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  • 1.
    Agredo Chavez, Angelica Maria
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Gonzalez, Jaime
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Andersson, Kasper
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Leidzen, Jon
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Andersson, Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Petersson, Mats
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Sas, Gabriel
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Elfgren, Lennart
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Häggström, Jens
    Swedish Traffic Administration, Luleå, Sweden.
    Cracking and Fatigue of Heavy Loaded Prestressed Concrete Bridge in Sweden2022In: IABSE Symposium Prague 2022: Challenges for Existing and Oncoming Structures - Report, International Association for Bridge and Structural Engineering / [ed] František Wald; Pavel Ryjáček, Zürich: International Association for Bridge and Structural Engineering, 2022, p. 792-799Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A prestressed concrete bridge was built in 1963 with BBRV cables. It has three spans and a total length of 134.8 m. Due to mining activities the bridge was loaded with trucks with a total weight of 90 ton during 2012-2014 and from 2019. Crack development has been monitored manually and from 2020 with strain gauges and LVDTs.

    Cracks normally vary between 0.1 to 0.3 mm in width and grow in length with time. In November 2020 some of the strain gauges on the concrete showed alarming growth and the bridge was closed for traffic. Additional strain gauges were installed on vertical reinforcement bars and an assessment was carried out of the fatigue capacity of the bridge. It was found that the new strain gauges did not indicate any growth in strain and that the fatigue capacity was sufficient. The bridge could be opened again for traffic after being closed for five weeks. Monitoring drift in the strain gauges and fatigue are discussed.

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  • 2.
    Agredo Chavez, Angelica Maria
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Gonzalez, Jaime
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Elfgren, Lennart
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Sas, Gabriel
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Capacci, L.
    Politecnico di Milano, Milan, Italy.
    Biondini, F.
    Politecnico di Milano, Milan, Italy.
    Structural model updating of an existing concrete bridge based on load testing and monitoring data2023In: Life-Cycle of Structures and Infrastructure Systems / [ed] Fabio Biondini, Dan M. Frangopol, Taylor & Francis Group, 2023, Vol. 1, p. 3999-4006Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The backbone of European infrastructure was built after the end of the second World War and has reached, or is near to, the end of its nominal design life. This issue urges the development of structural assessment procedures that can provide infrastructure managers the information to make decisions for repairing, upgrading, or replacement. In this paper, a methodology based on load testing and Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) for the assessment of a 65- year-old prestressed concrete bridge located in Northern Sweden is presented. The retrieved data is used to develop and calibrate structural models with different levels of data completeness. The SHM procedure includes the evaluation of material properties by diagnostics, definition of the layout and installation of the instrumentation, test execution, and data analysis. A preliminary structural model is developed based only on the original design parameters, and it is sequentially updated with monitoring data retrieved during a performed proof loading test of the bridge.

  • 3.
    Agredo Chavez, Angelica Maria
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Gonzalez, Jaime
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Sas, Gabriel
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Elfgren, Lennart
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Bianchi, Silvia
    Politecnico di Milano, Milan, Italy.
    Biondini, Fabio
    Politecnico di Milano, Milan, Italy.
    Kukay, Brian
    Montana Technological University, Montana, United States.
    Available Tests to evaluate Residual Prestressing Forces in Concrete Bridges2022In: IABSE Symposium Prague 2022: Challenges for Existing and Oncoming Structures - Report, International Association for Bridge and Structural Engineering / [ed] František Wald; Pavel Ryjáček, International Association for Bridge and Structural Engineering, 2022, p. 1123-1131Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The reduction of the structural capacity and eventual collapse of existing concrete bridges is often related to the loss of the initial prestressing forces. This loss can be associated to immediate or time dependent factors such as elastic shortening, creep, relaxation, loading, and cracking, among others. In addition, environmental factors can lead to corrosion of the strands with the subsequent reduction of their area, loss of bond with the concrete and additional cracking which in turn will influence the value of the residual prestress force and the bridge capacity. Therefore, the evaluation of such losses is critical in the decision-making process of defining a financial and environmental cost optimized intervention strategies (e.g., strengthening or replacement). In this paper, a detailed literature review regarding destructive and non-destructive methods for measuring the residual force in prestressed concrete bridges is carried out and used to develop a database of existing experimental tests.

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  • 4.
    Agredo Chavez, Angelica Maria
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Ulfberg, Adrian
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Gonzalez-Libreros, Jaime
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Elfgren, Lennart
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Sas, Gabriel
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Data Validation of Strain-Based Monitoring Systems in Low Temperature Conditions, Case Study: The Kalix Bridge2023In: Building for the Future: Durable, Sustainable, Resilient - Proceedings of the fib Symposium 2023 - Volume 2 / [ed] Alper Ilki; Derya Çavunt; Yavuz Selim Çavunt, Springer, 2023, Vol. 2, p. 986-995Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Over the last decades, economic growth and sustained development have enforced the need to ensure reliable and long-lasting infrastructure network to guarantee serviceability and safety. Nevertheless, detrimental effects can lead over time to insufficient structural performance under increasing service loadings and extreme events. Hence, Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) arises as a solution to cope with the need of having timely and continuous data to assess the state of crucial structural assets, such as prestressed concrete bridges. On this matter, the validation of the retrieved data becomes essential for the risk-based decision making in the assessment of bridges, where selecting the most suitable monitoring system could allow to addressed main causes to the right phenomena of deterioration during the service life of the bridge. Consistently with these efforts, this paper deals with a comparative study between the data acquired by different strain-based sensors such as Fiber optic systems (FOS) and strain gauges that were installed to monitor a proof loading test developed on a 65-year-old balanced cantilever prestressed concrete bridge located in Northern Sweden. The monitored data led to establish main differences between emerging types of monitoring systems such as FOS to the well-based strain gauges when exposed to low temperature conditions. Conclusions regarding the influencing parameters between both retrieved data are drawn when evaluating the structural response under serviceability loading conditions is performed, supporting decision makers when different levels of structural assessment are required.

  • 5.
    Andersson, Emelie
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Jobs, Marit
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Elfgren, Lennart
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Biogeochemical and mechanical characterization of the landfill fraction generated by mechanical waste sorting2021In: Detritus, ISSN 2611-4127, Vol. 15, p. 120-135Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As the resource recovery from mixed waste streams are performed, new mixed waste streams are generated. Some of these waste streams does not fit well to existing waste management options, for example, they may hold a to low heating value to sustain combustion and they may have a too high carbon content to be accepted at non-hazardous landfills. Also various health and pollution risks may arise as well as practical handling issues due to the physical properties of such wastes. One such waste is the under sieve fraction generated when recovering metals and fuel from mixed waste streams using mechanical and magnetic separation tools. Such mechanical sorting is typically used for mixed wastes of different properties and particle sizes, such as houshold bulky wastes, construction and demolition waste, and at landfill mining materials. In this work, we examine the properties of one case of mechanical sorting of bulky wastes, including construction and demolition wastes. We analyse a broad spectrum of chemical, physical, and mechanical properties as well as some biological. Based on the data we develop recommendations for landfilling, what potential problems might arise and how to counteract them.

