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  • 1.
    Almbro, Maria
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, Ethology.
    Kullberg, Cecilia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, Ethology.
    Impaired escape flight ability in butterflies due to low flight muscle ratio prior to hibernation2008In: Journal of Experimental Biology, ISSN 0022-0949, E-ISSN 1477-9145, Vol. 211, no 1, p. 24-28Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 2.
    Almbro, Maria
    et al.
    Centre for Evolutionary Biology, University of Western Australia.
    Kullberg, Cecilia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, Ethology.
    Season, sex and flight muscle investment affect take-off performance in the hibernating small tortoiseshell butterfly Agalis urticae (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae)2011In: The Journal of Research on the Lepidoptera, ISSN 0022-4324, Vol. 44, p. 77-84Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Flight ability is generally expected to increase with relative flight muscle mass. Changes in weight can therefore be expected to influence the capacity to rapidly take-off, which can determine mating success and predator avoidance. This study examined the influence of relative flight muscle mass, sex, and season on free take-off flight ability in a butterfly model (Aglais urticae) that undergoes adult winter hibernation. Mass change and take-off flight ability (velocity and take-off angle), was predicted to fluctuate with season (before, during and after hibernation) and sex (due to reproductive investment). Our results indeed showed changes in take-off ability in relation to both parameters. Females maintained velocity across seasons but reduced take-off angles during and after hibernation. Male flight speed increased during and after hibernation, whereas take-off angles were significantly reduced during hibernation. Finally, we showed that investment in relative flight muscle mass increased velocity in female, but not in male butterflies.

  • 3.
    Almbro, Maria
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, Department of Ethology.
    Kullberg, Cecilia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, Department of Ethology. Stockholm University.
    The downfall of mating: the effect of mate-carrying and flight muscle ratio on the escape ability of a pierid butterfly2009In: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, ISSN 0340-5443, E-ISSN 1432-0762, Vol. 63, no 3, p. 413-420Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Almbro, Maria
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Kullberg, Cecilia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Weight Loading and Reproductive Status Affect the Flight Performance of Pieris napi Butterflies2012In: Journal of insect behavior, ISSN 0892-7553, E-ISSN 1572-8889, Vol. 25, no 5, p. 441-452Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Weight-induced mobility reductions can have dramatic fitness consequences and winged animals are especially sensitive to the trade-off between mass and locomotion. Data on how natural weight fluctuations influence a flying insect's ability to take off are scarce. We therefore quantified take-off flight ability in Pieris napi butterflies in relation to reproductive status. Take-off flight ability (velocity and take-off angle) under suboptimal temperature conditions was recorded with a 3D-tracking camera system and was predicted to decrease with relatively larger weight loads. Our results show that relatively larger weight loads generally reduce flight speed in male butterflies and lower take-off angles in females. However, despite having a lower wing loading, mated male butterflies flew slower than unmated males. Our study suggests that retention of weight loads associated with reproduction impairs insect flight performance.

  • 5. Barboutis, Christos
    et al.
    Henshaw, Ian
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Kullberg, Cecilia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Nikolopoulou, Stamatina
    Fransson, Thord
    Fuelling in front of the barrier-are there age based behavioral differences in Garden Warblers Sylvia borin?2014In: PeerJ, ISSN 2167-8359, E-ISSN 2167-8359, Vol. 2, article id e319Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Garden Warblers Sylvia borin were studied during autumn stopover in Crete before crossing the barrier of the Mediterranean Sea and the Sahara Desert. Birds followed with transmitters show extensive stopover periods, which were longer in first-year birds, 16 days, compared with adult birds, 14 days. The distribution of body masses from birds trapped in fig trees were used to estimate the departure body mass and the results found indicate that both age categories on average depart with a fuel load close to 100% of lean body mass. The movement of transmitter birds shows differences between first-year and adult birds. Adult birds move further away from the release site and many also left the study area. Several were found settled outside the study area, up to 17 km away, indicating that they regularly make longer stopover movements. It is suggested that this might be a result of that they return to a place where they stayed during an earlier migration. It was shown that stopover site fidelity exists and nine garden warblers were recaptured in the area during a following autumn. The results found highlights the importance of stopover areas close to the Sahara Desert.

