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  • 1.
    Boeira, Felipe
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Software and Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Asplund, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Software and Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Barcellos, Marinho
    Univ Fed Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.
    Decentralized proof of location in vehicular Ad Hoc networks2019In: Computer Communications, ISSN 0140-3664, E-ISSN 1873-703X, Vol. 147, p. 98-110Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Future cooperative transportation systems will be highly dependent on correct situation awareness that can be established with the help of inter-vehicular communication. Location information from surrounding vehicles will most likely be used in such systems to make automated driving decisions, making it essential to guarantee location assurance. In this paper we propose Vouch+, which provides a scheme to improve trustworthiness of shared location information. The proposed scheme uses cryptographic primitives and mobility awareness to enable location proofs that work also in high-speed scenarios. Vouch+ takes a decentralized approach to establish trust in location information, but can also be used with future 5G infrastructure. The evaluation of Vouch+ using a synthetic dataset from the city of Cologne shows that using a decentralized approach is viable for cases where traffic is dense enough. In addition, simulation-based experiments show that Vouch+ is able to handle the high-mobility environment of vehicular networks and can counteract studied position-based attacks using reaction strategies.

  • 2.
    Boeira, Felipe
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Software and Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Asplund, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Software and Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Barcellos, Marinho P.
    Univ Fed Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.
    Mitigating Position Falsification Attacks in Vehicular Platooning2018In: 2018 IEEE VEHICULAR NETWORKING CONFERENCE (VNC), IEEE , 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As connected vehicles are envisioned to provide novel intelligent transportation systems, cyberattacks and security schemes are becoming an increasing concern. Several studies have shown that algorithms that make use of location information from other vehicles, such as vehicular platoon controllers, are vulnerable to message falsification attacks. Moreover, the ability for an attacking vehicle to appear as several vehicles through a so-called Sybil attack can significantly increase the severity of the attack. In this paper, we investigate how these attacks can be detected using Vouch location proof scheme (by identifying false location messages) and propose several reaction strategies to mitigate them. We also show through simulation that it is possible to prevent collisions by reacting appropriately to the false beacons in time while not reacting to false positives coming from the detector.

  • 3.
    Boeira, Felipe
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Software and Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Univ Fed Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil; Halmstad Univ, Sweden.
    Barcellos, Marinho P.
    Univ Fed Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.
    de Freitas, Edison P.
    Univ Fed Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.
    Vinel, Alexey
    Halmstad Univ, Sweden.
    Asplund, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Software and Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Effects of Colluding Sybil Nodes in Message Falsification Attacks for Vehicular Platooning2017In: 2017 IEEE VEHICULAR NETWORKING CONFERENCE (VNC), IEEE , 2017, p. 53-60Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper studies the impact of vulnerabilities associated with the Sybil attack (through falsification of multiple identities) and message falsification in vehicular platooning. Platooning employs Inter-Vehicular Communication (IVC) to control a group of vehicles. It uses broadcast information such as acceleration, position, and velocity to operate a longitudinal control law. Cooperation among vehicles allows platoons to reduce fuel consumption and risks associated with driver mistakes. In spite of these benefits, the use of network communication to control vehicles exposes a relevant attack surface that can be exploited by malicious actors. To carry out this study, we evaluate five scenarios to quantify the potential impact of such attacks, identifying how platoons behave under varying Sybil attack conditions and what are the associated safety risks. This research also presents the use of location hijacking attack. In this attack, innocent vehicles that are not part of a platoon are used as a way to create trust bond between the false identities and the physical vehicles. We demonstrate that the ability to create false identities increases the effectiveness of message falsification attacks by making them easier to deploy and harder to detect in time.

  • 4.
    Grimsdal, Gunnar
    et al.
    Omegapoint, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lundgren, Patrik
    Westermo Network Technologies, Stora Sundby, Sweden.
    Vestlund, Christian
    Sectra AB, Linköping, Sweden.
    Boeira, Felipe
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Software and Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Asplund, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Software and Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Can Microkernels Mitigate Microarchitectural Attacks?2019In: Secure IT Systems: Nordsec 2019 / [ed] Aslan Askarov, René Rydhof Hansen, Willard Rafnsson, Cham: Springer, 2019, p. 238-253Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Microarchitectural attacks such as Meltdown and Spectre have attracted much attention recently. In this paper we study how effective these attacks are on the Genode microkernel framework using three different kernels, Okl4, Nova, and Linux. We try to answer the question whether the strict process separation provided by Genode combined with security-oriented kernels such as Okl4 and Nova can mitigate microarchitectural attacks. We evaluate the attack effectiveness by measuring the throughput of data transfer that violates the security properties of the system. Our results show that the underlying side-channel attack Flush+Reload used in both Meltdown and Spectre, is effective on all investigated platforms. We were also able to achieve high throughput using the Spectre attack, but we were not able to show any effective Meltdown attack on Okl4 or Nova.

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