  • 6.
    Axelsson, Kennet B. E.
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Elfgren, Lennart
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Grennberg, Torsten
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Horrigmoe, Geir
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Johansson, Bernt
    Institutionen för Anläggningsteknik. Verksamhetsberättelse 1987/881988Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
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    FULLTEXT01
  • 7.
    Axelsson, Kennet B. E.
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Elfgren, Lennart
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Grennberg, Torsten
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Horrigmoe, Geir
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Johansson, Bernt
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Institutionen för Anläggningsteknik, Verksamhetsberättelse 1988/891989Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 8.
    Axelsson, Kennet B. E.
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Elfgren, Lennart
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Grennberg, Torsten
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Horrigmoe, Geir
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Johansson, Bernt
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Institutionen för Anläggningsteknik. Verksamhetsberättelse 1989/901990Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 9.
    Axelsson, Kennet B. E.
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Johansson, Bernt
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Elfgren, Lennart
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Grennberg, Torsten
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Horrigmoe, Geir
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Institutionen för Anläggningsteknik. Verksamhetsberättelse 1990/911991Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 10.
    Axelsson, Kenneth
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Elfgren, Lennart
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Bro1990In: Nationalencyclopedin, Höganäs: Bra Böcker , 1990, p. 320-324Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Bagge, Niklas
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Blanksvärd, Thomas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Sas, Gabriel
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Bernspång, Lars
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Täljsten, Björn
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Carolin, Anders
    Trafikverket, SE-972 42, Luleå, Sweden.
    Elfgren, Lennart
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Full-Scale Test to Failure of a Prestressed Concrete Bridge in Kiruna2014In: Nordic Concrete Research, ISSN 0800-6377, Vol. 50, p. 83-86Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To calibrate methods for condition assessment of prestressed concrete (PC) bridges, tests areplanned for a 50 year old five-span bridge with a length of 121 m in Kiruna in northern Sweden.Both non-destructive and destructive full-scale tests will be performed. This paper summarisesthe test programme, which comprises evaluation of the structural behaviour of the bridge, theresidual forces in the prestressed steel, methods for strengthening using carbon fibre reinforcedpolymers (CFRP) and the shear resistance of the bridge slab.

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  • 12.
    Bagge, Niklas
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Elfgren, Lennart
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Structural performance and failure loading of a 55 year-old prestressed concrete bridge2016In: Maintenance, Moniring, Safety, Risk and Resilience of Bridges and Bridge Networks / [ed] Tulio N. Bittencourt; Dan M. Frangopol; André T. Beck, London: CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group, , 2016, p. 2225-2232Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tests have been performed at service- and ultimate load levels of a 55 year-old 121.5 m long prestressed concrete bridge. The purpose was to acquire data for enhanced assessment and calibration of such methods. At service-load several truck overpasses and the dynamic response were particularly studied. Some conclusions were: (a) less stiff load-deflection behavior was obtained with a finite element (FE) analysis compared to measurements and (b) good agreement was obtained for predicted and tested dynamic characteristics. The focus in the destructive tests was on the overall bridge behavior and the ultimate load-carrying capacity of the bridge’s girders and slab. The results were: (a) combined flexure-shear failure of girders occurred after reinforcement yielding for a load indicating an appreciable safety margin in relation to code predictions and (b) good agreement was obtained between FE analysis and the ultimate response and capacity of the tested bridge

  • 13.
    Bagge, Niklas
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Nilimaa, Jonny
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Blanksvärd, Thomas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Bernspång, Lars
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Täljsten, Björn
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Elfgren, Lennart
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Sas, Gabriel
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering. Norut Northern Research Institute, Narvik.
    Tu, Yongming
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering. College of Civil Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing.
    Carolin, Anders
    Trafikverket, Trafikverket, Luleå.
    Performance of a prestressed concrete bridge loaded to failure2015In: IABSE Conference Geneva 2015: Structural Engineering: Providing Solutions to Global Challenges, Geneva: International Association for Bridge and Structural Engineering, 2015, p. 1088-1095Conference paper (Other academic)
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  • 14.
    Bagge, Niklas
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Nilimaa, Jonny
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Blanksvärd, Thomas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Elfgren, Lennart
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Instrumentation and Full-Scale Test of a Post-Tensioned Concrete Bridge2014In: Nordic Concrete Research, ISSN 0800-6377, Vol. 51, p. 63-83Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To meet new demands, existing bridges might be in need for repair, upgrading or replacement. To assist such efforts a 55-year-old post-tensioned concrete bridge has been comprehensively tested to calibrate methods for assessing bridges more robustly. The programme included strengthening, with two systems based on carbon fibre reinforced polymers (CFRPs), failure loading of the bridge’s girders and slab, and determination of post-tension cables’ condition and the material behaviour. The complete test programme and related instrumentation are summarised, and some general results are presented. The measurements address several current uncertainties, thereby providing foundations for both assessing existing bridges’ condition more accurately and future research.

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  • 15.
    Bagge, Niklas
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Nilimaa, Jonny
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Blanksvärd, Thomas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Täljsten, Björn
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Elfgren, Lennart
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Sundquist, Håkan
    Royal Institute of Technology.
    Carolin, Anders
    Trafikverket, Luleå.
    Assessment and failure test of a prestressed concrete bridge2017In: Life-Cycle of Engineering Systems: Emphasis on Sustainable Civil Infrastructure / [ed] Jaap Bakker; Dan M Frangopol; Klaas van Breugel, Leiden: CRC Press/Balkema , 2017, p. 1058-1063Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tests have been carried out at service- and ultimate load levels of a 55 year-old prestressed concrete girder bridge. The bridge, located in Kiruna, Sweden, was continuous in five spans with a total length of 121.5 m. The overall aim of the study was to determinate the accuracy of assessment methods for existing structures and to provide procedures for optimized assessment. Before the tests a 2D finite element (FE) analysis was performed to predict the behavior and load-carrying capacity of the bridge. In order to more accurately assess the bridge response a 3D FE model has now been developed. The actual loading history and material properties has been considered in the model. A Life Cycle Cost Assessment of the bridge has also been performed

  • 16.
    Bagge, Niklas
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Nilimaa, Jonny
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Elfgren, Lennart
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Evaluation of residual prestress force in a concrete girder bridge2016In: IABSE CONGRESS, STOCKHOLM, 2016: Challenges in Design and Construction of an Innovativeand Sustainable Built Environment / [ed] Lennart Elfgren, Johan Jonsson, Mats Karlsson, Lahja Rydberg-Forssbeck and Britt Sigfrid, CH - 8093 Zürich, Switzerland, 2016, p. 222-229Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When assessing the structural behaviour of prestressed concrete bridges, understanding the level of prestressing is crucial. However, for existing structures, this is usually an unknown parameter and the literature only describes a few methods of experimentally determining the residual prestress forces. For this paper, a non-destructive testing approach has been evaluated based on testing of a multi-span continuous girder bridge. The method, consisting of in-situ measurements in combination with finite element (FE) simulations, revealed prestress levels in the range 25 % to 82 % of the reinforcement steel yield strength, depending on the section tested. A comparison with theoretically calculated residual prestress forces, taking into account friction and timedependent losses, indicated values of the same order but with some inconsistencies.