  • 6.
    Berzins, Arnis
    et al.
    University of Daugavpils.
    Krama, Tatjana
    University of Daugavpils.
    Krams, Indrikis
    University of Turku.
    Freeberg, Todd
    University of Tennessee.
    Kivleniece, Inese
    University of Daugavpils.
    Kullberg, Cecilia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, Ethology.
    Rantala, Markus J
    University of Turku.
    Mobbing as a tradeoff between safety and reproduction in a songbird2010In: Behavioral Ecology, ISSN 1045-2249, E-ISSN 1465-7279, Vol. 21, no 5, p. 1054-1060Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 7. Boström, Jannika E.
    et al.
    Kullberg, Cecilia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, Ethology.
    Åkesson, Susanne
    Northern magnetic displacements trigger endogenous fuelling responses in a naive bird migrant2012In: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, ISSN 0340-5443, E-ISSN 1432-0762, Vol. 66, no 5, p. 819-821Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In a previous study, we found that juvenile northern wheatears (Oenanthe oenanthe) exposed to a magnetic displacement to the west of their natural migration route increased their body mass. The total intensity and inclination used for the western displacement may also have been interpreted as northern compared to the experimental site (stronger total field intensity and steeper inclination angle). In order to investigate whether the fuelling response was a response to an unexpected magnetic field or specific to the northern magnetic field, we conducted a new experiment. Juvenile wheatears from the same study population were magnetically displaced to southwestern magnetic fields, exposing the birds to unexpected magnetic combinations, but eliminating the possible effect of a northern magnetic field. A control group was kept in the local geomagnetic field in Sweden for comparison. There was no difference in body mass increase between treatments, suggesting that the fuelling response previously found was not a simple response to an unexpected magnetic field, but rather a specific response to the northern magnetic field. Juvenile wheatears may have developed a fuelling response to northern magnetic fields in order to enable a successful flight towards the migration goal.

  • 8. Boström, Jannika
    et al.
    Fransson, Thord
    Henshaw, Ian
    Jakobsson, Sven
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, Ethology.
    Kullberg, Cecilia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, Ethology.
    Åkesson, Susanne
    Autumn migratory fuelling: a response to simulated magnetic displacement in juvenile wheatears, Oenathe oenathe2010In: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, ISSN 0340-5443, E-ISSN 1432-0762, Vol. 64, no 11, p. 1725-1732Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent experiments exposing migratory birds to altered magnetic fields simulating geographical displacements have shown that the geomagnetic field acts as an external cue affecting migratory fuelling behaviour. This is the first study investigating fuel deposition in relation to geomagnetic cues in long-distance migrants using the western passage of the Mediterranean region. Juvenile wheatears (Oenanthe oenanthe) were exposed to a magnetically simulated autumn migration from southern Sweden to West Africa. Birds displaced parallel to the west of their natural migration route, simulating an unnatural flight over the Atlantic Ocean, increased their fuel deposition compared to birds experiencing a simulated migration along the natural route. These birds, on the other hand, showed relatively low fuel loads in agreement with earlier data on wheatears trapped during stopover. The experimental displacement to the west, corresponding to novel sites in the Atlantic Ocean, led to a simulated longer distance to the wintering area, probably explaining the observed larger fuel loads. Our data verify previous results suggesting that migratory birds use geomagnetic cues for fuelling decisions and, for the first time, show that birds, on their first migration, can use geomagnetic cues to compensate for a displacement outside their normal migratory route, by adjusting fuel deposition.

