Martin-Torres, Javier
    Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC-INTA), Madrid.
    Detection of reduced sulfur and other S-bearing species evolved from Rocknest sample in the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) experiment2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 31.
    Funke, Bernd
    et al.
    Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía CSIC, Granada.
    López-Puertas, M.
    Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía CSIC, Granada.
    Stiller, G.
    Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía CSIC, Granada.
    Clarmann, T. Von
    Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía CSIC, Granada.
    Martin-Torres, Javier
    Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía CSIC, Granada.
    New non-LTE retrieval method for atmospheric parameters from MIPAS/ENVISAT emission spectra at 5.3 μm2002In: Proceedings of SPIE, the International Society for Optical Engineering, ISSN 0277-786X, E-ISSN 1996-756X, Vol. 4539, 396-405 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Atmospheric emissions at 5.3 μm will be measured by the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS), a high-resolution limb sounder on board the European polar platform ENVISAT, scheduled to be launched in 2001. Measured spectra at 5.3 μm contain information on important atmospheric quantities such as NO volume mixing ratio, thermospheric temperature, and chemical NO production rates. However, the scientific analysis of this spectral region has to deal with complex non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (non-LTE) effects. A conventional non-LTE retrieval approach using ab initio vibrational temperatures cannot be applied due to rotational and spin-orbit non-LTE of NO in the thermosphere, and the dependence of NO state populations on the NO abundance itself caused by chemical excitations. An innovative non-LTE retrieval method enabling the treatment of vibrational, rotational, and spin non-LTE as well as a dependence of the non-LTE state distribution on the retrieval target quantities has thus been developed for the MIPAS data analysis. The ability of the developed non-LTE inversion tool to retrieve NO abundance profiles, thermospheric temperature profiles, and NO mean production rates by NO2 photolysis in the stratosphere and N+O2 combination in the thermosphere is demonstrated by means of a feasibility study.

  • 32.
    Gardner, J.L.
    et al.
    Stewart Radiance Laboratory, Bedford.
    Funke, B.
    Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía CSIC, Granada.
    Mlynczak, M.G.
    Science Directorate, NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton.
    López-Puertas, M.
    Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía CSIC, Granada.
    Martin-Torres, Javier
    Analytical Services and Materials Inc., Hampton.
    III, J.M. Russell
    Center for Atmospheric Sciences, Hampton University.
    Miller, S.M.
    Air Force Research Laboratory, Space Vehicles Directorate, Hanscom Air Force Base, Massachusetts.
    Sharma, R.D.
    Air Force Research Laboratory, Space Vehicles Directorate, Hanscom Air Force Base, Massachusetts.
    Winick, J.R.
    Air Force Research Laboratory, Space Vehicles Directorate, Hanscom Air Force Base, Massachusetts.
    Comparison of nighttime nitric oxide 5.3 μm emissions in the thermosphere measured by MIPAS and SABER2007In: Journal of Geophysical Research - Space Physics, ISSN 2169-9380, E-ISSN 2169-9402, Vol. 112, no A10Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A comparative study of nitric oxide (NO) 5.3 μm emissions in the thermosphere measured by the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS) spectrometer and the Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry (SABER) radiometer satellite instruments was conducted for nighttime data collected on 14 June 2003. The agreement between the data sets was very good, within ∼25% over the entire latitude range studied from −58° to + 4°. The MIPAS and SABER data were inverted to retrieve NO volume emission rates. Spectral fitting of the MIPAS data was used to determine the NO(v = 1) rotational and spin-orbit temperatures, which were found to be in nonlocal thermodynamic equilibrium (non-LTE) above 110 km. Near 110 km the rotational and spin-orbit temperatures converged, indicating the onset of equilibrium in agreement with the results of non-LTE modeling. Because of the onset of equilibrium the NO rotational and spin-orbit temperatures can be used to estimate the kinetic temperature near 110 km. The results indicate that the atmospheric model NRLMSISE-00 underestimates the kinetic temperature near 110 km for the locations investigated. The SABER instrument 5.3 μm band filter cuts off a significant fraction of the NO(Δv = 1) band, and therefore modeling of NO is necessary to predict the total band radiance. The needed correction factors were directly determined from the MIPAS data, providing validation of the modeled values used in SABER operational data processing. The correction factors were applied to the SABER data to calculate densities of NO(v = 1). A feasibility study was also conducted to investigate the use of NO 5.3 μm emission data to derive NO(v = 0) densities in the thermosphere.

  • 33.
    Gellert, Uwe
    et al.
    Universität Hamburg, Freie Universität Berlin.
    III, Benton Clark
    Space Science Institute, Boulder, Colorado.
    Martin-Torres, Javier
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    In Situ Compositional Measurements of Rocks and Soils with the Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometer on NASA's Mars Rovers2015In: Elements, ISSN 1811-5209, E-ISSN 1811-5217, Vol. 11, no 1, 39-44 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometer (APXS) is a soda can–sized, arm-mounted instrument that measures the chemical composition of rocks and soils using X-ray spectroscopy. It has been part of the science payload of the four rovers that NASA has landed on Mars. It uses 244Cm sources for a combination of PIXE and XRF to quantify 16 elements. So far, about 700 Martian samples from about 50 km of combined traverses at the four landing sites have been documented. The compositions encountered range from unaltered basaltic rocks and extensive salty sandstones to nearly pure hydrated ferric sulfates and silica-rich subsurface soils. The APXS is used for geochemical reconnaissance, identification of rock and soil types, and sample triage. It provides crucial constraints for use with the mineralogical instruments. The APXS data set allows the four landing sites to be compared with each other and with Martian meteorites, and it provides ground truth measurements for comparison with orbital observations.