  • 17.
    Bagge, Niklas
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Nilimaa, jonny
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Elfgren, Lennart
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    In-situ methods to determine residual prestress forces in concrete bridges2017In: Engineering structures, ISSN 0141-0296, E-ISSN 1873-7323, Vol. 135, p. 41-52Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Levels of residual prestress forces are key parameters when assessing the structural behaviour of existing prestressed concrete bridges. However, these parameters are often unknown and not easy to determine. To explore them, two existing non-destructive and destructive approaches have been further developed for practical application and demonstrated on a multi-span continuous girder bridge. The evaluation of the prestress forces was part of an extensive experimental programme aimed to calibrate and develop assessment methods. Due to the pursuit of practical applications for existing bridges, the main focus was on non-destructive methodology, combining experimental data and finite element modelling to obtain the residual prestress forces. Assuming that the initial prestress force corresponded to 85% of the characteristic 0.2% proof strength of the reinforcing steel, estimated losses in investigated sections ranged between 5 and 70%. However, determined residual prestress forces were generally higher than theoretically based estimates accounting for friction and time-dependent losses in the prestressing system. In addition to describing in detail the methods for prestress evaluation, this paper presents suggestions for improvements and further studies, based on experiences from the field tests.

  • 18.
    Bagge, Niklas
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Nilimaa, Jonny
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Enochsson, Ola
    Sabourova, Natalia
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Grip, Niklas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Mathematical Science.
    Emborg, Mats
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Elfgren, Lennart
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Lundmark, Tore
    Ramböll Sverige AB, Luleå.
    Tu, Yongming
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Protecting a five span prestressed bridge against ground deformations2015In: IABSE Conference Geneva 2015: Structural Engineering: Providing Solutions to Global Challenges, Geneva: International Association for Bridge and Structural Engineering, 2015, p. 255-262Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A 55 year-old, 121.5 m long, five span prestressed bridge was situated in the deformation zone close to a mine in Kiruna in northern Sweden. There was a risk for uneven ground deformations so the bridge was analyzed and monitored. Results and measures taken to ascertain the robustness of the bridge are presented.The analysis resulted in an estimate that the bridge could sustain 24 mm in uneven horizontal and 83 mm in uneven vertical displacement of the two supports of a span. To be able to sustain larger deformations, the columns of the bridge were provided with joints, where shims could be inserted to counteract the settlements. To accomplish this, each one of the 18 columns of the bridge was unloaded by help of provisional steel supports. The column was then cut and a new foot was mounted to it. This made it possible to lift each individual column with two jacks, when needed, and to adjust its height by inserting or taking away shim plates.The deformations of the bridge and the surrounding ground were monitored. The eigenmodes of the bridge were studied with accelerometers and by analysis with finite elements (FE) models. Comparison indicated good agreement between the model and the actual bridge, with calculated eigenfrequencies of 2.17, 4.15 and 4.67 Hz, for the first transversal, vertical and torsional modes, respectively. Measurements during winter resulted in higher values due to increased stiffness caused by frozen materials.

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  • 19.
    Bagge, Niklas
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Nilimaa, Jonny
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Puurula, Arto
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Täljsten, Björn
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Blanksvärd, Thomas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Sas, Gabriel
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Elfgren, Lennart
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Carolin, Anders
    Trafikverket, Luleå.
    Full-Scale Tests to Failure Compared to Assessments: Three Concrete Bridges2018In: High Tech Concrete: Where Technology and Engineering Meet - Proceedings of the 2017 fib Symposium / [ed] Lukovic M.,Hordijk D.A., Cham: Springer, 2018, p. 1917-1924Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Three Swedish concrete bridges have been tested to failure and the results have been compared to assessment using standard code models and advanced numerical methods.

    The three tested and assessed bridges were:

    1. (1)

      Lautajokk, a 29 year old one span (7 m) concrete trough bridge tested in fatigue to check the concrete shear capacity.

       
    2. (2)

      Ӧrnskldsvik, a 50 year old two span trough bridge (12 + 12 m) strengthened to avoid a bending failure.

       
    3. (3)

      Kiruna Mine Bridge, a 55 year old five span prestressed concrete road bridge (18 + 21 + 23 + 24 + 20 m) tested in shear and bending of the beams and punching of the slab.

       

    The main results in the paper are the experiences of the real failure types, the robustness/weakness of the bridges, and the accuracy of different codes and models. In all three cases the bridges had a considerable hidden capacity.

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  • 20.
    Bagge, Niklas
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering. WSP Bridge & Hydraulic Design, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Nilimaa, Jonny
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Sarmiento, Silvia
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Puurula, Arto
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering. Savonia University of Applied Sciences, Kuopio, Finland.
    Gonzalez-Libreros, Jaime
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Sas, Gabriel
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Elfgren, Lennart
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Carolin, Anders
    Swedish Transport Administration, Luleå, Sweden.
    Häggström, Jens
    Swedish Transport Administration, Luleå, Sweden.
    Enoksson, Ola
    Swedish Transport Administration, Luleå, Sweden.
    Coric, Ibrahim
    Swedish Transport Administration, Luleå, Sweden.
    Full Scale Test of a PC Bridge to Calibrate Assessment Methods2021In: IABSE Congress Ghent 2021: Structural Engineering for Future Societal Needs / [ed] H.H. (Bert) Snijder, Bart De Pauw, Sander van Alphen, Movares, Pierre Mengeot, International Association for Bridge and Structural Engineering (IABSE) , 2021, p. 965-973Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, experiences on the development of an assessment method for existing bridges are presented. The method is calibrated using the results of full-scale testing to failure of a prestressed bridge in Sweden. To evaluate the key parameters for the structural response, measured by deflections, strains in tendons and stirrups and crack openings, a sensitivity study based on the concept of fractional factorial design is incorporated to the assessment. Results showed that the most significant parameters are related to the tensile properties of the concrete (tensile strength and fracture energy) and the boundary conditions. A finite element (FE) model in which the results of the sensitivity analysis were applied, was able to predict accurately the load-carrying capacity of the bridge and its failure mode. Two additional existing prestressed concrete bridges, that will be used to improve further the method, are also described, and discussed.

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  • 21.
    Bagge, Niklas
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering. WSP, Luleå, Sweden.
    Nilimaa, Jonny
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Sas, Gabriel
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering. Norut Teknik, Norut, Norge.
    Blanksvärd, Thomas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Bernspång, Lars
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Täljsten, Björn
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Carolin, Anders
    Trafikverket, Luleå.
    Elfgren, Lennart
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Assessment of concrete bridges - Structural capacity: Experiences from full-scale testing to failure of a bridge in Kiruna2017In: Proceedings of the 23rd Nordic Concrete Research Symposium, Oslo, Norway: Nordic Concrete Federation, Oslo: Nordic Concrete Federation , 2017, p. 263-266Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To calibrate methods for condition assessment of prestressed concrete (PC) bridges, tests were carried out on a 55 year old five-span bridge with a length of 121 m in Kiruna in northern Sweden. Both non-destructive and destructive full-scale tests were performed. This paper presents results regarding methods for assessment of the structural capacity of concrete bridges.

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  • 22.
    Bagge, Niklas
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Nilimaa, Jonny
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Sas, Gabriel
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Blanksvärd, Thomas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Elfgren, Lennart
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Tu, Yongming
    College of Civil Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing.
    Carolin, Anders
    Trafikverket.
    Loading to failure of a 55 year old prestressed concrete bridge2015In: IABSE Workshop Helsinki 2015: Safety, Robustness and Condition Assessments of Structures, Zurich: International Association for Bridge and Structural Engineering, 2015, p. 130-137Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to provide relevant data for calibration and development of methods for assessment ofexisting bridges, a 55 year old posttensioned concrete bridge has been subjected to non-destructiveand destructive tests. The bridge, located in Kiruna, Sweden, was a 121 m long girder bridgecontinuous in five spans. The test programme included failure loading of the girders and slab,respectively, condition assessment of the post-tensioned cables and material tests. Moreover, twostrengthening systems, using carbon fibre reinforcing polymer (CFRP), were evaluated. In this paperthe experimental programme and some preliminary results are presented to give an insight to researchproject.

