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  • 1.
    Novembre, Giovanni
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. SISSA, Italy.
    Zanon, Marco
    Alma Mater Studiorum Univ Bologna, Italy.
    Morrison, India
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Ambron, Elisabetta
    SISSA, Italy; Univ Penn, PA 19104 USA.
    Bodily sensations in social scenarios: Where in the body?2019In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 14, no 6, article id e0206270Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bodily states are fundamental to emotions emergence and are believed to constitute the first step in the chain of events that culminate in emotional awareness. Recent works have shown that distinct topographical maps can be derived to describe how basic and more complex emotions are represented in the body. However, it is still unclear whether these bodily maps can also extend to emotions experienced specifically within social interactions and how these representations relate to basic emotions. To address this issue, we used the emBODY tool to obtain high-resolution bodily maps that describe the body activation and deactivation experienced by healthy participants when presented with social scenarios depicting establishment or loss of social bonds. We observed patterns of activation/deactivation for each single social scenario depending on the valence, but also a common activation of head, chest and deactivation of limbs for positive and negative social scenarios, respectively. Furthermore, we show that these maps are comparable to those obtained when taking the perspective of a third person, suggesting the existence of common body representation of social emotions for the self and other person evaluation. Finally, we showed that maps related to complex social scenarios are strongly correlated with bodily states experienced in basic emotions, suggesting that the patterns of body activation/ deactivation observed for social scenarios might arise from a complex interaction of the basic emotions that these experiences elicit.

  • 2.
    Patil, Indrajeet
    et al.
    Scuola Int Super Studi Avanzati, Italy; Harvard Univ, MA 02138 USA.
    Zanon, Marco
    Univ Bologna, Italy.
    Novembre, Giovanni
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Zangrando, Nicola
    Univ Udine, Italy.
    Chittaro, Luca
    Univ Udine, Italy.
    Silani, Giorgia
    Univ Vienna, Austria.
    Neuroanatomical basis of concern-based altruism in virtual environment2018In: Neuropsychologia, ISSN 0028-3932, E-ISSN 1873-3514, Vol. 116, p. 34-43Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Costly altruism entails helping others at a cost to the self and prior work shows that empathic concern (EC) for the well-being of distressed and vulnerable individuals is one of the primary motivators of such behavior. However, extant work has investigated costly altruism with paradigms that did not feature self-relevant and severe costs for the altruist and have solely focused on neurofunctional, and not neuroanatomical, correlates. In the current study, we used a contextually-rich virtual reality environment to study costly altruism and found that individuals who risked their own lives in the virtual world to try to save someone in danger had enlarged right anterior insula and exhibited greater empathic concern than those who did not. These findings add to the growing literature showing the role of caring motivation in promoting altruism and prosociality and its neural correlates in the right anterior insula.

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