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  • 1.
    Ergon, Mattias
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Fransson, Claes
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Jerkstrand, A.
    Kozma, Cecilia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Kromer, M.
    Spricer, Kristoffer
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics.
    Monte-Carlo methods for NLTE spectral synthesis of supernovae2018In: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 620, article id A156Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present JEKYLL, a new code for modelling of supernova (SN) spectra and lightcurves based on Monte-Carlo (MC) techniques for the radiative transfer. The code assumes spherical symmetry, homologous expansion and steady state for the matter, but is otherwise capable of solving the time-dependent radiative transfer problem in non-local-thermodynamic-equilibrium (NLTE). The method used was introduced in a series of papers by Lucy, but the full time-dependent NLTE capabilities of it have never been tested. Here, we have extended the method to include non-thermal excitation and ionization as well as charge-transfer and two-photon processes. Based on earlier work, the non-thermal rates are calculated by solving the Spencer-Fano equation. Using a method previously developed for the SUMO code, macroscopic mixing of the material is taken into account in a statistical sense. To save computational power a diffusion solver is used in the inner region, where the radiation field may be assumed to be thermalized. In addition, a statistical Markov-chain model is used to sample the emission frequency more efficiently, and we introduce a method to control the sampling of the radiation field, which is used to reduce the noise in the radiation field estimators. Except for a description of JEKYLL, we provide comparisons with the ARTIS, SUMO and CMFGEN codes, which show good agreement in the calculated spectra as well as the state of the gas. In particular, the comparison with CMFGEN, which is similar in terms of physics but uses a different technique, shows that the Lucy method does indeed converge in the time-dependent NLTE case. Finally, as an example of the time-dependent NLTE capabilities of JEKYLL, we present a model of a Type IIb SN, taken from a set of models presented and discussed in detail in an accompanying paper. Based on this model we investigate the effects of NLTE, in particular those arising from non-thermal excitation and ionization, and find strong effects even on the bolometric lightcurve. This highlights the need for full NLTE calculations when simulating the spectra and lightcurves of SNe.

  • 2.
    Fransson, Claes
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy.
    Challis, Peter M.
    Chevalier, Roger A.
    Filippenko, Alexei V.
    Kirshner, Robert P.
    Kozma, Cecilia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy.
    Leonard, Douglas C.
    Matheson, Thomas
    Baron, E.
    Garnavich, Peter
    Jha, Saurabh
    Leibundgut, Bruno
    Lundqvist, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy.
    Pun, C. S. J.
    Wang, Lifan
    Wheeler, J. Craig
    Hubble Space Telescope and Ground-based Observations of SN 1993J and SN 1998S: CNO Processing in the Progenitors2005In: Astrophysical Journal, ISSN 0004-637X, E-ISSN 1538-4357, Vol. 622, p. 991-1007Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ground-based and Hubble Space Telescope observations are presented for SN 1993J and SN 1998S. SN 1998S shows strong, relatively narrow circumstellar emission lines of N III-V and C III-IV, as well as broad lines from the ejecta. Both the broad ultraviolet and optical lines in SN 1998S indicate an expansion velocity of ~7000 km s-1. The broad emission components of Lyα and Mg II are strongly asymmetrical after day 72 past the explosion and differ in shape from Hα. Different models based on dust extinction from dust in the ejecta or shock region, in combination with Hα from a circumstellar torus, are discussed. It is concluded, however, that the double-peaked line profiles are more likely to arise as a result of optical depth effects in the narrow, cool, dense shell behind the reverse shock than in a torus-like region. The ultraviolet lines of SN 1993J are broad, with a boxlike shape, coming from the ejecta and a cool, dense shell. The shapes of the lines are well fitted by a shell with inner velocity ~7000 km s-1 and outer velocity ~10,000 km s-1. For both SN 1993J and SN 1998S a strong nitrogen enrichment is found, with N/C~12.4 in SN 1993J and N/C~6.0 in SN 1998S. From a compilation of all supernovae with determined CNO ratios, we discuss the implications of these observations for the structure of the progenitors of Type II supernovae. Based in part on observations obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope, which is operated by AURA, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555.

  • 3.