  • 9.
    Fransson, Thord
    et al.
    Naturhistoriska Riksmuseet.
    Jakobsson, Sven
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Johansson, Patrik
    Sveriges geologiska undersökningar.
    Kullberg, Cecilia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Lind, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Valllin, Adrian
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Magnetic cues trigger extensive refuelling2001In: Nature, ISSN 0028-0836, E-ISSN 1476-4687, Vol. 414, p. 35-36Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 10. Fransson, Thord
    et al.
    Karlsson, Måns
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics.
    Kullberg, Cecilia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Stach, Robert
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Barboutis, Christos
    Inability to regain normal body mass despite extensive refuelling in great reed warblers following the trans‐Sahara crossing during spring migration2017In: Journal of Avian Biology, ISSN 0908-8857, E-ISSN 1600-048X, Vol. 48, no 1, p. 58-65Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Migratory birds wintering in Africa face the challenge of passing the Sahara desert with few opportunities to forage. During spring migration birds thus arrive in the Mediterranean area with very low energy reserves after crossing the desert. Since early arrival to the breeding grounds often is of importance to maximize reproductive success, finding stopover sites with good refuelling possibilities after the Saharan passage is of utmost importance. Here we report on extensive fuelling in the great reed warbler Acrocephalus arundinaceus on the south coast of Crete in spring, the first land that they encounter after crossing the Sahara desert and the Mediterranean Sea in this area. Birds were studied at a river mouth and due to an exceptional high recapture rate (45 and 51% in two successive years), we were able to get information about stopover behaviour in 56 individual great reed warblers during two spring seasons. The large proportion of trapped great reed warbler compared to other species and the large number of recaptures suggest that great reed warblers actively choose this area for stopover. They stayed on average 3-4 d, increased on average about 3.5 g in body mass and the average rate of body mass increase was 4.8% of lean body mass d(-1). Wing length affected the rate of increase and indicated that females have a slower increase than males. The results found show that great reed warblers at this site regularly deposit larger fuel loads than needed for one continued flight stage. The low body mass found in great reed warblers (also in birds with high fat scores) is a strong indication that birds staging at Anapodaris still had not been able to rebuild their structural tissue after the strenuous Sahara crossing, suggesting that rebuilding structural tissue may take longer time than previously thought.

  • 11. Fransson, Thord
    et al.
    Kullberg, Cecilia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, Ethology.
    Stach, Robert
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, Ethology.
    Barboutis, Christos
    Extensive fuelling in great reed warblers following the trans-Sahara crossing in springManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Migratory birds wintering in Africa face the challenge of passing the Sahara desert with little opportunities to forage. During spring migration birds thus arrive in the Mediterranean area after crossing the desert with very low energy reserves. Since early arrival to the breeding grounds often is of importance to maximize reproductive success, finding stopover sites with good refuelling possibilities after the Saharan passage is of utmost importance. Here we report on extensive fuelling in the great reed warbler, Acrocephalus arundinaceus, on the south coast of Crete in spring, the first land that they encounter after crossing the Sahara desert and the Mediterranean Sea in this area. Birds were trapped with mist nets at a river mouth, individually ringed and information about body mass, wing length, muscle score and fat score were recorded. Due to an exceptional high recapture rate at the trapping site (45%), we were able to calculate minimum stopover time and fuel deposition rates in 25 individual great reed warblers during one spring season. The large proportion of trapped great reed warbler compared to other species and the large number of recaptures suggests that great reed warbler actively choose this area for stopover. The relatively long stopover period at the site, the high fuel deposition rate (1 g day-1) and the large body mass increase show that great reed warblers at this site regularly deposit a much larger fuel load than needed for one continued flight stage to the north. It was also shown that birds with lower body mass at first capture had a higher fuel deposition rate than birds with higher body mass. This indicates that individuals are able to adjust their food intake in relation to energy reserves.

  • 12. Freeberg, Todd M.
    et al.
    Krama, Tatjana
    Vrublevska, Jolanta
    Krams, Indrikis
    Kullberg, Cecilia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Tufted titmouse (Baeolophus bicolor) calling and risk-sensitive foraging in the face of threat2014In: Animal Cognition, ISSN 1435-9448, E-ISSN 1435-9456, Vol. 17, no 6, p. 1341-1352Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Individuals often produce alarm or mobbing calls when they detect a threat such as a predator. Little is known about whether such calling is affected by the facial orientation of a potential threat, however. We tested for an effect of facial orientation of a potential threat on tufted titmice, Baeolophus bicolor, a songbird that uses chick-a-dee calls in a variety of social contexts. In two studies, a human observer wore an animal mask that either faced or faced away from the focal bird(s). In Study 1, focal birds were individual titmice captured in a walk-in trap, and the observer stood near the trapped bird. In Study 2, focal birds were titmouse flocks utilizing a feeding station and the observer stood near the station. In both studies, calling behavior was affected by mask orientation. In Study 2, foraging and agonistic behavior were also affected. Titmice can therefore perceive the facial orientation of a potential threat, and this perception affects different behavioral systems, including calling. Our results indicate sensitivity of titmice to the facial orientation of a potential predator in two quite different motivational contexts. This work suggests the possibility of strategic signaling by prey species depending upon the perceptual space of a detected predator.

