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  • 1.
    Bergsten, Arvid
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Galafassi, Diego
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Bodin, Örjan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    The problem of spatial fit in social-ecological systems: detecting mismatches between ecological connectivity and land management in an urban region2014In: Ecology & society, ISSN 1708-3087, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 19, no 4, article id 6Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The problem of institutional fit in social-ecological systems has been empirically documented and conceptually discussed for decades, yet there is a shortage of approaches to systematically and quantitatively examine the level of fit. We address this gap, focusing on spatial fit in an urban and peri-urban regional landscape. Such landscapes typically exhibit significant fragmentation of remnant habitats, which can limit critical species dispersal. This may have detrimental effects on species persistence and ecosystem functioning if land use is planned without consideration of the spatial patterns of fragmentation. Managing habitat fragmentation is particularly challenging when the scale of fragmentation reaches beyond the control of single managers, thereby requiring different actors to coordinate their activities to address the problem at the appropriate scale. We present a research approach that maps patterns of collaborations between actors who manage different parts of a landscape, and then relates these patterns to structures of ecological connectivity. We applied our approach to evaluate the fit between a collaborative wetland management network comprising all 26 municipalities in the Stockholm County in Sweden and an ecologically defined network of dispersed but ecologically interconnected wetlands. Many wetlands in this landscape are either intersected by the boundary between two or more municipalities, or are located close to such boundaries, which implies a degree of ecological interconnectedness and a need for intermunicipal coordination related to wetland management across boundaries. We first estimated the level of ecological connectivity between wetlands in neighboring municipalities, and then used this estimate to elaborate the level of social-ecological fit vis-a-vis intermunicipal collaboration. We found that the level of fit was generally weak. Also, we identified critical misalignments of ecological connectivity and intermunicipal collaboration, respectively, as well as collaborations that represented an adequate alignment. These findings inform on where to most effectively allocate limited resources of collaborative capacity to enhance the level of social-ecological fit. Our approach and results are illustrated using maps, which facilitates the potential application of this method in land use planning practice.

  • 2.
    Daw, Tim M.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. University of East Anglia, United Kingdom.
    Coulthard, Sarah
    Cheung, William W. L.
    Brown, Katrina
    Abunge, Caroline
    Galafassi, Diego
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Peterson, Garry D.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    McClanahan, Tim R.
    Omukoto, Johnstone O.
    Munyi, Lydiah
    Evaluating taboo trade-offs in ecosystems services and human well-being2015In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, ISSN 0027-8424, E-ISSN 1091-6490, Vol. 112, no 22, p. 6949-6954Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Managing ecosystems for multiple ecosystem services and balancing the well-being of diverse stakeholders involves different kinds of trade-offs. Often trade-offs involve noneconomic and difficult-to-evaluate values, such as cultural identity, employment, the well-being of poor people, or particular species or ecosystem structures. Although trade-offs need to be considered for successful environmental management, they are often overlooked in favor of win-wins. Management and policy decisions demand approaches that can explicitly acknowledge and evaluate diverse trade-offs. We identified a diversity of apparent trade-offs in a small-scale tropical fishery when ecological simulations were integrated with participatory assessments of social-ecological system structure and stakeholders' well-being. Despite an apparent win-win between conservation and profitability at the aggregate scale, food production, employment, and well-being of marginalized stakeholders were differentially influenced by management decisions leading to trade-offs. Some of these trade-offs were suggested to be taboo trade-offs between morally incommensurable values, such as between profits and the well-being of marginalized women. These were not previously recognized as management issues. Stakeholders explored and deliberated over trade-offs supported by an interactive toy model representing key system trade-offs, alongside qualitative narrative scenarios of the future. The concept of taboo trade-offs suggests that psychological bias and social sensitivity may exclude key issues from decision making, which can result in policies that are difficult to implement. Our participatory modeling and scenarios approach has the potential to increase awareness of such trade-offs, promote discussion of what is acceptable, and potentially identify and reduce obstacles to management compliance.