    Jerkstrand, Anders
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Fransson, Claes
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Kozma, Cecilia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    The 44Ti-powered spectrum of SN 1987A2011In: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 530, p. A45-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    SN 1987A provides a unique opportunity to study the evolution of a supernova from explosion into very late phases. Owing to the rich chemical structure, the multitude of physical processes involved and extensive radiative transfer effects, detailed modeling is needed to interpret the emission from this and other supernovae. In this paper, we analyze the late-time (about eight years) Hubble Space Telescope spectrum of the SN 1987A ejecta, where 44Ti is the dominant power source. Based on an explosion model for a 19 Msun progenitor, we compute a model spectrum by calculating the degradation of positrons and gamma-rays from the radioactive decays, solving the equations governing temperature, ionization balance and NLTE level populations, and treating the radiative transfer with a Monte Carlo technique. We obtain a UV/optical/NIR model spectrum that reproduces most of the lines in the observed spectrum with good accuracy. We find non-local radiative transfer in atomic lines to be an important process also at this late stage of the supernova, with 30% of the emerging flux in the optical and NIR coming from scattering/fluorescence. We investigate the question of where the positrons deposit their energy, and favor the scenario where they are locally trapped in the Fe/He clumps by a magnetic field. Energy deposition into these largely neutral Fe/He clumps makes Fe I lines prominent in the emerging spectrum. With the best available estimates for the dust extinction, we determine the amount of 44Ti produced in the explosion to be 1.5+-0.5 Msun.

  • 4.
    Larsson, Josefin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Fransson, Claes
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Östlin, Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Gröningsson, P.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Jerkstrand, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Kozma, Cecilia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Sollerman, Jesper
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Challis, P.
    Kirshner, R. P.
    Chevalier, R. A.
    Heng, K.
    McCray, R.
    Suntzeff, N. B.
    Bouchet, P.
    Crotts, A.
    Danziger, J.
    Dwek, E.
    France, K.
    Garnavich, P. M.
    Lawrence, S. S.
    Leibundgut, B.
    Lundqvist, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Panagia, N.
    Pun, C. S. J.
    Smith, N.
    Sonneborn, G.
    Wang, L.
    Wheeler, J. C.
    X-ray illumination of the ejecta of supernova 1987A2011In: Nature, ISSN 0028-0836, E-ISSN 1476-4687, Vol. 474, no 7352, p. 484-486Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When a massive star explodes as a supernova, substantial amounts of radioactive elements-primarily (56)Ni, (57)Ni and (44)Ti-are produced(1). After the initial flash of light from shock heating, the fading light emitted by the supernova is due to the decay of these elements(2). However, after decades, the energy powering a supernova remnant comes from the shock interaction between the ejecta and the surrounding medium(3). The transition to this phase has hitherto not been observed: supernovae occur too infrequently in the Milky Way to provide a young example, and extragalactic supernovae are generally too faint and too small. Here we report observations that show this transition in the supernova SN 1987A in the Large Magellanic Cloud. From 1994 to 2001, the ejecta faded owing to radioactive decay of (44)Ti as predicted. Then the flux started to increase, more than doubling by the end of 2009. We show that this increase is the result of heat deposited by X-rays produced as the ejecta interacts with the surrounding material. In time, the X-rays will penetrate farther into the ejecta, enabling us to analyse the structure and chemistry of the vanished star.

  • 5. Leloudas, G.
    et al.
    Stritzinger, M. D.
    Sollerman, Jesper
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy.
    Burns, C. R.
    Kozma, Cecilia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy.
    Krisciunas, K.
    Maund, J. R.
    Milne, P.
    Filippenko, A. V.
    Fransson, Claes
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy.
    Ganeshalingam, M.
    Hamuy, M.
    Li, W.
    Phillips, M. M.
    Schmidt, B. P.
    Skottfelt, J.
    Taubenberger, S.
    Boldt, L.
    Fynbo, J. P. U.
    Gonzalez, L.
    Salvo, M.
    Thomas-Osip, J.