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  • 23.
    Bagge, Niklas
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering. WSP, Luleå, Sweden.
    Nilimaa, Jonny
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Sas, Gabriel
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering. Norut Teknik, Norut, Norge.
    Blanksvärd, Thomas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Täljsten, Björn
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Carolin, Anders
    Trafikverket, Luleå.
    Paulsson, Björn
    Trafikverket; UIC, Paris, France; Charmec, Chalmers tekn högskola.
    Elfgren, Lennart
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Assessment of concrete bridges - Prestress forces: Experiences from full-scale testing to failure of a bridge in Kiruna2017In: Proceedings of the 23rd Nordic Concrete Research Symposium, Oslo, Norway: Nordic Concrete Federation, Oslo: Nordic Concrete Federation , 2017, p. 267-270Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To calibrate methods for condition assessment of prestressed concrete (PC) bridges, tests were carried out on a 55 year old five-span bridge with a length of 121 m in Kiruna in northern Sweden. Both non-destructive and destructive full-scale tests were performed. This paper presents results regarding the residual forces in the prestressed reinforcement.

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  • 24.
    Bagge, Niklas
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    O'Connor, Alan
    Department of Civil, Structural and Environmental Engineering, Trinity College Dublin.
    Elfgren, Lennart
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Pedersen, Claus
    Department of Bridges, Rambøll Danmark A/S.
    Moment redistribution in RC beams: A study of the influence of longitudinal and transverse reinforcement ratios and concrete strength2014In: Engineering structures, ISSN 0141-0296, E-ISSN 1873-7323, Vol. 80, p. 11-23Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, the results from an experimental programme, aimed at investigating moment redistribution in statically indeterminate reinforced concrete structures, are presented and compared with theoretical analysis of the structural behaviour. Due to the nonlinear structural behaviour of reinforced concrete structures, linear elastic analysis can lead to an inaccurate assessment of the behaviour and, therefore, it can become necessary to use more advanced methodologies to achieve sufficiently accurate analysis. Furthermore, more advanced methods can enable a higher degree of performance optimisation of structures than those resulting from the simplified approaches adopted by existing design codes based on linear elastic analysis with redistribution of internal forces. In order to assess the load-carrying capacity at the ultimate limit state (ULS), a model combining plastic and nonlinear analysis is presented. The evolution of moment redistribution to structural collapse was studied experimentally for continuous two-span beams. The focus of the experiments was on the influence of the longitudinal tensile reinforcement ratio at the intermediate support, the transverse reinforcement ratio and the concrete strength. The experimental response at the ULS was further compared with the predicted distribution of internal forces according to the theoretical model. Evaluation of the experimental study indicated a highly nonlinear structural behaviour of the tested beams with the distribution of moment differing from linear elastic analysis, even for low load levels. The evolution of moment redistribution and the moment redistribution at the ULS were appreciably dependent on the arrangement of longitudinal reinforcement, whilst the transverse reinforcement ratio had a marginal impact up to yielding of the longitudinal reinforcing steel, with the concrete strength slightly reducing the degree of moment redistribution. For those beams which failed in flexure, predictions from the theoretical model presented were in good agreement with the experimental results. However, several beams collapsed in shear-related failure modes.

  • 25.
    Bagge, Niklas
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Popescu, Cosmin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Elfgren, Lennart
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Failure tests on concrete bridges: Have we learnt the lessons?2018In: Structure and Infrastructure Engineering, ISSN 1573-2479, E-ISSN 1744-8980, Vol. 14, no 3, p. 292-319Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Full-scale failure tests of bridges are important for improving understanding of bridges’ behaviour and refining assessment methods. However, such experiments are challenging, often expensive, and thus rare. This paper provides a review of failure tests on concrete bridges, focusing on lessons from them. In total, 40 tests to failure of 30 bridges have been identified. These include various types of bridges, with reinforced concrete or prestressed concrete superstructures, composed of slabs, girders and combinations thereof. Generally, the tests indicated that theoretical calculations of the load-carrying capacity based on methods traditionally used for design and assessment provide conservative estimates. It can also be concluded that almost a third of the experiments resulted in unexpected types of failures, mainly shear instead of flexure. In addition, differences between theoretical and tested capacities are often apparently due to inaccurate representation of geometry, boundary conditions and materials

  • 26.
    Bagge, Niklas
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Shu, Jiangpeng
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Plos, Mario
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Elfgren, Lennart
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Punching Capacity of a Reinforced Concrete Bridge Deck Slab Loaded to Failure2015Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Full-scale failure tests of a 55 year old prestressed concrete girder bridge have been carried out to calibrate models for assessment of existing bridges. This paper summarises the outcome from the punching test and analytical analysis according to the model stated in the Eurocode. The experimental load was approximately 2.4 times the code value using measured material properties.

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  • 27.
    Bell, Brian
    et al.
    Network Rail, London, United Kingdom.
    Bien, Jan
    Wroclaw University of Science and Technology, Wroclaw, Poland.
    Cremona, Christian
    Bouygues-Construction, Paris, France.
    Feltrin, Glauco
    Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials, Science and Technology (EMPA), Dübendorf, Switzerland.
    Jensen, Jens S.
    COWI, Lyngby, Denmark .
    Kiviluoma, Risto
    WSP, Helsinki, Finland.
    Niederleithinger, Ernst
    Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und -prüfung (BAM), Berlin, Germany.
    Olofsson, Jan
    Skanska Sverige, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Paulsson, Björn
    Trafikverket, Borlänge (Retired); Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Täljsten, Björn
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Sas, Gabriel
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Elfgren, Lennart
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Sustainable Bridges – Past and Future. Reflections on a European Project 2003 – 20072023In: IABSE Congress 2023 New Delhi, Engineering for Sustainable Development, International Association for Bridge and Structural Engineering, 2023, p. 690-698Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Twenty years ago, in 2003, a European project was started to increase the sustainability of existing railway bridges. This paper summarises what was achieved and looks ahead. Nine Working Packages were organized: (1) Background material; (2) Guidance by stakeholders; (3) Condition Assessment and Inspection Guidelines; (4) Loads, Capacity and Resistance Guidelines; (5) Monitoring Guidelines; (6) Repair and Strengthening Guidelines; (7) Demonstration with Field testing of Bridges; (8) Demonstration on Monitoring on Bridges; and (9) Training and Dissemination.

    Some of the main results (from 4 Guidelines and 47 Background documents) are highlighted and some experiences, conclusions and thoughts about the future are given. Hidden strengths and weaknesses are discussed, analyses and codes for assessment can be improved, new monitoring and strengthening methods are available and life length can be prolonged. 