  • 3.
    Galafassi, Diego
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    The Transformative Imagination: Re-imagining the world towards sustainability2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A central task for sustainability science in the Anthropocene is to offer guidance on alternative pathways of change. Even though this search and implementation of pathways towards sustainability is likely to require profound social-ecological transformations, little is yet known about the individual and collective capacities needed to support such transformations. This thesis explores the connection between human imagination and sustainability transformations, and introduces the notion of the transformative imagination to support methodological innovation in sustainability sciences, and practices aiming to support transformations towards sustainability. The transformative imagination is suggested to support fundamentally new ways of seeing, feeling, encountering and envisioning the world. The thesis takes a transdisciplinary action-research approach and studies how specific participatory practices, including the arts, may foster the transformative imagination as a means to more skilfully respond to, anticipate and shape social-ecological trajectories in the Anthropocene. The four included papers, each explores how practices may support particular features of the imagination as a transformative capacity. Paper I analyses a case in coastal Kenya where participatory modelling and future scenarios are applied to foster imagination of dynamics of interdependences and trade-offs within the context of poverty alleviation and ecosystems change. Paper II explores system diagrams and scenarios as practices for the development of social-ecological narratives that may support robust interventions in coastal Kenya and Mozambique. Paper III implements, and studies how an art-based approach based on performances, visual methods and an art installation, could support transformative visions of the Iberian Peninsula in the context of extreme climate change. Paper IV is a literature review of the potential contributions of the arts to transformations, in the context of climate change. These papers focus on different features of imagination, which under certain circumstances may progressively develop into societal transformative capacities with the potential to re-structure current social-ecological realities. Overall, this thesis is a step towards forging new kinds of reflexive, imaginative and deliberative practices that can support the emergence of local arrangements of a sustainable world where life can carry on.

  • 4.
    Galafassi, Diego
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Transformational knowledge practices in social-ecological systems2016Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate change and poverty alleviation are examples of interconnected challenges propelling changes across environmental, social, cultural and political spheres. Interconnected challenges are characterized by multiple causality, feedback loops, non-linear dynamics. Transformations, as fundamental reconfigurations of social-ecological relations, are increasingly proposed as a strategy for tackling interconnected challenges. Transformations seem to require a move towards diverse, integrated, imaginative, anticipatory, dynamic forms of knowledge making. Although new forms of knowledge creation are indeed emerging in sustainability science and practice, this area of studies is yet to yield a coherent research framework for analyzing the contribution of these practices to transformations in social-ecological systems. The central aim of this thesis is to a) provide a theoretical framework and b) to explore and assess feasibility and effectiveness of concrete knowledge practices that could help governance actors to move towards forms of deliberate transformations in the face of interconnected challenges. Two empirical research papers based on a case-study in Coastal Kenya are presented. In these papers we approached the interconnected challenges of social-ecological trade-offs by engaging multiple knowledge practices (ranging from dialogue, to narrative scenarios, participatory modelling and ecological modelling) to create a space for imagination and deliberation amongst governance actors and scientists. Assessment of this process was performed with a mixed methods research design, including interviews, surveys, and participant observation. Results suggest that overall, these knowledge practices supported: a) development of systemic and collaborative mindsets (Paper 1); b) revision of core assumptions (Paper 1); c) the identification of key cross-scale tradeoffs that were previously not considered by governance actors (Paper 2). These results highlight the potential of these knowledge practices in fostering knowledge relevant for re-imagination and reconfiguration of social-ecological systems. I conclude by proposing that transformational knowledge practices present at least four key elements in that they are: plural and coproduced, affect change across scales, involve multiple ways of knowing and foster imagination. 