    The normal Type Ia SN 2003hv out to very late phases2009In: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 505, no 1, p. 265-279Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: We study a thermonuclear supernova (SN), emphasizing very late phases. Methods: An extensive dataset for SN 2003hv that covers the flux evolution from maximum light to day +786 is presented. This includes 82 epochs of optical imaging, 24 epochs of near-infrared (NIR) imaging, and 10 epochs of optical spectroscopy. These data are combined with published nebular-phase IR spectra, and the observations are compared to model light curves and synthetic nebular spectra. Results: SN 2003hv is a normal Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) with photometric and spectroscopic properties consistent with its rarely observed B-band decline-rate parameter, Δ m15(B) = 1.61 ± 0.02. The blueshift of the most isolated [Fe ii] lines in the nebular-phase optical spectrum appears consistent with those observed in the IR at similar epochs. At late times there is a prevalent color evolution from the optical toward the NIR bands. We present the latest-ever detection of a SN Ia in the NIR in Hubble Space Telescope images. The study of the ultraviolet/optical/infrared (UVOIR) light curve reveals that a substantial fraction of the flux is “missing” at late times. Between 300 and 700 days past maximum brightness, the UVOIR light curve declines linearly following the decay of radioactive 56Co, assuming full and instantaneous positron trapping. At 700 days we detect a possible slowdown of the decline in optical-bands, mainly in the V-band. Conclusions: The data are incompatible with a dramatic infrared catastrophe (IRC). However, the idea that an IRC occurred in the densest regions before 350 days can explain the missing flux from the UVOIR wavelengths and the flat-topped profiles in the NIR. We argue that such a scenario is possible if the ejecta are clumpy. The observations suggest that positrons are most likely trapped in the ejecta. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, Paranal, Chile (ESO Programmes 073.D-0294(AB), 074.D-0259(BC) and 075.D-0116(AB)), Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, Lick Observatory, Las Campanas Observatory, Siding Spring Observatory, and the Hubble Space Telescope. Tables 3, 4, and Appendix A are only available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  • 6.
    Lundqvist, Peter
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Mattila, Seppo
    Sollerman, Jesper
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Kozma, Cecilia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Baron, E.
    Cox, Nick L. J.
    Fransson, Claes
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Leibundgut, Bruno
    Spyromilio, Jason
    Hydrogen and helium in the spectra of Type Ia supernovae2013In: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 435, no 1, p. 329-345Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present predictions for hydrogen and helium emission line luminosities from circumstellar matter around Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) using time dependent photoionization modelling. Early high-resolution ESO/Very Large Telescope (VLT) optical echelle spectra of the SN Ia 2000cx were taken before and up to similar to 70 d after maximum to probe the existence of such narrow emission lines from the supernova. We detect no such lines, and from our modelling place an upper limit on the mass-loss rate for the putative wind from the progenitor system,. M less than or similar to 1.3 x 10(-5) M-circle dot yr(-1), assuming a speed of 10 km s(-1) and solar abundances for the wind. If the wind would be helium-enriched and/or faster, the upper limit on. M could be significantly higher. In the helium-enriched case, we show that the best line to constrain the mass-loss would be He I.10 830. In addition to confirming the details of interstellar Na I and Ca II absorption towards SN 2000cx as discussed by Patat et al., we also find evidence for 6613.56 angstrom diffuse interstellar band absorption in the Milky Way. We also discuss measurements of the X-ray emission from the interaction between the supernova ejecta and the wind and we re-evaluate observations of SN 1992A obtained similar to 16 d after maximum by Schlegel & Petre. We find an upper limit of. M less than or similar to 1.3 x 10(-5) M-circle dot yr(-1) which is significantly higher than that estimated by Schlegel & Petre. These results, together with the previous observational work on the normal SNe Ia 1994D and 2001el, disfavour a symbiotic star in the upper mass-loss rate regime (so-called Mira-type systems) from being the likely progenitor scenario for these SNe. Our model calculations are general, and can also be used for the subclass of SNe Ia that do show circumstellar interaction, e. g. the recent PTF 11kx. To constrain hydrogen in late-time spectra, we present ESO/VLT and ESO/New Technology Telescope optical and infrared observations of SNe Ia 1998bu and 2000cx in the nebular phase, 251-388 d after maximum. We see no signs of hydrogen line emission in SNe 1998bu and 2000cx at these epochs, and from the absence of Ha with a width of the order of similar to 10(3) km s(-1), we argue from modelling that the mass of such hydrogen-rich gas must be less than or similar to 0.03 M circle dot for both supernovae. Comparing similar upper limits with recent models of Pan et al., it seems that hydrogen-rich donors with a separation of less than or similar to 5 times the radius of the donor may be ruled out for the five SNe Ia 1998bu, 2000cx, 2001el, 2005am and 2005cf. Larger separation, helium-rich donors, or a double-degenerate origin for these supernovae seems more likely. Our models have also been used to put the limit on hydrogen-rich gas in the recent SN 2011fe, and for this supernova, a double-degenerate origin seems likely.