  • 13.
    Hedlund, Johanna S. U.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Jakobsson, Sven
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Kullberg, Cecilia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Fransson, Thord
    Long-term phenological shifts and intra-specific differences in migratory change in the willow warbler Phylloscopus trochilus2015In: Journal of Avian Biology, ISSN 0908-8857, E-ISSN 1600-048X, Vol. 46, no 1, p. 97-106Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate change can influence many aspects of avian phenology and especially migratory shifts and changes in breeding onset receive much research interest in this context. However, changes in these different life-cycle events in birds are often investigated separately and by means of ringing records of mixed populations. In this long-term study on the willow warbler Phylloscopus trochilus, we investigated timing of spring and autumn migration in conjunction with timing of breeding. We made distinction among individuals with regard to age, sex, juvenile origin and migratory phase. The data set comprised 22-yr of ringing records and two temporally separated data sets of egg-laying dates and arrival of the breeding population close to the ringing site. The results reveal an overall advancement consistent in most, but not all, phenological events. During spring migration, early and median passage of males and females became earlier by between 4.4 to 6.3 d and median egg-laying dates became earlier by 5 d. Male arrival advanced more, which may lead to an increase in the degree of protandry in the future. Among breeding individuals, only female arrival advanced in timing. In autumn, adults and locally hatched juvenile females did not advanced median passage, but locally hatched juvenile males appeared 4.2 d earlier. Migrating juvenile males and females advanced passage both in early and median migratory phase by between 8.4 to 10.1 d. The dissimilarities in the response between birds of different age, sex and migratory phase emphasize that environmental change may elicit intra-specific selection pressures. The overall consistency of the phenological change in spring, autumn and egg-laying, coupled with the unchanged number of days between median spring and autumn migration in adults, indicate that the breeding area residence has advanced seasonally but remained temporally constant.

  • 14.
    Henshaw, Ian
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Fransson, Thord
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Bird Ringing Centre.
    Jakobsson, Sven
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Jenni-Eiermann, Susanne
    Swiss Ornithological Institute.
    Kullberg, Cecilia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Information from the geomagnetic field induce changes in corticosterone secretion in a migratory birdManuscript (Other academic)
  • 15.
    Henshaw, Ian
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, Ethology.
    Fransson, Thord
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Ringmärkningscentralen.
    Jakobsson, Sven
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, Ethology.
    Jenni-Eiermann, Susanne
    Swiss ornithological Institute.
    Kullberg, Cecilia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, Ethology.
    Information from the geomagnetic field triggers a reduced adrenocortical response in a migratory bird2009In: Journal of Experimental Biology, ISSN 0022-0949, E-ISSN 1477-9145, Vol. 212, p. 2902-2907Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Long-distance migrants regularly pass ecological barriers, like the Sahara desert, where extensive fuel loads are necessary for a successful crossing. A central question is how inexperienced migrants know when to put on extensive fuel loads. Beside the endogenous rhythm, external cues have been suggested to be important. Geomagnetic information has been shown to trigger changes in foraging behaviour and fuel deposition rate in migratory birds. The underlying mechanism for these adjustments, however, is not well understood. As the glucocorticoid hormone corticosterone is known to correlate with behaviour and physiology related to energy regulation in birds, we here investigated the effect of geomagnetic cues on circulating corticosterone levels in a long-distance migrant. Just as in earlier studies, juvenile thrush nightingales (Luscinia luscinia) caught during autumn migration and exposed to the simulated geomagnetic field of northern Egypt increased food intake and attained higher fuel loads than control birds experiencing the ambient magnetic field of southeast Sweden. Our results further show that experimental birds faced a reduced adrenocortical response compared with control birds, thus for the first time implying that geomagnetic cues trigger changes in hormonal secretion enabling appropriate behaviour along the migratory route.