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  • 28. Bennitz, Anders
    et al.
    Elfgren, Lennart
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Olofsson, Thomas
    Kronborg, A.
    Wahlberg, A.
    Dynamic behaviour of the Vindel River railway bridge2006In: Condition Monitoring and Diagnostic Engineering Management: COMADEM 2006: proceedings / [ed] Uday Kumar; Aditya Parida; Raj B. K. N. Rao, Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet, 2006, p. 721-729Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish Railway administration has launched several projects aimed at increasing the accessibility of the railway lines in northern Sweden to meet future demands. One of these lines connects the southern and northern parts of Sweden and constitutes one of the major arteries for the transportation of heavy goods. Major investment are planned to upgrade the load bearing capacity of this railway line. The work is mainly focused on the larger structures and their dynamical properties. These properties can be used to assess existing infrastructure and to evaluate the performance. Advantages are obvious since the existing structural integrity form the base for investments in structural repair and upgrade of bridges. The Vindel River Railway Bridge situated 55 kilometers northwest of Umeå came into focus when large motion was discovered during train passages. The behaviour of the bridge crossing the river of Vindeln has been measured two times. Measurements of displacements and acceleration of the bridge during train passages has been conducted, the first measurements was done to give more experience on the motion of the bridge and to try out new sensors. The second measurement gave more information about the bridge's motion, results that could be used to calibrate a 3D FE-Model of the bridge used in the study. Based on the measurements, eigenfrequencies in the range of 0 to 8 Hz could be detected, modal shapes up to the ninth order could be extracted, deflections and transverse displacements for different sets of train and different train speeds were also found. However, new measurements are planned for this summer and will hopefully reinforce the already attained result and give answers to some of the unresolved questions.

  • 29.
    Bernander, Stig
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Dury, Robin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Elfgren, Lennart
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Progressive Landslide Analysis in Canadian Glacial Silty Clay in Churchill River2017In: / [ed] Vikas Thakur, Jean-Sébastien L’Heureux, Ariane Locat, 2017, p. 1-Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The poster presents the risks for a progressive landslide in a natural dam. The stability will be critical when the water level is raised after the building of a hydro power plant, Bernander (2016), Dury (2017). The analysis is based on a finite difference method developed by Stig Bernander (2011), Bernander et al.(2016)

     

    The following issues will be discussed:  

    - Material properties

    - Risk for liquefaction

    - Three possible failure surfaces: one horizontal, one inclined and one curved

    - Failure riska for different material propeties

    - The need to check the real properties of the soil

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  • 30.
    Bernander, Stig
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Elfgren, Lennart
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Dam Bank Stability in loosely layered silty sands and lean silty sandy clays: Comments on the risk of failure in the North Spur at Muskrat Falls in the Churchill River Valley, Labrador, Newfoundland2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The differences in landslide analysis between the classic limit equilibrium method (LEM) and a progressive failure procedure is outlined. In LEM the soils are presumed to be fully plastic, whereas in the progressive failure approach the joint effect of strain-softening material properties and deformations in the soil mass are considered.

    The risk of failure in the North Spur ridge due to the dam impoundment at Muskrat Falls in the Churchill River Valley (Labrador/Newfoundland) is investigated. An important issue in this context is e.g. that sloping failure surfaces near the cut-off wall (COW) are bound to be much more critical than the horizontal failure planes, which have hitherto been considered according to Nalcor/SNC-Lavalin Engineering Reports.

    Results from progressive failure analyses have now been obtained, applying plausible deformation-softening material properties to the soils in the ridge. These results, which are presented at the end of this report, render unsatisfactory safety factors – i.e. lower than 0.5, thus indicating potential risks of failure when the water surface is raised to the proposed levels.

    Three reports and a summing up are appended, where Dr Bernander strongly emphasizes the need of stability evaluations based on proper progressive failure analysis – i.e. using soil properties based on tests that are not carried out under fully drained conditions.

    Measures to reducing the detrimental effects of high in-situ porosity are also proposed.

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  • 31.
    Bernander, Stig
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Elfgren, Lennart
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Riverbank stability in loose layered silty clays: Comments on the North Spur Dam at Muskrat Falls in Churchill River, Labrador, Newfoundland2017Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The differences are outlined in landslide analysis between the classic limit equilibrium method with assumed plastic properties of the soil and a progressive analysis applying softening material properties.

    The risk for failure is studied in the dam at the North Spur riverbank ridge at Muskrat Falls in Churchill River in Labrador, Newfoundland, Canada. A sloping failure surface is much more critical than the horizontal surfaces which have hitherto been studied. Results from new analyses have now been obtained applying softening material properties probable for the ridge. The results indicate safety factors lower than 0.5, i.e. there is a high risk that the ridge will fail if the water level is raised to the proposed level.

    Three reports are appended where Stig Bernander argues in detail for the need for a proper progressive failure analysis based on measured material properties. He also proposes how such properties may be obtained and gives an example of a way to stabilize the ridge if the soil properties show a softening behaviour. Finally examples of progressive failure analyses are included using probable material properties.

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  • 32.
    Bernander, Stig
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Elfgren, Lennart
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Stability of the North Spur at Muskrat Falls2019In: Muskrat Falls Symposium: 28-29 September 2018, Memorial University. St. John’s, NL, Canada / [ed] Stephen Crocker, St. John's, NL, Canada, 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper presents the geotechnical background to one of the stability problems regarding the North Spur dam wall: This land was formed in the regression of the sea during and after the last ice age with deposits of multiple layers of silty sands and silty sandy clays that formed the valleys and plains that are now above sea level. Some of these layers, deposited thousands of years ago in post-glacial times, are vulnerable to liquefaction when they are disturbed. These conditions have in the past repeatedly caused slides along the banks of the Churchill river.

    In the current paper, a specific type of possible progressive failure – the most dangerous one in respect of the safety of the North Spur – is discussed. This type of landslide development may be caused by the rising water pressure, when - or after - the dam is impounded. As will be explained, such a slide could force part of the North Spur ridge to slide along a failure surface sloping East-wards into the deep river whirlpool downstream of Muskrat Falls. 

    In the following, we provide a brief overview of the geotechnical background behind our concerns, also discussing methods of mitigating the risk of the kind of slope failure in question. Hence, we propose measures such as compacting the soil by piling or by methods of grouting and drainage. We also suggest the need for an expert Advisory Panel to look further into the long-term safety of the North Spur.

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  • 33.
    Bernander, Stig
    et al.
    Independent, Sweden.
    Elfgren, Lennart
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Stability of the North Spur at Muskrat Falls2021In: Muskrat Falls: How a Mega Project Became a Predatory Formation / [ed] Stephen Crocker; Lisa Moore, St. John's, NL, Canada: Memorial University Press , 2021, p. 111-130Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 34.
    Bernander, Stig
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Elfgren, Lennart
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Stability of the North Spur at Muskrat Falls: Comments and Discussion of a Paper by Stig Bernander and Lennart Elfgren2021Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In Part A, the geotechnical background is presented to a stability problem regarding the North Spur dam wall at Muskrat Falls in Churchill River in Newfoundland, Canada. This land was formed in the regression of the sea during and after the last ice age with deposits of multiple layers of silty sands and silty sandy clays that formed the valleys and plains that are now above sea level. Some of these layers, deposited thousands of years ago in post-glacial times, are vulnerable to liquefaction when they are disturbed. These conditions have in the past repeatedly caused slides along the banks of the Churchill river. In the report, a specific type of possible progressive failure –the most dangerous one in respect of the safety of the North Spur – is discussed. This type of landslide development may be caused by the rising water pressure, when - or after - the dam is impounded. As will be explained, such a slide could force part of the North Spur ridge to slide along a failure surface sloping East-wards into the deep river whirlpool downstream of Muskrat Falls. In the following, a brief overview is provided of the geotechnical background behind our concerns, also discussing methods of mitigating the risk of the kind of slopefailure in question. Hence, we propose measures such as compacting the soil by piling or by methods of grouting and drainage. We also suggest the need for an expert Advisory Panel to look further into the long-term safety of the North Spur.