  • 34.
    Goetz, Walter
    et al.
    Max-Planck-Institut für Solar System Research.
    Madsen, Morten B.
    Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen.
    Edgett, Kenneth S.
    Malin Space Science Systems, San Diego.
    Clark, Benton C.
    Space Science Institute, Boulder, Colorado.
    Meslin, Pierre-Yves
    IRAP, CNRS/UPS, Toulouse.
    Blaney, Diana L.
    Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena.
    Bridges, Nathan
    Applied Physics Laboratory, Laurel, Maryland.
    Fisk, Martin
    University of Oregon, Corvallis, Oregon.
    Hviid, Stubbe F.
    DLR, Berlin.
    Kocurek, Gary
    University of Texas, Austin.
    Lasue, Jeremie
    IRAP, CNRS/UPS, Toulouse.
    Maurice, Sylvestre
    IRAP, CNRS/UPS, Toulouse.
    Newsom, Horton
    University of New Mexico, Albuquerque.
    Renno, Nilton
    University of Michigan.
    Rubin, David M.
    U.S. Geological Survey, Flagstaff.
    Sullivan, Robert
    Cornell University, Ithaca.
    Wiens, Roger C.
    Los Alamos National Laboratory.
    Martin-Torres, Javier
    Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC-INTA), Madrid.
    Compositional Variations of Rocknest Sand, Gale Crater, Mars2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 35.
    Grotzinger, J.P.
    et al.
    California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology.
    Crisp, J.A.
    Indiana University, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena.
    Vasavada, Ashwin
    Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena.
    Martin-Torres, Javier
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    Curiosity's Mission of Exploration at Gale Crater, Mars2015In: Elements, ISSN 1811-5209, E-ISSN 1811-5217, Vol. 11, no 1, 19-26 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Landed missions to the surface of Mars have long sought to determine the material properties of rocks and soils encountered during the course of surface exploration. Increasingly, emphasis is placed on the study of materials formed or altered in the presence of liquid water. Placed in the context of their geological environment, these materials are then used to help evaluate ancient habitability. The Mars Science Laboratory mission—with its Curiosity rover—seeks to establish the availability of elements that may have fueled microbial metabolism, including carbon, hydrogen, sulfur, nitrogen, phosphorus, and a host of others at the trace element level. These measurements are most valuable when placed in a geological framework of ancient environments as interpreted from mapping, combined with an understanding of the petrogenesis of the igneous rocks and derived sedimentary materials. In turn, the analysis of solid materials and the reconstruction of ancient environments provide the basis to assess past habitability.

  • 36.
    Grotzinger, J.P.
    et al.
    Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology.
    Sumner, D.Y.
    Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, University of California, Davis.
    Kah, L.C.
    Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, University of Tennessee, Knoxville.
    Stack, K.
    Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology.
    Gupta, S.
    Department of Earth Science and Engineering, Imperial College London.
    Edgar, L.
    School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University.
    Rubin, D.
    U.S. Geological Survey, Santa Cruz.
    Lewis, K.
    Department of Geosciences, Princeton University, New Jersey.
    Schieber, J.
    Indiana University, Department of Geological Sciences, Bloomington.
    Mangold, N.
    Laboratoire Planétologie et Géodynamique de Nantes, LPGN/CNRS and Université de Nantes.
    Milliken, R.
    Department of Geological Sciences, Brown University, Providence.
    Conrad, P.G.
    NASA Goddard Space Flight Center.
    DesMarais, D.
    Department of Space Sciences, NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field.
    Farmer, J.
    School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, Tempe.
    Siebach, K.
    Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology.
    III, F. Calef
    Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena.
    Hurowitz, J.
    Department of Geosciences, State University of New York, Stony Brook.
    McLennan, S.M.
    Department of Geosciences, State University of New York, Stony Brook.
    Ming, D.
    Jacobs Technology, NASA Johnson Space Center.
    Vaniman, D.
    Planetary Science Institute, Tucson.
    Crisp, J.
    Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena.
    Vasavada, A.
    Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena.
    Edgett, K.S.
    Malin Space Science Systems.
    Malin, M.
    Malin Space Science Systems.
    Blake, D.
    Department of Space Sciences, NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field.
    Yingst, A
    Planetary Science Institute, Tucson.
    A habitable fluvio-lacustrine environment at Yellowknife Bay, Gale Crater, Mars2014In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 343, no 6169, 1242777Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Curiosity rover discovered fine-grained sedimentary rocks, which are inferred to represent an ancient lake and preserve evidence of an environment that would have been suited to support a martian biosphere founded on chemolithoautotrophy. This aqueous environment was characterized by neutral pH, low salinity, and variable redox states of both iron and sulfur species. Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, sulfur, nitrogen, and phosphorus were measured directly as key biogenic elements; by inference, phosphorus is assumed to have been available. The environment probably had a minimum duration of hundreds to tens of thousands of years. These results highlight the biological viability of fluvial-lacustrine environments in the post-Noachian history of Mars.

  • 37.
    Gómez-Elvira, J.
    et al.
    Centro de Astrobiologia, INTA-CSIC, Madrid.
    Armiens, C.
    Centro de Astrobiologia, INTA-CSIC, Madrid.
    Castañer, L.
    Universidad Politécnica de Cataluña.
    Domínguez, M.
    Universidad Politécnica de Cataluña.
    Genzer, M.
    FMI-Arctic Research Centre, Sodankylä.