  • 7.
    Lundqvist, Peter
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Nyholm, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Taddia, Francesco
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Sollerman, Jesper
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Johansson, Joel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Kozma, Cecilia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Lundqvist, N.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Fransson, Claes
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Garnavich, P. M.
    Kromer, Marcus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Shappee, B. J.
    Goobar, Ariel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    No trace of a single-degenerate companion in late spectra of supernovae 2011fe and 2014J2015In: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 577, article id A39Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims. This study aims at constraining the origin of the nearby Type Ia supernovae (SNe), 2011fe and 2014J. The two most favoured scenarios for triggering the explosion of the white dwarf supernova progenitor is either mass loss from a non-degenerate companion or merger with another white dwarf. In the former, there could be a significant amount of leftover material from the companion at the centre of the supernova. Detecting such material would therefore favour the single-degenerate scenario. Methods. The left-over material from a possible non-degenerate companion can reveal itself after about one year, and in this study such material was searched for in the spectra of SN 2011fe (at 294 days after the explosion) using the Large Binocular Telescope and for SN 2014J using the Nordic Optical Telescope (315 days past explosion). The observations were interpreted using numerical models simulating the expected line emission from ablated material from the companion star. The spectral lines sought for are H alpha, [O I] lambda 6300, and [Ca II] lambda lambda 7291,7324, and the expected width of these lines is similar to 1000 km s(-1), which in the case of the [Ca II] lines blend to a broader feature. Results. No signs of H alpha, [O I] lambda 6300, or [Ca II] lambda lambda 7291, 7324 could be traced for in any of the two supernovae. When systematic uncertainties are included, the limits on hydrogen-rich ablated gas are 0 : 003 M-circle dot in SN 2011fe and 0 : 0085 M-circle dot in SN 2014J, where the limit for SN 2014J is the second lowest ever, and the limit for SN 2011fe is a revision of a previous limit. Limits are also put on helium-rich ablated gas, and here limits from [O I] lambda 6300 provide the upper mass limits 0 : 002 M-circle dot and 0 : 005 M-circle dot for SNe 2011fe and 2014J, respectively. These numbers are used in conjunction with other data to argue that these supernovae can stem from double-degenerate systems or from single-degenerate systems with a spun-up/spun-down super-Chandrasekhar white dwarf. For SN 2011fe, other types of hydrogen-rich donors can very likely be ruled out, whereas a main-sequence donor system with large intrinsic separation is still possible for SN 2014J. Helium-rich donor systems cannot be ruled out for any of the two supernovae, but the expected short delay time for such progenitors makes this possibility less likely, especially for SN 2011fe. Published data for SNe 1998bu, 2000cx, 2001el, 2005am, and 2005cf are used to constrain their origin. We emphasise that the results of this study depend on the sought-after lines emerging unattenuated from the central regions of the nebula. Detailed radiative transfer calculations with longer line lists than are presently used are needed to confirm that this is, in fact, true. Finally, the broad lines of SNe 2011fe and 2014J are discussed, and it is found that the [Ni II] lambda 7378 emission is redshifted by similar to+ 1300 km s(-1), as opposed to the known blueshift of similar to-1100 km s(-1) for SN 2011fe. [Fe II] lambda 7155 is also redshifted in SN 2014J. SN 2014J belongs to a minority of SNe Ia that both have a nebular redshift of [Fe II] lambda 7155 and [Ni II] lambda 7378, and a slow decline of the Si II lambda 6355 absorption trough just after B-band maximum.

  • 8.
    Mattila, S.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy.
    Lundqvist, P.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy.
    Sollerman, J.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy.
    Kozma, C.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy.
    Baron, E.
    Fransson, C.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy.
    Leibundgut, B.
    Nomoto, K.