    In Part B, the paper in Part A is discussed and the risk for a failure is denied.

    In Part C, finally, the authors of Part A, give their answer to the criticism and uphold their view: There may be a serieois risk for a dam breach caused by weak soil layers in the dam. This risk should be properly investigated and mitigated. 

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  • 35.
    Bernander, Stig
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Kullingsjö, Anders
    Skanska Sweden, Johan på Gårdas gata 5, SE-405 18 Göteborg, Sweden; Chalmers University of Technology, GeoEngineering, SE-412 96 Göteborg, Sweden.
    Gylland, Anders S.
    Multiconsult, Sluppen 15, NO-7037 Trondheim, Norway; Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Geotechnical Engineering, NTNU, NO-7491 Trondheim, Norway.
    Bengtsson, Per-Evert
    Swedish Geotechnical Institute, Olaus Magnus väg 35, SE-581 93 Linköping, Sweden.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Pusch, Roland
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Olofsson, Jan
    Skanska Sweden, Johan på Gårdas gata 5, SE-405 18 Göteborg, Sweden.
    Elfgren, Lennart
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Downhill progressive landslides in long natural slopes: triggering agents and landslide phases modeled with a finite difference method2016In: Canadian geotechnical journal (Print), ISSN 0008-3674, E-ISSN 1208-6010, Vol. 53, no 10, p. 1565-1582Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A large landslide in Tuve (Gothenburg, Sweden 1977) initiated the development of a model for slope stability analysis taking the deformation-softening of soft sensitive clays into consideration. The model studies triggering agents and five phases in progressive slope failure are identified: (1) in-situ, (2) disturbance, (3) unstable ‘dynamic’, (4) transitory (or permanent) equilibrium, and (5) ‘global’ failure. The clay resistance in these phases may differ widely; mostly due to different rates of loading. Two time dependent failure criteria are defined: (i) the triggering load condition in the disturbance Phase (2), and (ii) the transitory equilibrium in Phase (4), indicating whether minor downhill displacements or a veritable landslide catastrophe will occur. The analysis explains why downhill landslides tend to spread over vast areas of almost horizontal ground further down-slope. The model has been applied to landslides in Scandinavia and Canada. Three case studies are briefly discussed. The model is a finite difference approach, where local downhill deformations caused by normal forces is maintained compatible with deviatory shear deformations above the potential (or the established) failure surface. Software and an easy-to-use spreadsheet are introduced as well as recent developments. See also Video Abstract.

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  • 36.
    Bien, Jan
    et al.
    Wroclaw University of Technology.
    Elfgren, LennartLuleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.Olofsson, JanSkanska.
    Sustainable bridges: assessment for future traffic demands and longer lives2007Collection (editor) (Other academic)
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  • 37.
    Bischoff, Reinhard
    et al.
    EMPA, Swiss Federal Laboratory for Materials, Testing and Research.
    Meyer, Jonas
    EMPA, Zurich.
    Enochsson, Ola
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Feltrin, Glauco
    EMPA, Zurich.
    Elfgren, Lennart
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Event-based strain monitoring on a railway bridge with a wireless sensor network2009In: Structural Health Monitoring of Intelligent Infrastructure: Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Structural Health Monitoring of Intellgent Infrastructure / [ed] Urs Meier; Bernadette Havranek; Masoud Motavalli, Zürich: EMPA-Akademie , 2009, p. 74-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a monitoring application with a wireless sensor network that was performed on a 95 years old riveted steel railway bridge. In order to perform an accurate assessment, strains were monitored on critical elements to catch the real loading during the passage of heavy freight trains. The wireless sensor network deployed on the bridge consisted of 8 nodes supplied with resistance strain gages and the root node connected to a solar energy rechargeable, battery powered base station. The monitoring system was operated in event-based mode to achieve an energy efficient operation to prolong the lifetime of the sensor network. The event detection was carried out with ultra low power MEMS acceleration sensors, which measured continuously the accelerations of the bridge and detected an approaching train. If this occurred, the sensor generated an interrupt that immediately switched on the strain gage's conditioning board and starts the measurement. Switching on the conditioning board shortly before starting the measurement, however, produces biased raw data because the strain gage was still heating up due to the current flow. Instead of eliminating the time-dependent bias by adding a dummy gage to the Wheatstone bridge, the bias was removed by post-processing the raw data. The paper demonstrates that this procedure provides sufficiently accurate input data for use in cycle counting based fatigue assessment of steel bridges.

  • 38.
    Blanksvärd, Thomas
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Häggström, Jens
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Nilimaa, Jonny
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Sabourova, Natalia
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Grip, Niklas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Mathematical Science.
    Täljsten, Björn
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Elfgren, Lennart
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Carolin, Anders
    Trafikverket, Luleå & Borlänge, Sweden.
    Paulsson, Björn
    Trafikverket, Luleå & Borlänge, Sweden.
    Tu, Yongming
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering. Southeast University, Nanjing, PR China.
    Test to failure of a steel truss bridge – Calibration of assessment methods2014In: Bridge Maintenance, Safety, Management and Life Extension: proceedings of the Seventh International Conference of Bridge Maintenance, Safety and Management, 7-11 July 2014, Shanghai, China / [ed] Airong Chen; Dan M. Frangopol; Xin Ruan, London: CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group , 2014, p. 1076-1081Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The steel truss railway bridge at Åby River was built in 1957 with a span of 32 m (105 feet). In 2012 it was replaced by a new steel beam bridge and the old bridge was placed beside the river. It was tested to failure to study its remaining load-carrying capacity in September 2013. The test was carried out by Luleå University of Technology by commission from Trafikverket as a part of the European Research Project MAINLINE (www.mainline-project.eu). In this paper some preliminary results are given. Two hydraulic jacks, anchored by cables to the bedrock, pulled the bridge downwards. The bridge remained elastic up to about three times the original design load and the load could then be almost doubled with substantial yielding deformations before a buckling failure appeared in the top girders for a load of ca. 11 MN (1000 short tons) for a midpoint deflection of ca. 0, 2 m (8 inches). No brittle or fatigue failure in any of the joints appeared and the bridge proved to behave in a ductile way with a substantial hidden capacity.