  • 16.
    Henshaw, Ian
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet.
    Fransson, Thord
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, ringmärkningscentralen.
    Jakobsson, Sven
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, Ethology.
    Kullberg, Cecilia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, Ethology.
    Geomagnetic field affects spring migratory direction in a long distance migrant2010In: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, ISSN 0340-5443, E-ISSN 1432-0762, Vol. 64, no 8, p. 1317-1323Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 17.
    Henshaw, Ian
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Fransson, Thord
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Bird Ringing Centre.
    Jakobsson, Sven
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Kullberg, Cecilia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Simulated geomagnetic displacement affects spring migratory direction in a long distance migrantManuscript (Other academic)
  • 18.
    Henshaw, Ian
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Fransson, Thord
    Jakobsson, Sven
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Lind, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology. Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Cultural Evolution.
    Vallin, Adrian
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Kullberg, Cecilia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Food intake and fuel deposition in a migratory bird is affected by multiple as well as single-step changes in the magnetic field2008In: Journal of Experimental Biology, ISSN 0022-0949, E-ISSN 1477-9145, Vol. 211, p. 649-653Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent studies have shown that migratory thrush nightingales (Luscinia luscinia) experimentally treated with multiple changes of the magnetic field simulating a journey to their target stopover area in northern Egypt, increased fuel deposition as expected in preparation to cross the Sahara desert. To investigate the significance of food intake on the body mass changes observed, in the work described here we analysed food intake of the nightingales under study in those earlier experiments. Furthermore, to study whether a single change in the magnetic field directly to northern Egypt is sufficient to provide information for fuelling decisions, we performed a new experiment, exposing thrush nightingales trapped in Sweden, directly to a magnetic field of northern Egypt. Our results show that an experimentally induced magnetic field of northern Egypt, close to the barrier crossing, triggers the same response in fuel deposition as experiments with multiple changes of the magnetic field simulating a migratory journey from Sweden to Egypt, suggesting that migratory birds do not require successive changes in field parameters to incorporate magnetic information into their migratory program. Furthermore, irrespective of experimental set up (single or multiple changes of the magnetic field parameters) increase in food intake seems to be the major reason for the observed increase in fuelling rate compared with control birds, suggesting that geomagnetic information might trigger hormonal changes in migratory birds enabling appropriate fuelling behaviour during migration.

  • 19. Krama, Tatjana
    et al.
    Vrublevska, Jolanta
    Freeberg, Todd M.
    Kullberg, Cecilia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Rantala, Markus J.
    Krams, Indrikis
    You mob my owl, I'll mob yours: birds play tit-for-tat game2012In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 2, article id 800Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Reciprocity is fundamental to cooperative behaviour and has been verified in theoretical models. However, there is still limited experimental evidence for reciprocity in non-primate species. Our results more decisively clarify that reciprocity with a tit-for-tat enforcement strategy can occur among breeding pied flycatchers Ficedula hypoleuca separate from considerations of byproduct mutualism. Breeding pairs living in close proximity (20-24 m) did exhibit byproduct mutualism and always assisted in mobbing regardless of their neighbours' prior actions. However, breeding pairs with distant neighbours (69-84 m) either assisted or refused to assist in mobbing a predatory owl based on whether or not the distant pair had previously helped them in their own nest defense against the predator. Clearly, these birds are aware of their specific spatial security context, remember their neighbours' prior behaviour, and choose a situation-specific strategic course of action, which could promote their longer-term security, a capacity previously thought unique to primates.

  • 20. Krams, Indrikis
    et al.
    Krama, Tatjana
    Freeberg, Todd M.
    Kullberg, Cecilia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Lucas, Jeffrey R.
    Linking social complexity and vocal complexity: a parid perspective2012In: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8436, E-ISSN 1471-2970, Vol. 367, no 1597, p. 1879-1891Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Paridae family (chickadees, tits and titmice) is an interesting avian group in that species vary in important aspects of their social structure and many species have large and complex vocal repertoires. For this reason, parids represent an important set of species for testing the social complexity hypothesis for vocal communication-the notion that as groups increase in social complexity, there is a need for increased vocal complexity. Here, we describe the hypothesis and some of the early evidence that supported the hypothesis. Next, we review literature on social complexity and on vocal complexity in parids, and describe some of the studies that have made explicit tests of the social complexity hypothesis in one parid-Carolina chickadees, Poecile carolinensis. We conclude with a discussion, primarily from a parid perspective, of the benefits and costs of grouping and of physiological factors that might mediate the relationship between social complexity and changes in signalling behaviour.