    Gómez, F.
    Centro de Astrobiologia, INTA-CSIC, Madrid.
    Haberle, R.
    NASA Ames Research Center.
    Harri, A. M.
    FMI-Arctic Research Centre, Sodankylä.
    Jiménez, V.
    Universidad Politécnica de Cataluña.
    Kahanpää, H.
    FMI-Arctic Research Centre, Sodankylä.
    Kowalski, L.
    Universidad Politécnica de Cataluña.
    Lepinette, A.
    Centro de Astrobiologia, INTA-CSIC, Madrid.
    Martín, J.
    Centro de Astrobiologia, INTA-CSIC, Madrid.
    Martínez-Frías, J.
    Centro de Astrobiologia, INTA-CSIC, Madrid.
    McEwan, I.
    Ashima Research, Pasadena.
    Mora, L.
    Centro de Astrobiologia, INTA-CSIC, Madrid.
    Moreno, J.
    EADS-CRISA.
    Navarro, S.
    Centro de Astrobiologia, INTA-CSIC, Madrid.
    Pablo, M. A. De
    Universidad de Alcalá de Henares.
    Peinado, V.
    Centro de Astrobiologia, INTA-CSIC, Madrid.
    Peña, A.
    EADS-CRISA.
    Polkko, J.
    FMI-Arctic Research Centre, Sodankylä.
    Ramos, M.
    Universidad de Alcalá de Henares.
    Renno, N. O.
    Michigan University.
    Ricart, J.
    Universidad Politécnica de Cataluña.
    Zorzano, María Paz
    Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC-INTA).
    Martin-Torres, Javier
    Centro de Astrobiologia, INTA-CSIC, Madrid.
    REMS: The environmental sensor suite for the Mars Science Laboratory rover2012In: Space Science Reviews, ISSN 0038-6308, E-ISSN 1572-9672, Vol. 170, no 1-4, 583-640 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Rover Environmental Monitoring Station (REMS) will investigate environmental factors directly tied to current habitability at the Martian surface during the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission. Three major habitability factors are addressed by REMS: the thermal environment, ultraviolet irradiation, and water cycling. The thermal environment is determined by a mixture of processes, chief amongst these being the meteorological. Accordingly, the REMS sensors have been designed to record air and ground temperatures, pressure, relative humidity, wind speed in the horizontal and vertical directions, as well as ultraviolet radiation in different bands. These sensors are distributed over the rover in four places: two booms located on the MSL Remote Sensing Mast, the ultraviolet sensor on the rover deck, and the pressure sensor inside the rover body. Typical daily REMS observations will collect 180 minutes of data from all sensors simultaneously (arranged in 5 minute hourly samples plus 60 additional minutes taken at times to be decided during the course of the mission). REMS will add significantly to the environmental record collected by prior missions through the range of simultaneous observations including water vapor; the ability to take measurements routinely through the night; the intended minimum of one Martian year of observations; and the first measurement of surface UV irradiation. In this paper, we describe the scientific potential of REMS measurements and describe in detail the sensors that constitute REMS and the calibration procedures. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  • 38.
    Gõmez-Elvira, Javier
    et al.
    Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC-INTA), Torrejõn de Ardoz, Madrid.
    Armiens, Carlos
    Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC-INTA), Torrejõn de Ardoz, Madrid.
    Carrasco, Isaias
    Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC-INTA), Torrejõn de Ardoz, Madrid.
    Genzer, Maria
    Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki.
    Gómez, Felipe
    Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC-INTA), Torrejõn de Ardoz, Madrid.
    Haberle, Robert M.
    NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA.
    Hamilton, Victoria E.
    Southwest Research Institute, Boulder, CO.
    Harri, Ari-Matti
    Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki.
    Kahanpää, Henrik
    Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki.
    Kemppinen, Osku
    Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki.
    Lepinette, Alain
    Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC - INTA), Torrejón de Ardoz, Madrid.
    Martin-Soler, Javier
    Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC-INTA), Torrejõn de Ardoz, Madrid.
    Martin-Torres, Javier
    Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC-INTA), Torrejõn de Ardoz, Madrid.
    Martínez-Frías, Jesús
    Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC-INTA), Torrejõn de Ardoz, Madrid.
    Mischna, Michael A.
    Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA.
    Mora, Luis
    Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC-INTA), Torrejõn de Ardoz, Madrid.
    Navarro, Sara
    Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC-INTA), Torrejõn de Ardoz, Madrid.
    Newman, Claire E.
    Ashima Research Inc.
    De Pablo, Miguel Ángel
    Universidad de Alcalá de Henares, Alcalá de Henares.
    Peinado, Verõnica
    Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC-INTA), Torrejõn de Ardoz, Madrid.
    Polkko, Jouni
    Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki.
    Rafkin, Scot C Randell
    Southwest Research Institute, Boulder, CO.
    Ramos, Miguel A.
    Universidad de Alcalá de Henares, Alcalá de Henares.
    Rennó, Nilton O.
    University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI.
    Richardson, Mark E.
    Ashima Research, Pasadena, CA.
    Rodríguez Manfredi, José Antonio
    Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC-INTA), Torrejõn de Ardoz, Madrid.
    Romeral Planellõ, Julio J.
    Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC-INTA), Torrejõn de Ardoz, Madrid.
    Sebastián, Eduardo M.
    Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC-INTA), Torrejõn de Ardoz, Madrid.
    De La Torre Juárez, Manuel
    Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena.
    Torres, Josefina
    Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC-INTA), Torrejõn de Ardoz, Madrid.
    Urquí, Roser
    Ingeniería de Sistemas Para la Defensa de España, Madrid.
