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  • 1.
    Flyghed, Janne
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Criminology.
    Hörnqvist, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Criminology.
    Bäcklin, Emy
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Criminology.
    Nordén, Elisabeth
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Criminology.
    Schoultz, Isabel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Criminology.
    Varifrån kommer hotet? - perspektiv på terrorism och radikalisering2011Report (Other academic)
  • 2. Rothe, Dawn L.
    et al.
    Schoultz, Isabel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Criminology.
    International Criminal Justice Law, Courts, and Punishment as Deterrent Mechanisms?2014In: Criminal Justice in International Society / [ed] Willem de Lint, Marinella Marmo, Nerida Chazal, London: Routledge, 2014, p. 151-165Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 3. Rothe, Dawn L.
    et al.
    Schoultz, Isabel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Criminology.
    La giustizia penale internazionale: un deterrente per i crimini di Stato?2012In: Studi sulla questione criminale, ISSN 1973-3984, Vol. 7, no 3, p. 43-58Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Criminology is not just focused on explaining the etiological factors behind crime commission; ultimately the goal is to find and empirically assess policies to control it. A criminology of the State is no different. Over the course of the past two decades, a growing number of scholars of State crime have devoted attention to and research on the issues of controls, yet, there have been relatively few articles that solely focus on the issue of international criminal justice and its ability, or lack thereof, to have a deterrent effect. However, many actors within the field of international criminal justice have heralded the deterrent power of the international criminal justice system and its ability to remove impunity for violations of international criminal law. Likewise, many practitioners and scholars routinely assume a probability at best, to an assumption of sureness, of a powerful deterrent effect for those in high ranking positions, including heads of State, that violate international criminal law. This article examines the potential deterrent effect of international criminal justice, as it pertains to State crime, which is grounded in criminological insights. To do so, we present an overview of the common assumptions of and criminological thinking in deterrence models. This is followed by highlighting those factors most strongly associated with a deterrent effect with State criminality and  international criminal justice. The article concludes with a critical examination of the potential of deterrence and how it fails to generate the effects for heads of State and other high ranking officials which so many international public actors, including the international criminal justice system, claims.

  • 4.
    Schoultz, Isabel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Criminology.
    Controlling the Swedish state: Studies on formal and informal bodies of control2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The dissertation aims to develop an understanding of the outcomes and limitations of formal and informal control of the Swedish state, and of the positions and strategies of the social agents involved in this field. The dissertation contributes with new perspectives on controls directed at the state, comparing various control organs (the Parliamentary Ombudsman, the Chancellor of Justice, the United Nations, the European Court of Human Rights and NGOs) and focusing on a wide range of wrongs and harms by the Swedish state.

    Paper I explores incidents for which the Swedish state and its agencies have been judged to be responsible by formal control organs. Paper II analyzes the accounts used by state representatives in judgments from formal control organs on issues related to migration. Paper III examines the characteristics of those who hold the state accountable via the European Court. Paper IV explores how formal and informal control organs frame problems in relation to the Swedish state’s treatment of residence permit applicants.

    The studies demonstrate that formal domestic control organs mainly direct criticisms at state agencies that focus on particular and procedural issues. International bodies of formal and particularly informal control publish criticisms of the state that focus on general and systemic issues. The dissertation highlights how control organs offer limited access to accountability, and how controls of the state may be perceived as both ineffective and counterproductive. Another conclusion is that the positions and strategies of the agents in this field are dependent on their specific capital (resources, knowledge and support). Control of the state is understood as a field of struggle for recognition and legitimacy, in which accusations are denied by representatives of the state and control organs balance their criticism in order to maintain credibility. Both informal control organs and those who hold the state accountable must adjust to the rules of the game or risk being defined out.

  • 5.
    Schoultz, Isabel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Criminology.
    European Court of Human Rights: accountability to whom?2014In: Towards a Victimology of State Crime / [ed] Dawn L. Rothe, David Kauzlarich, New York: Routledge, 2014, p. 173-190Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Schoultz, Isabel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Criminology.
    Seeking Asylum and Residence Permits in Sweden: Denial, Acknowledgement, and Bureaucratic Legitimacy2014In: Critical Criminology, ISSN 1205-8629, E-ISSN 1572-9877, Vol. 22, no 2, p. 219-235Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden’s reputation as one of the most encompassing welfare states in the world is maintained by means of a good self-image, not least in relation to refugee policies. At the same time, external authorities have been critical of Sweden’s handling of the process of seeking asylum. Drawing on Stanley Cohen’s concepts of denial and partial acknowledgment, the article explores how Swedish state officials respond to complaints regarding the process of seeking asylum and other forms of residence permit. The study analyzes judgments from the Parliamentary Ombudsman, the Chancellor of Justice and the European Court of Human Rights. The analysis suggests that even within the well-developed democratic state, denials constitute a form of account that may be utilized to maintain bureaucratic legitimacy. In addition, partial acknowledgments serve to present state actors as decent and self-correcting. At the same time these acknowledgements could be understood as constituting a means of avoiding moral censure.

  • 7.
    Schoultz, Isabel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Criminology.
    State Crime in the Global Age (2010) Redaktörer: Chambliss William J., Michalowski Raymond & Kramer Ronald C. Willian Publishing2011In: Nordisk Tidsskrift for Kriminalvidenskab, ISSN 0029-1528, Vol. 98, no 2, p. 102-106Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Schoultz, Isabel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Criminology.
    State Crime in the Street-Level Bureaucracy: Towards an Understanding of Crimes of the Welfare State2012In: International Criminal Justice Review, ISSN 1057-5677, E-ISSN 1556-3855, Vol. 22, no 3, p. 258-275Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    On the basis of two points of departure: (1) no state has clean hands and (2) the types of crime a state commits vary with state formations, this article explores cases where the Swedish state and its agencies have been held responsible for some form of wrongdoing. Drawing on a total of 8,561 judgments issued against the state by agencies of control (the Parliamentary Ombudsman, the Chancellor of Justice, and the European Court of Human Rights), the study finds that most cases of substantive and procedural crime committed by the state are related to the street-level bureaucracy, where state officials working in public sector agencies interact with citizens in the course of their everyday employment. Further, the study finds that most of the judgments revolve around issues of particular accountability relating to the individual interests of the complainants and that only a relatively small portion involve complaints against the state in relation to general policies or general conduct. One overall conclusion is that the crimes committed by the Swedish welfare state involve acts of negligence rather than purposeful acts of repression, and that the offences primarily involve procedural rather than substantive wrongs. The results are interpreted as a function of both how state bureaucracy works and of the limited ability of the existing control mechanisms.

  • 9.
    Schoultz, Isabel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Criminology.
    Staten under kontroll2012In: Kontrollens variationer / [ed] Lotta Pettersson, Tove Pettersson, Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2012, p. 239-260Chapter in book (Other academic)
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