  • 21.
    Kullberg, Cecilia
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Fransson, Thord
    Hedlund, Johanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Jonzen, Niclas
    Langvall, Ola
    Nilsson, Johan
    Bolmgren, Kjell
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences SLU, Sweden.
    Change in spring arrival of migratory birds under an era of climate change, Swedish data from the last 140 years2015In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 44, p. S69-S77Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many migratory bird species have advanced their spring arrival during the latest decades, most probably due to climate change. However, studies on migratory phenology in the period before recent global warming are scarce. We have analyzed a historical dataset (1873-1917) of spring arrival to southern and central Sweden of 14 migratory bird species. In addition, we have used relative differences between historical and present-day observations (1984-2013) to evaluate the effect of latitude and migratory strategy on day of arrival over time. There was a larger change in spring phenology in short-distance migrants than in long-distance migrants. Interestingly, the results further suggest that climate change has affected the phenology of short-distance migrants more in southern than in central Sweden. The results suggest that the much earlier calculated arrival to southern Sweden among short-distance migrants mirrors a change in location of wintering areas, hence, connecting migration phenology and wintering range shifts.

  • 22.
    Kullberg, Cecilia
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology. Etologi.
    Henshaw, Ian
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology. Etologi.
    Jakobsson, Sven
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology. Etologi.
    Johansson, Patrik
    Sveriges Geologiska Undersökning.
    Fransson, Thord
    Naturhistoriska Riksmuseet.
    Fuelling decisions in migratory birds: geomagnetic cues override the seasonal effect.2007In: Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B, Vol. 274, no 1622, p. 2145-2151Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent evaluations of both temporal and spatial precision in bird migration have called for external cues in addition to the inherited programme defining the migratory journey in terms of direction, distance and fuelling behaviour along the route. We used juvenile European robins (Erithacus rubecula) to study whether geomagnetic cues affect fuel deposition in a medium-distance migrant by simulating a migratory journey from southeast Sweden to the wintering area in southern Spain. In the late phase of the onset of autumn migration, robins exposed to the magnetic treatment attained a lower fuel load than control birds exposed to the ambient magnetic field of southeast Sweden. In contrast, robins captured in the early phase of the onset of autumn migration all showed low fuel deposition irrespective of experimental treatment. These results are, as expected, the inverse of what we have found in similar studies in a long-distance migrant, the thrush nightingale (Luscinia luscinia), indicating that the reaction in terms of fuelling behaviour to a simulated southward migration varies depending on the relevance for the species. Furthermore, we suggest that information from the geomagnetic field act as an important external cue overriding the seasonal effect on fuelling behaviour in migratory birds.

  • 23.
    Kullberg, Cecilia
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Jakobsson, Sven
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Kaby, Ulrika
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Lind, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Impaired flight ability prior to egg laying: A cost of being a capital breeder2005In: Functional Ecology, ISSN 0269-8463, E-ISSN 1365-2435, Vol. 19, no 1, p. 98-101Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]
    • 1To investigate flight ability in captive Zebra Finches during reproduction we compared change in escape take-off ability and wing load of reproducing females with their mates and non-reproducing females when attacked by a model raptor.
    • 2Initially females had 18% higher wing load than males. Non-reproducing females and females that had started egg-laying flew slower than males. Reproducing females reduced wing load during egg-laying and flew faster when the clutch was completed. Non-breeding females remained on high wing load and flow slower than breeding females that had completed their clutch.
    • 3The increase in flight speed of breeding females was explained by a reduction in wing load during egg-laying.
    • 4Zebra Finches use accumulated reserves to produce eggs and pay a cost in terms of reduced flight ability, but then regain flight performance when the clutch is laid, probably demonstrating a predation cost of capital breeding in birds.
  • 24.
    Kullberg, Cecilia
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology. etologi.
    Lafrenz, Maria
    Escape take-off strategies in birds: the significance of protective cover2007In: Behavioural Ecology and Sociobiology, Vol. 61, p. 1555-156Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 25.
    Kullberg, Cecilia
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Lind, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    An experimental study of predator recognition in great tit fledglings2002In: Ethology, ISSN 0179-1613, E-ISSN 1439-0310, Vol. 108, no 5, p. 429-441Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Studies of naturally predator-naïve adult birds (finches on predator-free islands) and birds experimentally hand reared in isolation from predators indicate that birds can recognise predators innately; that is, birds show anti-predator behaviour without former experience of predators. To reduce predation risk efficiently during the vulnerable fledgling period, we would predict an innate response to be fully developed when the chicks leave the nest. However, 30-day-old naïve great tit fledglings (Parus major) did not respond differently to a model of a perched predator than to a similarly sized model of a non-predator. Although chicks showed distress responses such as warning calls and freezing behaviour, they did not differentiate between the stimuli. In contrast, wild-caught first-year birds (4 mo old) and adults responded differentially to the two stimuli. Lack of recognition of a perched predator might be one explanation for the high mortality rate found in newly fledged great tits. Our results imply that parental care is not only important for food provisioning, but also to reduce predation risk during the time when fledglings are most vulnerable