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  • 39.
    Broms, Carl Erik
    et al.
    Jacobson & Widmark, Sweden.
    Elfgren, Lennart
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Skruvförankringar i maskinfundament1983In: Byggmästaren, ISSN 0007-7550, Vol. 62, no 9, p. 25-28Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
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  • 40.
    Broms, Carl Erik
    et al.
    Jacobson & Widmark AB.
    Johansson, Håkan E
    Rehnström, Arne
    Anchor bolts in reinforced concrete foundations: short time tests1980Report (Other academic)
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  • 41.
    Cao, Da-fu
    et al.
    School of Civil Science and Engineering, Yangzhou University, No.198 HuaYang XiLu, HanJiang District, Yangzhou 225127, P.R. China.
    Qin, Xiao-Chuan
    School of Civil Engineering, Southeast University, No.2 SiPaiLou, XuanWu District, Nanjing 210096, P.R. China.
    Meng, Shao-Ping
    School of Civil Engineering, Southeast University, No.2 SiPaiLou, XuanWu District, Nanjing 210096, P.R. China.
    Tu, Yong-Ming
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering. School of Civil Engineering, Southeast University, No.2 SiPaiLou, XuanWu District, Nanjing 210096, P.R. China.
    Elfgren, Lennart
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Sabourova, Natalia
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Grip, Niklas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Ohlsson, Ulf
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Blanksvärd, Thomas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Evaluation of prestress losses in prestressed concrete specimens subjected to freeze–thaw cycles2016In: Structure and Infrastructure Engineering, ISSN 1573-2479, E-ISSN 1744-8980, Vol. 12, no 2, p. 159-170Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Prestressed concrete structures are considered to be reliable and durable. However, their long-term performance when subjected to frost attack is still unclear. In this work, experiments were carried out to evaluate the prestress losses in post-tensioned prestressed concrete specimens subjected to freeze–thaw cycles (FTCs). Two cases were considered: in one case, a series of specimens were prepared and tested in a freeze–thaw chamber; in the second case, the same series of specimens were tested in an indoor environment (outside the chamber). The difference between the prestress losses of the specimens inside the freeze–thaw chamber and those outside the chamber equalled the prestress losses due to FTCs. When using mathematical models to predict the prestress losses due to the FTCs, it was found that they were relatively small when the concrete was slightly damaged. However, they increased rapidly when the FTCs were repeated. The eccentricity of the prestress wires led to larger prestress losses when subjected to FTCs. Moreover, the same cross section and eccentricity resulted in similar prestress losses due to the FTCs, and the relatively high-strength concrete could withstand more FTCs.

  • 42.
    Cao, Jie
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering. Key Laboratory of Concrete and Prestressed Concrete Structures of Ministry of Education, National Engineering Research Center for Prestressing Technology, School of Civil Engineering, Southeast University, 211189 Nanjing, PR China.
    Kong, Lingyi
    Key Laboratory of Concrete and Prestressed Concrete Structures of Ministry of Education, National Engineering Research Center for Prestressing Technology, School of Civil Engineering, Southeast University, 211189 Nanjing, PR China.
    Guo, Tong
    Key Laboratory of Concrete and Prestressed Concrete Structures of Ministry of Education, National Engineering Research Center for Prestressing Technology, School of Civil Engineering, Southeast University, 211189 Nanjing, PR China.
    Shi, Pan
    Key Laboratory of Concrete and Prestressed Concrete Structures of Ministry of Education, National Engineering Research Center for Prestressing Technology, School of Civil Engineering, Southeast University, 211189 Nanjing, PR China.
    Wang, Chao
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Tu, Yongming
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering. Key Laboratory of Concrete and Prestressed Concrete Structures of Ministry of Education, National Engineering Research Center for Prestressing Technology, School of Civil Engineering, Southeast University, 211189 Nanjing, PR China.
    Sas, Gabriel
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering. SINTEF Narvik AS, Narvik 8517, Norway.
    Elfgren, Lennart
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Molecular dynamics simulations of ion migration and adsorption on the surfaces of AFm hydrates2023In: Applied Surface Science, ISSN 0169-4332, E-ISSN 1873-5584, Vol. 615, article id 156390Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Chloride salts can cause severe corrosion damage to reinforcing steel bars in cement-based materials whereas nitrite salts inhibit corrosion. The storage and release of these two anions in cement materials occurs mainly at the interface of monosulfoaluminate (AFm) hydrates. In this paper, molecular dynamics are used to analyze the interaction between anions and AFm phases and clarify the competitive relationships between the anions at adsorption sites on the AFm surface. It was found that the ordered structure of the [Ca2Al(OH)6]+ layers of the AFm plays a key role in anion adsorption and that the mobility of ions desorbed from AFm layers decreases linearly with increasing proximity to the AFm surfaces.

  • 43.
    Cao, Jie
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Wang, Chao
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Wang, Tongfang
    Southeast University, Nanjing, China.
    Gonzalez-Libreros, Jaime
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Tu, Yongming
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering. Southeast University, Nanjing, China.
    Sas, Gabriel
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Elfgren, Lennart
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Effects of Temperature and NaCl Concentration on the Adsorption of C-S-H Gel in Cement Paste: A Multi-fidelity Molecular Dynamics Simulation2023In: Building for the Future: Durable, Sustainable, Resilient - Proceedings of the fib Symposium 2023 - Volume 2 / [ed] Alper Ilki, Derya Çavunt, Yavuz Selim Çavunt, Springer, 2023, Vol. 2, p. 499-508Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The durability and compressive strength of concrete will vary with the material components, ambient temperature, external intrusion. Using molecular dynamics (MD) methods to study the dynamic behavior of particles in cement-based materials can help us understand the underlying mechanism of property changes in concrete caused by above factors at the atomic level. So far, MD methods have been widely used to analyze the physical and chemical properties of concrete materials and the interaction mechanism between different interfaces at the nanoscale. However, too much complexity in the models will reduce the result accuracy and increase the computational cost. A suitable neural network structure can not only ensure the accuracy of analysis results, but also reduce the computational cost. In this work, MD methods are applied to build the models to explore the diffusivity of Na+ and Cl− in the calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H) gel pores at different concentration and temperatures. In the process of running models, part of the MD models’ fidelity is reduced to save the computational cost, then the trained multi-fidelity physics informed neural network framework was used to obtain more accurate analysis results. The combination of MD simulations and deep learning methods expands the application range of MD in the field of concrete structure, has good development prospect and application value.

  • 44.
    Carolin, Anders
    et al.
    Trafikverket, Luleå.
    Anderson, Robert
    Network Rail, London, United Kingdom.
    Heissenberger, Roman
    ÖBB, Wien, Austria.
    Hermosilla Carrasco, Carlos
    Acciona Technology, Madrid, Spain.
    Schewe, Britta
    Deutsche Bahn, Berlin, Germany.
    Nilimaa, jonny
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Blanksvärd, Thomas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Täljsten, Björn
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Cwircen, Andrzej
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Elfgren, Lennart
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Innovative Intelligent Management of Railway Bridges, In2Rail: A European Horizon 2020 Project2016In: IABSE CONGRESS, STOCKHOLM, 2016: Challenges in Design and Construction of an Innovativeand Sustainable Built Environment / [ed] Lennart Elfgren, Johan Jonsson, Mats Karlsson, Lahja Rydberg-Forssbeck and Britt Sigfrid, CH - 8093 Zürich, Switzerland, 2016, p. 2552-2561Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Innovative Intelligent Railways, In2Rail, is a European Horizon 2020 Project with the objective to enhance capacity, increase reliability and reduce Life Cycle Costs of European Railways. Bridges and Tunnels is the main focus in Work Package 4. The aim is to study, benchmark and further develop new Inspection Technologies in order to create more proactive maintenance procedures. In this paper some preliminary results are presented.

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  • 45.
    Carolin, Anders
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering.
    Elfgren, Lennart
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Load-carrying capacity of concrete structures loaded in shear and torsion2002Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The report is a state-of-the-art-report about load-carrying capacity in shear and torsion for concrete members.