    Vasavada, Ashwin R
    Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA.
    Verdasca, José
    Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC-INTA), Torrejõn de Ardoz, Madrid.
    Zorzano, María Paz
    Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC-INTA), Torrejõn de Ardoz, Madrid.
    Curiosity's rover environmental monitoring station: Overview of the first 100 sols2014In: Journal of Geophysical Research - Planets, ISSN 2169-9097, E-ISSN 2169-9100, Vol. 119, no 7, 1680-1688 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the first 100 Martian solar days (sols) of the Mars Science Laboratory mission, the Rover Environmental Monitoring Station (REMS) measured the seasonally evolving diurnal cycles of ultraviolet radiation, atmospheric pressure, air temperature, ground temperature, relative humidity, and wind within Gale Crater on Mars. As an introduction to several REMS-based articles in this issue, we provide an overview of the design and performance of the REMS sensors and discuss our approach to mitigating some of the difficulties we encountered following landing, including the loss of one of the two wind sensors. We discuss the REMS data set in the context of other Mars Science Laboratory instruments and observations and describe how an enhanced observing strategy greatly increased the amount of REMS data returned in the first 100 sols, providing complete coverage of the diurnal cycle every 4 to 6 sols. Finally, we provide a brief overview of key science results from the first 100 sols. We found Gale to be very dry, never reaching saturation relative humidities, subject to larger diurnal surface pressure variations than seen by any previous lander on Mars, air temperatures consistent with model predictions and abundant short timescale variability, and surface temperatures responsive to changes in surface properties and suggestive of subsurface layering. Key Points Introduction to the REMS results on MSL mission Overiview of the sensor information Overview of operational constraints

  • 39.
    Haberle, R. M.
    et al.
    NASA Ames Research Center.
    Gómez-Elvira, J.
    Centro de Astrobiologia, INTA-CSIC, Madrid.
    Juarez, M. de la Torre
    Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena.
    Harri, A.
    Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki.
    Hollingsworth, J. L.
    NASA Ames Research Center.
    Kahanpää, H.
    Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki.
    Kahre, M. A.
    NASA Ames Research Center.
    Lemmon, M.T.
    Texas A&M University, College Station.
    Martin-Torres, Javier
    Instituto Andaluz de Ciencias de la Tierra, Granada.
    Mischna, M.A.
    Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena.
    Moore, J.E.
    York University, Toronto.
    Newman, C.E.
    Ashima Research, Pasadena.
    Rafkin, S.C.
    Southwest Research Institute, Boulder.
    Renno, N.O.
    University of Michigan, Ann Arbor.
    Richardson, M.I.
    Ashima Research, Pasadena.
    Thomas, P.C.
    Cornell University, Ithaca.
    Vasavada, A.R.
    Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena.
    Wong, M.H.
    University of Michigan, Ann Arbor.
    Rodríguez-Manfredi, J.A.
    Centro de Astrobiologia, INTA-CSIC, Madrid.
    Secular Climate Change on Mars: An Update Using MSL Pressure Data2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The South Polar Residual Cap (SPRC) on Mars is an icy reservoir of CO2. If all the CO2 trapped in the SPRC were released to the atmosphere the mean annual global surface pressure would rise by ~20 Pa. Repeated MOC and HiRISE imaging of scarp retreat rates within the SPRC have led to the suggestion that the SPRC is losing mass. Estimates for the loss rate vary between 0. 5 Pa per Mars Decade to 13 Pa per Mars Decade. Assuming 80% of this loss goes directly into the atmosphere, and that the loss is monotonic, the global annual mean surface pressure should have increased between ~1-20 Pa since the Viking mission (19 Mars years ago). Surface pressure measurements by the Phoenix Lander only 2 Mars years ago were found to be consistent with these loss rates. Here we compare surface pressure data from the MSL mission with that from Viking Lander 2 (VL-2) to determine if the trend continues. We use VL-2 because it is at the same elevation as MSL (-4500 m). However, based on the first 100 sols of data there does not appear to be a significant difference between the dynamically adjusted pressures of the two landers. This result implies one of several possibilities: (1) the cap is not losing mass and the difference between the Viking and Phoenix results is due to uncertainties in the measurements; (2) the cap has lost mass between the Viking and Phoenix missions but it has since gone back to the cap or into the regolith; or (3) that our analysis is flawed. The first possibility is real since post-mission analysis of the Phoenix sensor has shown that there is a 3 (±2) Pa offset in the data and there may also be uncertainties in the Viking data. The loss/gain scenario for the cap seems unlikely since scarps continue retreating, and regolith uptake implies something unique about the past several Mars years. That our analysis is flawed is certainly possible owing to the very different environments of the Viking and MSL landers. MSL is at the bottom of a deep crater in the southern tropics (~5°S), whereas VL-2 is at a high latitude (~48°N) in the northern plains. And in spite of the fact that the two landers are at nearly identical elevations, they are in very different thermal environments (e.g., MSL is warm when VL-2 is cold), which can have a significant affect on pressures. For these reasons, our confidence in the comparison will increase as more MSL data become available. We will report the results up through sol 360 at the meeting.

  • 40.
    Haberle, R. M.
    et al.
    NASA Ames Research Center.
    Gõmez-Elvira, J.
    Centro de Astrobiologia, INTA-CSIC, Madrid.
    Juárez, M. De La Torre
    Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena.
    Harri, A. M.
    Finnish Meteorological Institute.
    Hollingsworth, J. L.
    NASA Ames Research Center.
    Kahanpää, H.