  • 5.
    Galafassi, Diego
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Daw, Tim M.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Munyi, Lydiah
    Brown, Katrina
    Barnaud, Cecile
    Fazey, Ioan
    Learning about social-ecological trade-offs2017In: Ecology & society, ISSN 1708-3087, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 22, no 1, article id 2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Trade-offs are manifestations of the complex dynamics in interdependent social-ecological systems. Addressing tradeoffs involves challenges of perception due to the dynamics of interdependence. We outline the challenges associated with addressing trade-offs and analyze knowledge coproduction as a practice that may contribute to tackling trade-offs in social-ecological systems. We discuss this through a case study in coastal Kenya in which an iterative knowledge coproduction process was facilitated to reveal social-ecological trade-offs in the face of ecological and socioeconomic change. Representatives of communities, government, and NGOs attended two integrative workshops in which methods derived from systems thinking, dialogue, participatory modeling, and scenarios were applied to encourage participants to engage and evaluate trade-offs. Based on process observation and interviews with participants and scientists, our analysis suggests that this process lead to increased appreciation of interdependences and the way in which trade-offs emerge from complex dynamics of interdependent factors. The process seemed to provoke a reflection of knowledge assumptions and narratives, and management goals for the social-ecological system. We also discuss how stakeholders link these insights to their practices.

  • 6.
    Galafassi, Diego
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    J. David, Tàbara
    Heras, María
    Restoring our senses, restoring the Earth. Fostering imaginative capacities through the Arts for envisioning climate transformationsIn: Elementa: Science of the Anthropocene, E-ISSN 2325-1026Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Humanity has never lived in a world where global average temperature is above two degrees of current levels. Moving towards such High-End Climate Change (HECC) futures is likely to involve high uncertainty, non-linear dynamics in global ecologies and a fundamental challenge to current governance structures. Responding to such a world will require more than technical and conventional solutions. We depart in this paper from the notion that human imagination may be a central capacity to support multiple learning processes necessary in triggering transformative change. We developed a three-years long art-based approach to knowledge co-creation  We explore the possibilities of fostering with the intention to boost imaginative capacities in support to the development of transformative societal visions. The process combines a range of performative, visual and reflexive practices with the ambition to reach out to more-than-rational but also practical elements of future visioning processes. The empirical case was realized alongside a science-led participatory knowledge co-creation process within the EU project IMPRESSIONS, in the Iberian Peninsula. Our analysis focuses on the ways in which this art-based approach brought new ways of seeing, feeling and interpreting the world given the present climate challenge. The approach supported participants in the development of a sensibility towards the future and suggested ways in which the future can be made present in order to empower and infuse action. 

  • 7.
    Galafassi, Diego
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Kagan, Sacha
    Milkoreit, Manjana
    Heras, María
    Bilodeau, Chantal
    Bourke, Sadhbh Juarez
    Merrie, Andrew
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Guerrero, Leonie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Petursdóttir, Guðrún
    Tàbara, Joan David
    ‘Raising the temperature’: the arts on a warming planet2018In: Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability, ISSN 1877-3435, E-ISSN 1877-3443, Vol. 31, p. 71-79Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The search for decisive actions to remain below 1.5 °C of global temperature rise will require profound cultural transformations. Yet our knowledge of how to promote and bring about such deep transformative changes in the minds and behaviours of individuals and societies is still limited. As climate change unravels and the planet becomes increasingly connected, societies will need to articulate a shared purpose that is both engaging and respectful of cultural diversity. Thus, there is a growing need to ‘raise the temperature’ of integration between multiple ways of knowing climate change. We have reviewed a range of literatures and synthesized them in order to draw out the perceived role of the arts in fostering climate transformations. Our analysis of climate-related art projects and initiatives shows increased engagement in recent years, particularly with the narrative, visual and performing arts. The arts are moving beyond raising awareness and entering the terrain of interdisciplinarity and knowledge co-creation. We conclude that climate-arts can contribute positively in fostering the imagination and emotional predisposition for the development and implementation of the transformations necessary to address the 1.5 °C challenge.