  • 26.
    Kullberg, Cecilia
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Lind, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Fransson, Thord
    Naturhistoriska Riksmuseet.
    Vallin, Adrian
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Magnetic cues and time of season affect fuel deposition in migratory thrush nightingales (Luscinia luscinia)2003In: Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8452, E-ISSN 1471-2954, Vol. 270, no 1513, p. 373-378Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bird migration requires high energy expenditure, and long–distance migrants accumulate fat for use as fuel during stopovers throughout their journey. Recent studies have shown that long–distance migratory birds, besides accumulating fat for use as fuel, also show adaptive phenotypic flexibility in several organs during migration. The migratory routes of many songbirds include stretches of sea and desert where fuelling is not possible. Large fuel loads increase flight costs and predation risk, therefore extensive fuelling should occur only immediately prior to crossing inhospitable zones. However, despite their crucial importance for the survival of migratory birds, both strategic refuelling decisions and variation in phenotypic flexibility during migration are not well understood. First–year thrush nightingales (Luscinia luscinia) caught in the early phase of the onset of autumn migration in southeast Sweden and exposed to a magnetic treatment simulating a migratory flight to northern Egypt increased more in fuel load than control birds. By contrast, birds trapped during the late phase of the onset of autumn migration accumulated a high fuel load irrespective of magnetic treatment. Furthermore, early birds increased less in flight–muscle size than birds trapped later in autumn. We suggest that the relative importance of endogenous and environmental factors in individual birds is affected by the time of season and by geographical area. When approaching a barrier, environmental cues may act irrespective of the endogenous time programme.

  • 27.
    Lind, Johan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for the Study of Cultural Evolution. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, Ethology. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Jakobsson, Sven
    Stockholm University. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, Ethology.
    Kullberg, Cecilia
    Stockholm University. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, Ethology.
    Impaired predator evasion in the life-history of birds: behavioral and physiological adaptations to reduced flight ability.2010In: Current Ornithology, Vol. 17, p. 1-30Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 28.
    Stach, Robert
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, Ethology.
    Fransson, Thord
    Jakobsson, Sven
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, Ethology.
    Kullberg, Cecilia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, Ethology.
    No compensatory fuelling due to late autumn migration in the Garden Warbler Sylvia borinManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Birds migrating late in the migration season may need to compensate for the late departure by increasing migration speed. To increase migration speed late migrants should depart from stopovers along the route with larger fuel loads than early migrants. Both higher migration speeds and increasing fuel loads with the progress of the season have been reported in the literature. Here we test if Garden Warblers (Sylvia borin) show different fuelling strategies when captured on migration in the early or late part of autumn migration and given unlimited access to food. We also included a group of birds that were captured early in the season but held under a light regime with shorter day lengths to simulate thirty days advancement in time. We found no difference in maximum body mass between the groups and all groups reached fairly large fuel loads (mean: 39.2 % of lean body mass). Maximum fuel load was also strongly correlated with fuel deposition rate and this may suggest that Garden Warblers migrate at high speed during the entire season, which leaves little room for increasing speed later in the season.