    Finnish Meteorological Institute.
    Kahre, M. A.
    NASA Ames Research Center.
    Lemmon, M.
    Department of Atmospheric Sciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas.
    Mischna, M.
    Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena.
    Martin-Torres, Javier
    Centro de Astrobiologia, Madrid.
    Moores, J. E.
    Department of Earth and Space Science and Engineering, York University.
    Newman, C.
    Ashima Research, Pasadena.
    Rafkin, S. C R
    Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, Texas.
    Rennõ, N.
    Department of Atmospheric, Oceanic and Space Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor.
    Richardson, M. I.
    Ashima Research, Pasadena.
    Rodríguez-Manfredi, J. A.
    Centro de Astrobiologia, INTA-CSIC, Madrid.
    Vasavada, A. R.
    Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena.
    Zorzano-Mier, M. P.
    Centro de Astrobiologia, INTA-CSIC, Madrid.
    Preliminary interpretation of the REMS pressure data from the first 100 sols of the MSL mission2014In: Journal of Geophysical Research, ISSN 0148-0227, E-ISSN 2156-2202, Vol. 119, no 3, 440-453 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We provide a preliminary interpretation of the Rover Environmental Monitoring Station (REMS) pressure data from the first 100 Martian solar days (sols) of the Mars Science Laboratory mission. The pressure sensor is performing well and has revealed the existence of phenomena undetected by previous missions that include possible gravity waves excited by evening downslope flows, relatively dust-free convective vortices analogous in structure to dust devils, and signatures indicative of the circulation induced by Gale Crater and its central mound. Other more familiar phenomena are also present including the thermal tides, generated by daily insolation variations, and the CO2 cycle, driven by the condensation and sublimation of CO2 in the polar regions. The amplitude of the thermal tides is several times larger than those seen by other landers primarily because Curiosity is located where eastward and westward tidal modes constructively interfere and also because the crater circulation amplifies the tides to some extent. During the first 100 sols tidal amplitudes generally decline, which we attribute to the waning influence of the Kelvin wave. Toward the end of the 100 sol period, tidal amplitudes abruptly increased in response to a nearby regional dust storm that did not expand to global scales. Tidal phases changed abruptly during the onset of this storm suggesting a change in the interaction between eastward and westward modes. When compared to Viking Lander 2 data, the REMS daily average pressures show no evidence yet for the 1-20 Pa increase expected from the possible loss of CO 2 from the south polar residual cap. Key Points REMS pressure sensor is operating nominally New phenomena have been discovered Familiar phenomena have been detected ©2014. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved.

  • 41.
    Hamilton, Victoria E.
    et al.
    Department of Space Studies, Southwest Research Institute.
    Vasavada, Ashwin R.
    Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena.
    Sebastián, Eduardo
    Centro de Astrobiologia, INTA-CSIC, Madrid.
    Juárez, Manuel De La Torre
    Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena.
    Ramos, Miguel
    Departamento de Física y Matemática, University of Alcalá.
    Armiens, Carlos
    Centro de Astrobiologia, INTA-CSIC, Madrid.
    Arvidson, Raymond E.
    Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Washington University, St. Louis.
    Carrasco, Isaías
    Centro de Astrobiologia, INTA-CSIC, Madrid.
    Christensen, Philip R.
    School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University.
    Pablo, Miguel A. De
    Departamento de Geología, Geografía y Medio Ambiente, University of Alcalá.
    Goetz, Walter
    Max-Planck-Institut für Solar System Research.
    Gõmez-Elvira, Javier
    Centro de Astrobiologia, INTA-CSIC, Madrid.
    Lemmon, Mark T.
    Department of Atmospheric Sciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas.
    Madsen, Morten B.
    Niels Bohr Institute, Copenhagen University.
    Martin-Torres, Javier
    Centro de Astrobiologia, INTA-CSIC, Madrid , Instituto Andaluz de Cienccias de la Tierra (CSIC-UGR), Grenada.
    Martínez-Frías, Jesús
    Centro de Astrobiologia, INTA-CSIC, Madrid , Instituto de Geociencias (CSIC-UCM), Ciudad Universitaria.
    Molina, Antonio
    Centro de Astrobiologia, INTA-CSIC, Madrid , Departamento de Física y Matemática, University of Alcalá.
    Palucis, Marisa C.
    Department of Earth, Planetary, and Space Sciences, University of California, Los Angeles.
    Rafkin, Scot C R
    Department of Space Studies, Southwest Research Institute.
    Richardson, Mark I.
    Ashima Research, Pasadena.
    Yingst, R. Aileen
    Planetary Science Institute, Tucson.
    Zorzano, María-Paz
    Centro de Astrobiologia, INTA-CSIC, Madrid.
    Observations and preliminary science results from the first 100 sols of MSL Rover Environmental Monitoring Station ground temperature sensor measurements at Gale Crater2014In: Journal of Geophysical Research, ISSN 0148-0227, E-ISSN 2156-2202, Vol. 119, no 4, 745-770 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We describe preliminary results from the first 100 sols of ground temperature measurements along the Mars Science Laboratory's traverse from Bradbury Landing to Rocknest in Gale. The ground temperature data show long-term increases in mean temperature that are consistent with seasonal evolution. Deviations from expected temperature trends within the diurnal cycle are observed and may be attributed to rover and environmental effects. Fits to measured diurnal temperature amplitudes using a thermal model suggest that the observed surfaces have thermal inertias in the range of 265-375?J m-2 K-1 s-1/2, which are within the range of values determined from orbital measurements and are consistent with the inertias predicted from the observed particle sizes on the uppermost surface near the rover. Ground temperatures at Gale Crater appear to warm earlier and cool later than predicted by the model, suggesting that there are multiple unaccounted for physical conditions or processes in our models. Where the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) descent engines removed a mobile layer of dust and fine sediments from over rockier material, the diurnal temperature profile is closer to that expected for a homogeneous surface, suggesting that the mobile materials on the uppermost surface may be partially responsible for the mismatch between observed temperatures and those predicted for materials having a single thermal inertia. Models of local stratigraphy also implicate thermophysical heterogeneity at the uppermost surface as a potential contributor to the observed diurnal temperature cycle. Key Points Diurnal ground temperatures vary with location Diurnal temperature curves are not well matched by a homogeneous thermal model GTS data are consistent with a varied stratigraphy and thermophysical properties.