  • 46. Carolin, Anders
    et al.
    Veljkovic, Milan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering.
    Elfgren, Lennart
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Vill vi betala mer för ökad dammsäkerhet?2007In: Norrbottens-Kuriren, p. 3-Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
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  • 47.
    Casas, Joan Ramon
    et al.
    Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Barcelona, Spain.
    Cremona, Christian
    Laboratoire Central des Ponts et Chaussées, Paris, France.
    Holm, Göran
    Swedish Geotechnical Institute, SGI, Lindköping, Sweden.
    Karoumi, Raid
    Royal Institute of Technology, KTH, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Melbourne, Clive
    University of Salford, United Kingdom.
    Plos, Mario
    Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Sloth, Mette
    COWI A/S, Lyngby, Denmark.
    Wisniewski, Dawid
    Wroclaw University of Technology, Poland.
    Gylltoft, Kent
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Thelandersson, Sven
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Johansson, Bernt
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Elfgren, Lennart
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Guideline for Load and Resistance Assessment of Existing European Railway Bridges: Advices on the use of advanced methods2007Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The bridge assessment in many aspects is very similar to the bridge design. The same basic principles lie at the heart of the process. Nevertheless, an important difference lies in the fact that when a bridge is being designed, an element of conservatism is generally a good thing that can be achieved with very little additional costs. When a bridge is being assessed, it is important to avoid unnecessarily conservative measures because of the financial implications that may follow the decision of ratingthe bridge as deficient. Therefore, the design codes (e.g. EC codes) may not always be appropriate for assessment of existing bridges and some additional recommendations or guidelines are required that will lead to less conservative assessment of theirs load carrying capacity. Such guidelines have been already proposed for assessment of highway bridges in Europe. However, there is a lack of this type of documents that can be applied for the assessment of railway bridges.

    The present "Guideline for Load and Resistance Assessment of Existing European Railway Bridges - advices on the use of advanced methods" is providing guidance and recommendations for applying the most advanced and beneficial methods, models and tools for assessing the load carrying capacity of existing railway bridges. This includes systematized step-level assessment methodology, advanced safety formats (e.g. probabilistic or simplified probabilistic) refined structural analysis (e.g. non-linear or plastic, dynamic considering train-bridge interaction), better models of loads and resistance parameters (e.g. probabilistic and/or based on the results of measurements) and methods for incorporation of the results form monitoring and on-site testing (e.g. Bayesian updating).

    Basis for the "Guideline for Load and Resistance Assessment of Existing EuropeanRailway Bridges - advices on the use of advanced methods" is the research work carried out in the work package WP4 of the Sustainable Bridges project combined with the best practical experience and know-how of all the partners involved.

    The research activities within the work package WP4 have been carried out in the following five groups:

    • − Loads and dynamic effects, with focus on train loads and dynamics (Deliverables D4.3, also referred as SB 4.3 Dynamic (2007), or just SB4.3 (2007));
    • − Safety and probabilistic modelling (Deliverables D4.4, also referred as SB4.4Safety (2007), or just SB4.4 (2007));
    • − Concrete bridges, with focus on non-linear analysis (Deliverables D4.5, also referred as SB4.5 Concrete (2007), or just SB4.5 (2007));
    • − Metal bridges, with focus on riveted bridges (Deliverables D4.6, also referredas SB4.6 Metal (2007), or just SB4.6 (2007));
    • − Masonry arch bridges including soil/structure interaction (Deliverables D4.7,also referred as SB4.7 Masonry (2007), or just SB4.7 (2007)).

    The results of these activities are reported in corresponding Background Documents (Deliverables) listed above within parenthesis.

    The main results from the research activities performed and the know-how of all the partners in the specific areas of bridge assessment are tried to be presented in this Sustainable Bridges SB-LRA 2007-11-30 6 (428) Guideline in such a way that the target reader of the Guideline, a structural engineer experienced in assessment of railway bridges, is able to apply them in the everyday practice, without necessity of searching for several specific scientific publications. Nevertheless, in some cases it has been necessary to refer to public available literature and Background Documents prepared in the Sustainable Bridges project.

    The present Guideline has been prepared aiming to follow somehow the structure of the EC codes and it is divided into 10 chapters and 12 Annexes concerning:

    • − Assessment procedure (Chapter 2);
    • − Requirements, safety formats and limit states (Chapter 3, Annexes 3.1-3.7);
    • − Basic information for bridge assessment (Chapter 4);
    • − Load and dynamic effects (Chapter 5, Annex 5.1);
    • − Concrete bridges (Chapter 6);
    • − Metal bridges (Chapter 7, Annex 7.1);
    • − Masonry arch bridges (Chapter 8, Annexes 8.1 and 8.2);
    • − Foundations and transition zones (Chapter 9);
    • − Improvement of assessment using information from testing and monitoring (Chapter 10, Annex 10.1).

    In most of the topics related to railway bridges assessment the Guideline uses the current state-of-the-art knowledge and the presently best practice. Nevertheless, in many subjects it propose the use of original methods and models that have been developed, obtained or systematized due to research performed within one of the five groups of work package WP4.

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  • 48.
    Casas, Joan Ramon
    et al.
    Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, UPC, Barcelona, Spain.
    Elfgren, Lennart
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Soriano, Miriam
    Universidad Politeccnica de Catalunya (UPC), Barcelona, Spain.
    Tu, Yongming
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering. SE University, Nanjing, China.
    Assessment methods for elderly rail infrastructure: MAINLINE, Deliverable D1.2, EU FP72013Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An accurate and advanced assessment will allow keeping in service many assets that otherwise will be condemned to repair, strengthening and/or replacement. Because interventions in many bridges at the same time is not economically feasible, their advanced assessment could help prioritize the repair/strengthening works in the coming years. The main objective of this deliverable is to present the existing possibilities for an accurate assessment of railway assets condition. The two specific objectives of this report are:

    1. - To describe a set of proposed advanced assessment methods that may be incorporated in the life-cycle management of railway infrastructures

    2. - To see how the costs and benefits of the proposed advanced assessment methods may be incorporated within a LCA framework.

    The scope of this report is limited to the assessment of relevant railway infrastructure assets. The assessment methods considered will be those applicable to the following asset types:

     Cuttings

     Metallic Bridges

     Lined Tunnels

     Track (including rails, sleepers, ballast, switches and crossings).

    The most appropriate assessment method for every specific infrastructure asset strongly depends on many variables. This deliverable seeks to help the assessing engineer, first showing the available alternatives and, after that, in the decision making for the best method and technique to be used within a Life-Cycle Assessment framework, where the optimization of cost in a wide sense (including environmental costs) is the final objective.

  • 49.
    Cederwall, Krister
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Edlund, Bo L.O.
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Elfgren, Lennart
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Hjalmar Granholm: Legendarisk V-professor på Chalmers 1939-19651998Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    En kortfattad beskrivning av Hjalmers Granholms insatser som professor i byggnadsteknik på Chalmers tekniska högskola. Han föddes 1900 i Innertavle i Ume landsförsamling och dog 1972 i Göteborg

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  • 50.
    Cederwall, Krister
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Elfgren, Lennart
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Shear and Torsion Design of Prestressed and Non-Prestressed Concrete Beams1981In: Journal - Prestressed Concrete Institute, ISSN 0032-793X, Vol. 26, no 6, p. 96-97Article in journal (Other academic)
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