    Early and late time VLT spectroscopy of SN 2001el - progenitor constraints for a type Ia supernova2005In: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 443, p. 649-662Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present early time high-resolution (VLT/UVES) and late time low-resolution (VLT/FORS) optical spectra of the normal type Ia supernova, SN 2001el. The high-resolution spectra were obtained 9 and 2 days before (B-band) maximum light. This was in order to allow the detection of narrow hydrogen and/or helium emission lines from the circumstellar medium of the supernova. No such lines were detected in our data. We therefore use these spectra together with photoionisation models to derive upper limits of 9×10-6 {M}_ȯ yr-1 and 5×10-5 {M}_ȯ yr-1 for the mass loss rate from the progenitor system of SN 2001el assuming velocities of 10 km s-1 and 50 km s-1, respectively, for a wind extending to outside at least a few × 1015 cm away from the supernova explosion site. So far, these are the best Hα based upper limits obtained for a type Ia supernova, and exclude a symbiotic star in the upper mass loss rate regime (so called Mira type stars) from being the progenitor of SN 2001el. The low-resolution spectrum was obtained in the nebular phase of the supernova, 400 days after the maximum light, to search for any hydrogen rich gas originating from the supernova progenitor system. However, we see no signs of Balmer lines in our spectrum. Therefore, we model the late time spectra to derive an upper limit of 0.03 Mȯ for solar abundance material present at velocities lower than 1000 km s-1 within the supernova explosion site. According to numerical simulations of Marietta et al. (2000) this is less than the expected mass lost by a subgiant, red giant or a main-sequence secondary star at a small binary separation as a result of the SN explosion. Our data therefore exclude these scenarios as the progenitor of SN 2001el. Finally, we discuss the origin of high velocity Ca II lines previously observed in a few type Ia supernovae before the maximum light. We see both the Ca II IR triplet and the H&K lines in our earliest (-9 days) spectrum at a very high velocity of up to 34 000 km s-1. The spectrum also shows a flat-bottomed Si II "6150 Å" feature similar to the one previously observed in SN 1990N (Leibundgut et al. 1991, ApJ, 371, L23) at 14 days before maximum light. We compare these spectral features in SN 2001el to those observed in SN 1984A and SN 1990N at even higher velocities.

  • 9.
    Sollerman, J.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy.
    Lindahl, J.
    Kozma, C.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy.
    Challis, P.
    Filippenko, A. V.
    Fransson, C.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy.
    Garnavich, P. M.
    Leibundgut, B.
    Li, W.
    Lundqvist, P.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy.
    Milne, P.
    Spyromilio, J.
    Kirshner, R. P.
    The late-time light curve of the type Ia supernova 2000cx2004In: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 428, p. 555-568Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have conducted a systematic and comprehensive monitoring programme of the type Ia supernova 2000cx at late phases using the VLT and HST. The VLT observations cover phases 360 to 480 days past maximum brightness and include photometry in the BVRIJH bands, together with a single epoch in each of U and K_s. While the optical bands decay by about 1.4 mag per 100 days, we find that the near-IR magnitudes stay virtually constant during the observed period. This means that the importance of the near-IR to the bolometric light curve increases with time. The finding is also in agreement with our detailed modeling of a type Ia supernova in the nebular phase. In these models, the increased importance of the near-IR is a temperature effect. We note that this complicates late-time studies where often only the V band is well monitored. In particular, it is not correct to assume that any optical band follows the bolometric light curve at these phases, and any conclusions based on such assumptions, e.g., regarding positron-escape, must be regarded as premature. A very simple model where all positrons are trapped can reasonably well account for the observations. The nickel mass deduced from the positron tail of this light curve is lower than found from the peak brightness, providing an estimate of the fraction of late-time emission that is outside of the observed wavelength range. Our detailed models show the signature of an infrared catastrophe at these epochs, which is not supported by the observations. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, Paranal, Chile (ESO Programmes 67.D-0134 and 68.D-0114). Also based in part on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope. These HST observations are associated with proposals GO-8602 and GO-9114.i Tables \ref{t1}, \ref{t2}, \ref{t4} and \ref{t5} are only available in electronic form at http://www.edpsciences.org

  • 10. Wang, Xiaofeng
    et al.
    Wang, Lifan
    Filippenko, Alexei V.
    Baron, Eddie
    Kromer, Markus
    Jack, Dennis
    Zhang, Tianmeng
    Aldering, Greg
    Antilogus, Pierre
    Arnett, W. David
    Baade, Dietrich
    Barris, Brian J.