  • 42.
    Harri, A. M.
    et al.
    Finnish Meteorological Institute, Division of Earth Observation.
    Genzer, M.
    Finnish Meteorological Institute, Division of Earth Observation.
    Kemppinen, O.
    Finnish Meteorological Institute, Division of Earth Observation.
    Kahanpää, H.
    Finnish Meteorological Institute, Division of Earth Observation.
    Gomez-Elvira, J.
    Centro de Astrobiología (CAB).
    Rodriguez-Manfredi, J. A.
    Centro de Astrobiología (CAB).
    Haberle, R.
    NASA Ames Research Center.
    Polkko, J.
    Finnish Meteorological Institute, Division of Earth Observation.
    Schmidt, W.
    Finnish Meteorological Institute, Division of Earth Observation.
    Savijärvi, H.
    Finnish Meteorological Institute, Division of Earth Observation.
    Kauhanen, J.
    Finnish Meteorological Institute, Division of Earth Observation.
    Atlaskin, E.
    Finnish Meteorological Institute, Division of Earth Observation.
    Richardson, M.
    Ashima Research, Pasadena.
    Siili, T.
    Finnish Meteorological Institute, Division of Earth Observation.
    Paton, M.
    Finnish Meteorological Institute, Division of Earth Observation.
    Juarez, M. De La Torre
    NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena.
    Newman, C.
    Ashima Research, Pasadena.
    Rafkin, S.
    Southwest Research Institute, Boulder.
    Lemmon, M. T.
    Texas A&M University.
    Mischna, M.
    NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena.
    Merikallio, S.
    Finnish Meteorological Institute, Division of Earth Observation.
    Haukka, H.
    Finnish Meteorological Institute, Division of Earth Observation.
    Martin-Torres, Javier
    Centro de Astrobiologia, INTA-CSIC, Madrid.
    Zorzano, María-Paz
    Centro de Astrobiología (CAB).
    Peinado, V.
    Centro de Astrobiología (CAB).
    Rennõ, N.
    University of Michigan.
    Pressure observations by the curiosity rover: Initial results2014In: Journal of Geophysical Research, ISSN 0148-0227, E-ISSN 2156-2202, Vol. 119, no 1, 82-92 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    REMS-P, the pressure measurement subsystem of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Rover Environmental Measurement Station (REMS), is performing accurate observations of the Martian atmospheric surface pressure. It has demonstrated high data quality and good temporal coverage, carrying out the first in situ pressure observations in the Martian equatorial regions. We describe the REMS-P initial results by MSL mission sol 100 including the instrument performance and data quality and illustrate some initial interpretations of the observed features. The observations show both expected and new phenomena at various spatial and temporal scales, e.g., the gradually increasing pressure due to the advancing Martian season signals from the diurnal tides as well as various local atmospheric phenomena and thermal vortices. Among the unexpected new phenomena discovered in the pressure data are a small regular pressure drop at every sol and pressure oscillations occurring in the early evening. We look forward to continued high-quality observations by REMS-P, extending the data set to reveal characteristics of seasonal variations and improved insights into regional and local phenomena. Key Points The performance and data quality of the REMS / MSL pressure observations. MSL pressure observations exhibit local phenomena of the Gale crater area. Small pressure oscillations possibly linked to gravity waves. ©2013. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved.

  • 43.
    Harri, A.-M.
    et al.
    Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki.
    Genzer, M.
    Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki.
    Kemppinen, O.
    Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki.
    Gomez-Elvira, J.
    Centro de Astrobiologia, Madrid.
    Haberle, R.
    NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field.
    Polkko, J.
    Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki.
    Savijärvi, H.
    Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki.
    Rennó, N.
    Department of Atmospheric, Oceanic and Space Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor.
    Rodriguez-Manfredi, J. A.
    Centro de Astrobiología (CAB).
    Schmidt, W.
    Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki.
    Richardson, M.
    Ashima Research, Pasadena.
    Siili, T.
    Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki.
    Paton, M.
    Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki.
    Torre-Juarez, M. De La
    NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena.
    Mäkinen, T.
    Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki.
    Newman, C.
    Ashima Research, Pasadena.
    Rafkin, S.
    Southwest Research Institute, Boulder.
    Mischna, M.
    NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena.
    Merikallio, S.
    Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki.
    Haukka, H.
    Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki.
    Martin-Torres, Javier
    Centro de Astrobiologia, Madrid.
    Komu, M.
    Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki.
    Zorzano, María-Paz
    Centro de Astrobiologia, Madrid.
    Peinado, V.
    Centro de Astrobiologia, Madrid.
    Vazquez, L.
    Department of Applied Mathematics, Complutense University of Madrid.
    Urqui, R.
    Centro de Astrobiología (CAB).