  • 8.
    Galafassi, Diego
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Tim M., Daw
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Thyresson, Matilda
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Rosendo, Sergio
    Chaigneau, Tomas
    Bandeira, Salomao
    Munyi, Lydiah
    Gabrielsson, Ida
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Brown, Katrina
    Stories in social-­ecological knowledge co­-creation2018In: Ecology & society, ISSN 1708-3087, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 23, no 1, article id 23Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Transformations in social-ecological systems to overturn poverty and ecosystem degradation require approaches to knowledge synthesis that are inclusive and open to creative innovation. In this paper we draw on interviews with participants and in-depth process observation of an iterative knowledge co-creation process in Kenya and Mozambique that brought together scientists, community representatives, government representatives and practitioners with expertise or experience of poverty and/or coastal natural resource use and management. We analyze the communicative spaces opened by techniques of system diagrams and future scenarios and provide a rich account of the emergent process of developing a “shared conceptual repertoire” as a basis for effective communication and knowledge synthesis. Our results highlight the difficulties of challenging dominant narratives and the creative potential that exists in reflecting on their underpinning assumptions. In our analysis stories and lived experiences emerged as key means shaping the construction of shared concepts and ideas. We conclude by outlining the implications for designing knowledge co-creation processes that support the task of devising systemic interventions robust to a range of future scenarios. This includes embracing the role of stories in generating shared meanings and opening up spaces for exploration of knowledge assumptions embedded in intervention narratives.

  • 9.
    Galafassi, Diego
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Tàbara, J. David
    Heras, María
    Restoring our senses, restoring the Earth. Fostering imaginative capacities through the arts for envisioning climate transformations2018In: Elementa science of the anthropocene, ISSN 2325-1026, Vol. 6, article id 69Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Humanity has never lived in a world of global average temperature above two degrees of current levels. Moving towards such High-End Climate Change (HECC) futures presents fundamental challenges to current governance structures and involves the need to confront high uncertainties, non-linear dynamics and multiple irreversibilities in global social-ecological systems. In order to face HECC, imaginative practices able to support multiple ways of learning about and experiencing the future are necessary. In this article we analysed a set of arts-based activities conducted within the five-year EU-funded project IMPRESSIONS aimed at identifying transformative strategies to high-end climate change. The exploratory artistic activities were carried out alongside a science-led participatory integrated assessment process with stakeholders from the Iberian Peninsula. Our arts-based approach combined a range of performative, visual and reflexive practices with the ambition to reach out to more-than-rational but also practical elements of HECC futures. Our study suggests that the arts-based approach helped to bring out new ways of seeing, feeling and interpreting the world which may support the development of individual and collective sensibilities needed to address HECC.

  • 10. Risvoll, Camilla
    et al.
    Fedreheim, Gunn Elin
    Galafassi, Diego
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Trade-offs in pastoral governance in Norway: Challenges for biodiversity and adaptation2016In: Pastoralism, ISSN 2041-7136, E-ISSN 2041-7136, Vol. 6, no 1, article id UNSP 4Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Norway is committed to the two-fold policy objective of preserving biodiversity and maintaining traditional local livelihoods. This creates management dilemmas with the potential to undermine the legitimacy of both national and international policies. In this article, we take a social-ecological perspective to highlight how these two policy objectives are linked and interdependent and, therefore, subjected to complex dynamics between institutions and ecosystems. We use a case study in northern Norway to discuss trade-offs in the implementation of the two-fold conservation objectives. Based on interviews, a focus group meeting with 16 reindeer herders and stakeholders and participant observations during a grazing committee meeting, we identified that ecological dynamics between carnivores, sheep and grassland patterns are central to this trade-off. We demonstrate how current governance instruments in carnivore management do not address the spatial dynamics of carnivores leading to a perceived conflict between environmentalist groups and farmers around questions of carnivore protection and sheep killings by carnivores. Fragmentation in the multi-layered governance system prevents ongoing dialogue among various actors, thereby enhancing antagonisms while reducing the likelihood of the emergence and implementation of adaptation measures and practices.

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