  • 29.
    Stach, Robert
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, Ethology.
    Fransson, Thord
    Jakobsson, Sven
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, Ethology.
    Kullberg, Cecilia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, Ethology.
    Wide ranging stopover movements and substantial fuelling in first year garden warblers at a northern stopover site2015In: Journal of Avian Biology, ISSN 0908-8857, E-ISSN 1600-048X, Vol. 46, no 3, p. 315-322Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Migratory birds use stopovers to replenish their fuel reserves and they generally spend more time at stopover sites than theydo in actual fl ight. When arriving at a new stopover site birds may need to search extensively to fi nd a suitable feeding areaand this search and settling period may aff ect the duration of stopover. Stopover behaviour can thus have profound eff ectson the migratory programme and studies on stopover behaviour are important to understand migratory strategies. Wefollowed 51 fi rst-year garden warblers Sylvia borin with radio-transmitters at an autumn stopover site on the island ofGotland in southern Sweden. Our aim was to determine the distance birds relocated from the coastal capture site whensearching for an area to settle in, and also to establish the duration of stopover and put it in relation to refuelling rate byrecapturing a subset of the radio-tracked individuals. Sixteen birds made an extended stopover ( 2 d), relocated inlandfrom the capture site and settled on average 5.6 km from the capture site, with the longest recorded relocation being fourteenkilometres. Birds that relocated nocturnally settled in areas further away than birds that relocated diurnally. Th irteenbirds that continued migration after a short stop carried larger fuel stores than birds that stopped over longer and theyremained close to the capture site until departure. Th ree birds were re-trapped and showed high fuelling rates, between0.3 and 1.1 g d 1 . Th ey left the stopover site with fuel loads between 40 – 56 percent of lean body mass, which possiblywould have allowed them to reach the Mediterranean area without additional refuelling stops.

  • 30.
    Stach, Robert
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, Ethology.
    Jakobsson, Sven
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, Ethology.
    Kullberg, Cecilia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, Ethology.
    Fransson, Thord
    Geolocators reveal three consecutive wintering areas in the thrush nightingale2012In: Animal Migration, ISSN 2084-8838, Vol. 1, p. 1-7Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The winter distribution of many migratory birds wintering in tropical Africa is poorly known. After the crossing of the Sahara Desert, some long-distance migrants typically stay in the Sahel zone for an extended period before continuing migration to their main wintering areas south of the equator. Here we show how two thrush nightingales (Luscinia luscinia) fitted with light-level geolocators, after a six to seven week long stay in the Sahel zone of Sudan, moved to an intermediate area in northern Kenya for a month-long stay before continuing to their final wintering areas in southern Africa. These data indicate that thrush nightingales may use three consecutive wintering sites during their stay in Africa. The migratory movements in Africa between wintering sites are well-coordinated with high precipitation in these areas, suggesting that thrush nightingales track peaks of insect abundance occurring after rains. This three-stage wintering strategy has, to our knowledge, previously not been described, and shows that long-distance migrants can have complex wintering behaviour.

  • 31.
    Stach, Robert
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, Ethology.
    Kullberg, Cecilia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, Ethology.
    Jakobsson, Sven
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, Ethology.
    Ström, Kåre
    Fransson, Thord
    Migration routes and timing in a bird wintering in South Asia, the Common Rosefinch Carpodacus erythrinus2016In: Journal of Ornithology, ISSN 2193-7192, E-ISSN 2193-7206, Vol. 157, no 3, p. 671-679Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Only few bird species from Western Europe migrate eastward to wintering areas in South Asia, and little is known about this migratory flyway. The Common Rosefinch has in the past century expanded its breeding range westward to include Western Europe and migrate along this flyway to wintering sites in South Asia. This is the first study describing the migration routes of Common Rosefinches between Europe and Asia in detail, revealed by light level geolocators. The rosefinches showed loop-migration with more northerly routes in autumn than in spring, possibly in order to shorten the flight over the Central Asian deserts, which are very inhospitable at this time of the year. In spring the deserts are less dry and richer in vegetation, which may have supported the more southerly routes. During autumn migration the birds used several staging sites in Central Asia for prolonged periods. Although the birds passed over mountain regions at this time, which potentially act as barriers to them, the length of the stops seem unrealistically long for only fuel deposition. Instead, this suggests that the birds temporarily suspended migration to take advantage of abundant and predictable food sources in this region. During spring migration the birds made a few longer stops while still in north India or Central Asia, before migrating at fast speeds towards the breeding grounds. The birds covered 4–5000 km with only very short stopovers and thus most of the fuel used on spring migration must have been accumulated in Asia. Our results thus indicate that Central Asia, and north India, are important staging areas for this species in both autumn and spring. During winter, birds used two sites located several hundred kilometres apart, and relocation was probably a response to local food availability.

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