    Mars Science Laboratory relative humidity observations: Initial results2014In: Journal of Geophysical Research - Planets, ISSN 2169-9097, E-ISSN 2169-9100, Vol. 119, no 9, 2132-2147 p., 16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) made a successful landing at Gale crater early August 2012. MSL has an environmental instrument package called the Rover Environmental Monitoring Station (REMS) as a part of its scientific payload. REMS comprises instrumentation for the observation of atmospheric pressure, temperature of the air, ground temperature, wind speed and direction, relative humidity (REMS-H), and UV measurements. We concentrate on describing the REMS-H measurement performance and initial observations during the first 100 MSL sols as well as constraining the REMS-H results by comparing them with earlier observations and modeling results. The REMS-H device is based on polymeric capacitive humidity sensors developed by Vaisala Inc., and it makes use of transducer electronics section placed in the vicinity of the three humidity sensor heads. The humidity device is mounted on the REMS boom providing ventilation with the ambient atmosphere through a filter protecting the device from airborne dust. The final relative humidity results appear to be convincing and are aligned with earlier indirect observations of the total atmospheric precipitable water content. The water mixing ratio in the atmospheric surface layer appears to vary between 30 and 75 ppm. When assuming uniform mixing, the precipitable water content of the atmosphere is ranging from a few to six precipitable micrometers.

  • 44.
    Hassler, Donald M.
    et al.
    Southwest Research Institute, Boulder.
    Zeitlin, Cary
    Southwest Research Institute, Boulder.
    Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert F.
    Christian Albrechts University, Kiel.
    Ehresmann, Bent
    Southwest Research Institute, Boulder.
    Rafkin, Scot
    Southwest Research Institute, Boulder.
    Eigenbrode, Jennifer L.
    NASA Goddard Space Flight Center.
    Brinza, David E.
    Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena.
    Weigle, Gerald
    Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, Texas.
    Böttcher, Stephan
    Christian Albrechts University, Kiel.
    Böhm, Eckart
    Christian Albrechts University, Kiel.
    Burmeister, Soenke
    Christian Albrechts University, Kiel.
    Guo, Jingnan
    Christian Albrechts University, Kiel.
    Köhler, Jan
    Christian Albrechts University, Kiel.
    Martin, Cesar
    Christian Albrechts University, Kiel.
    Reitz, Guenther
    German Aerospace Center (DLR), Cologne.
    Cucinotta, Francis A.
    University of Nevada Las Vegas.
    Kim, Myung-Hee
    Universities Space Research Association, Houston, Texas.
    Grinspoon, David
    Denver Museum of Nature and Science, Denver, Colorado.
    Bullock, Mark A.
    Southwest Research Institute, Boulder.
    Posner, Arik
    NASA Headquarters, Washington.
    Gõmez-Elvira, Javier
    Centro de Astrobiologia, INTA-CSIC, Madrid.
    Vasavada, Ashwin
    Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena.
    Grotzinger, John P.
    Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena.
    Martin-Torres, Javier
    Centro de Astrobiología (CAB).
    Mars’ surface radiation environment measured with the Mars Science Laboratory’s Curiosity Rover2014In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 343, no 6169Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Radiation Assessment Detector (RAD) on the Mars Science Laboratory’s Curiosity rover began making detailed measurements of the cosmic ray and energetic particle radiation environment on the surface of Mars on 7 August 2012. We report and discuss measurements of the absorbed dose and dose equivalent from galactic cosmic rays and solar energetic particles on the martian surface for ~300 days of observations during the current solar maximum. These measurements provide insight into the radiation hazards associated with a human mission to the surface of Mars and provide an anchor point with which to model the subsurface radiation environment, with implications for microbial survival times of any possible extant or past life, as well as for the preservation of potential organic biosignatures of the ancient martian environment.

  • 45.
    Hassler, Donald M.
    et al.
    Southwest Research Institute, Boulder.
    Zeitlin, Cary
    Southwest Research Institute, Boulder.
    Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert F.
    Christian Albrechts University, Kiel.
    Ehresmann, Bent
    Southwest Research Institute, Boulder.
    Rafkin, Scot
    Southwest Research Institute, Boulder.
    Martin, Cesar
    Christian Albrechts University, Kiel.
    Boettcher, Stephan
    Christian Albrechts University, Kiel.
    Koehler, Jan
    Christian Albrechts University, Kiel.
    Guo, Jingnan
    Christian Albrechts University, Kiel.
    Brinza, David E.
    Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Kalifornien.
    Reitz, Guenther
    German Aerospace Center (DLR), Cologne.
    Posner, Arik
    NASA Headquarters, Washington.
    Martin-Torres, Javier
    Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC-INTA), Madrid.
    The Radiation Environment on the Martian Surface and during MSL’s Cruise to Mars2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 46.
    III, F.J. Calef
    et al.
    Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena.
    Clark, B.
    Space Science Institute.
    Goetz, W.
    Max-Planck-Institut für Solar System Research.
    Lasue, J.
    IRAP/CNRS.
    Martin-Torres, Javier
    Instituto Andaluz de Cienccias de la Tierra (CSIC-UGR), Grenada.
    Mier, M. Zorzano
    Centro de Astrobiologia, INTA-CSIC, Madrid.
    Assessing Gale Crater as a potential human mission landing site on Mars2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 47.
    Johnson, Jeffrey R.
    et al.
    Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, Laurel.
    III, J.F. Bell
    Arizona State University.
    Bender, S.
    Planetary Science Institute, Tucson.
    Blaney, D.
    Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Kalifornien.
    Cloutis, E.