    Benetti, Stefano
    Bouchet, Patrice
    Burrows, Adam S.
    Canal, Ramon
    Cappellaro, Enrico
    Carlberg, Raymond G.
    di Carlo, Elisa
    Challis, Peter J.
    Crotts, Arlin P. S.
    Danziger, John I.
    Della Valle, Massimo
    Fink, Michael
    Foley, Ryan J.
    Fransson, Claes
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy.
    Gal-Yam, Avishay
    Garnavich, Peter M.
    Gerardy, Chris L.
    Goldhaber, Gerson
    Hamuy, Mario
    Hillebrandt, Wolfgang
    Hoeflich, Peter
    Holland, Stephen T.
    Holz, Daniel E.
    Hughes, John P.
    Jeffery, David J.
    Jha, Saurabh W.
    Kasen, Dan
    Khokhlov, Alexei M.
    Kirshner, Robert P.
    Knop, Robert A.
    Kozma, Cecilia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy.
    Krisciunas, Kevin
    Lee, Brian C.
    Leibundgut, Bruno
    Lentz, Eric J.
    Leonard, Douglas C.
    Lewin, Walter H. G.
    Li, Weidong
    Livio, Mario
    Lundqvist, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy.
    Maoz, Dan
    Matheson, Thomas
    Mazzali, Paolo A.
    Meikle, Peter
    Miknaitis, Gajus
    Milne, Peter A.
    Mochnacki, Stefan W.
    Nomoto, Ken'ichi
    Nugent, Peter E.
    Oran, Elaine S.
    Panagia, Nino
    Perlmutter, Saul
    Phillips, Mark M.
    Pinto, Philip
    Poznanski, Dovi
    Pritchet, Christopher J.
    Reinecke, Martin
    Riess, Adam G.
    Ruiz-Lapuente, Pilar
    Scalzo, Richard A.
    Schlegel, Eric M.
    Schmidt, Brian P.
    Siegrist, James
    Soderberg, Alicia M.
    Sollerman, Jesper
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy.
    Sonneborn, George
    Spadafora, Anthony
    Spyromilio, Jason
    Sramek, Richard A.
    Starrfield, Sumner G.
    Strolger, Louis G.
    Suntzeff, Nicholas B.
    Thomas, Rollin C.
    Tonry, John L.
    Tornambe, Amedeo
    Truran, James W.
    Turatto, Massimo
    Turner, Michael
    Van Dyk, Schuyler D.
    Weiler, Kurt W.
    Wheeler, J. Craig
    Wood-Vasey, Michael
    Woosley, Stanford E.
    Yamaoka, Hitoshi
    Evidence for type ia supernova diversity from ultraviolet observations with the hubble space telescope2012In: Astrophysical Journal, ISSN 0004-637X, E-ISSN 1538-4357, Vol. 749, no 2, p. 126-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present ultraviolet (UV) spectroscopy and photometry of four Type Ia supernovae (SNe 2004dt, 2004ef, 2005M, and 2005cf) obtained with the UV prism of the Advanced Camera for Surveys on the Hubble Space Telescope. This data set provides unique spectral time series down to 2000 angstrom. Significant diversity is seen in the near-maximum-light spectra (similar to 2000-3500 angstrom) for this small sample. The corresponding photometric data, together with archival data from Swift Ultraviolet/Optical Telescope observations, provide further evidence of increased dispersion in the UV emission with respect to the optical. The peak luminositiesmeasured in the uvw1/F250W filter are found to correlate with the B-band light-curve shape parameter Delta m(15)(B), but with much larger scatter relative to the correlation in the broadband B band (e.g., similar to 0.4 mag versus similar to 0.2 mag for those with 0.8 mag < Delta m(15)(B) < 1.7 mag). SN 2004dt is found as an outlier of this correlation (at > 3 sigma), being brighter than normal SNe Ia such as SN 2005cf by similar to 0.9 mag and similar to 2.0 mag in the uvw1/F250W and uvm2/F220W filters, respectively. We show that different progenitor metallicity or line-expansion velocities alone cannot explain such a large discrepancy. Viewing-angle effects, such as due to an asymmetric explosion, may have a significant influence on the flux emitted in the UV region. Detailed modeling is needed to disentangle and quantify the above effects.

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