    University of Winnipeg, Manitoba.
    DeFlores, L.
    Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Kalifornien.
    Ehlmann, B.
    California Institute of Technology, Pasadena.
    Gasnault, O.
    Université de Toulouse, CNRS, Institut de Recherche en Astrophysique et Planetologie, Toulouse.
    Gondet, B.
    Institut d’Astrophysique Spatiale, Batîment 12, 91405 Orsay Campus.
    Kinch, K.
    Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen.
    Lemmon, M.
    Texas A&M University, College Station.
    Mouélic, S. Le
    Université de Nantes, Laboratoire de Planétologie et Géodynamique.
    Maurice, S.
    Université de Toulouse, CNRS, Institut de Recherche en Astrophysique et Planetologie, Toulouse.
    Rice, M.
    California Institute of Technology, Pasadena.
    Wiens, R.C.
    Los Alamos National Laboratory.
    Martin-Torres, Javier
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    ChemCam passive reflectance spectroscopy of surface materials at the Curiosity landing site, Mars2015In: Icarus (New York, N.Y. 1962), ISSN 0019-1035, E-ISSN 1090-2643, Vol. 249, 74-92 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The spectrometers on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) ChemCam instrument were used in passive mode to record visible/near-infrared (400–840 nm) radiance from the martian surface. Using the onboard ChemCam calibration targets’ housing as a reflectance standard, we developed methods to collect, calibrate, and reduce radiance observations to relative reflectance. Such measurements accurately reproduce the known reflectance spectra of other calibration targets on the rover, and represent the highest spatial resolution (0.65 mrad) and spectral sampling (<1 nm) visible/near-infrared reflectance spectra from a landed platform on Mars. Relative reflectance spectra of surface rocks and soils match those from orbital observations and multispectral data from the MSL Mastcam camera. Preliminary analyses of the band depths, spectral slopes, and reflectance ratios of the more than 2000 spectra taken during the first year of MSL operations demonstrate at least six spectral classes of materials distinguished by variations in ferrous and ferric components. Initial comparisons of ChemCam spectra to laboratory spectra of minerals and Mars analog materials demonstrate similarities with palagonitic soils and indications of orthopyroxene in some dark rocks. Magnesium-rich “raised ridges” tend to exhibit distinct near-infrared slopes. The ferric absorption downturn typically found for martian materials at <600 nm is greatly subdued in brushed rocks and drill tailings, consistent with their more ferrous nature. Calcium-sulfate veins exhibit the highest relative reflectances observed, but are still relatively red owing to the effects of residual dust. Such dust is overall less prominent on rocks sampled within the “blast zone” immediately surrounding the landing site. These samples were likely affected by the landing thrusters, which partially removed the ubiquitous dust coatings. Increased dust coatings on the calibration targets during the first year of the mission were documented by the ChemCam passive measurements as well. Ongoing efforts to model and correct for this dust component should improve calibration of the relative reflectance spectra. This will be useful as additional measurements are acquired during the rover’s future examinations of hematite-, sulfate-, and phyllosilicate-bearing materials near the base of Mt. Sharp that are spectrally active in the 400–840 nm region.

  • 48.
    Kah, Linda C.
    et al.
    University of Tennessee, Knoxville.
    Martin-Torres, Javier
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    Images from Curiosity: A New Look at Mars2015In: Elements, ISSN 1811-5209, E-ISSN 1811-5217, Vol. 11, no 1, 27-32 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The surface of Mars has been sculpted by flowing water and shaped by wind. During the first two years of its exploration of Gale Crater, the Mars Science Laboratory mission's Curiosity rover has recorded abundant geologic evidence that water once existed on Mars both within the subsurface and, as least episodically, flowed on the land surface. And now, as Curiosity presses onward toward Mount Sharp, the complexity of the Martian surface is becoming increasingly apparent. In this paper, we review the nature of the surface materials and their stories, as seen through the eyes of Curiosity.

  • 49.
    Kahanpää, H.
    et al.
    Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki.
    Juarez, M. de la Torre
    Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena.
    Moores, J.
    York University/Earth and Space Science and Engineering, North York, Ontario.
    Rennó, N.
    University of Michigan, Ann Arbor.
    Navarro, S.
    Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC-INTA), Madrid.
    Haberle, R.
    NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field.
    Zorzano, M-P.
    Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC-INTA), Madrid.
    Martin-Torres, Javier
    Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC-INTA), Madrid.
    Verdasca, J.
    Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena.
    Lepinette, A.
    Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC-INTA), Madrid.
    Rodríguez-Manfredi, J.A.
    Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC-INTA), Madrid.
    Gomez-Elvira, J.
    Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC-INTA), Madrid.
    Convective Vortices at the MSL Landing Site2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 50.
    Kahanpää, Henrik
    et al.
    Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki.
    Juarez, Manuel de la Torre
    Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena.
    Moores, John
    York University, North York, Ontario.
    Rennó, Nilton
    University of Michigan, Ann Arbor.
    Navarro, Sara
    Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC-INTA), Madrid.
    Haberle, Robert
    NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field.
    Zorzano, María-Paz
    Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC-INTA), Madrid.
    Martin-Torres, Javier
    Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC-INTA), Madrid.
    Verdasca, Jose
    Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena.
    Lepinette, Alain
    Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC-INTA), Madrid.
    Rodriguez-Manfredi, Jose Antonio
    Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC-INTA), Madrid.
    Gomez-Elvira, Javier
    Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC-INTA), Madrid.
    Convective vortices in Gale crater2013Conference paper (Refereed)
1234 1 - 50 of 157
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