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  • 1.
    Aare, Kätlin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Respiratory patterns and turn-taking in spontaneous Estonian: Inhalation amplitude in multiparty conversations2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis explores the relationship between inhalation amplitude and turn-taking in spontaneous multiparty conversations held in Estonian. Respiratory activity is recorded with Respiratory Inductance Plethysmography. The main focus is on how inhalation amplitude varies between the inhalations produced directly before turn onset compared to the following inhalations within the same speaking turn. The results indicate a significant difference in amplitude, realised mainly by an increase in inhalation end lung volume values. One of the possible functions of this pattern is to signal an intention of taking the conversational turn. Another could be a phrasing or grouping function connected to lower inhalation amplitudes within turns.

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  • 2.
    Aare, Kätlin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics. University of Tartu, Estonia.
    Gilmartin, Emer
    Włodarczak, Marcin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Lippus, Pärtel
    Heldner, Mattias
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Breath holds in chat and chunk phases of multiparty casual conversation2020In: Proceedings of Speech Prosody 2020, 2020, p. 779-783Conference paper (Refereed)
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  • 3.
    Aare, Kätlin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Lippus, Pärtel
    Włodarczak, Marcin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Heldner, Mattias
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Creak in the respiratory cycle2018In: Proceedings of Interspeech 2018 / [ed] B. Yegnanarayana, The International Speech Communication Association (ISCA), 2018, p. 1408-1412Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Creakiness is a well-known turn-taking cue and has been observed to systematically accompany phrase and turn ends in several languages. In Estonian, creaky voice is frequently used by all speakers without any obvious evidence for its systematic use as a turn-taking cue. Rather, it signals a lack of prominence and is favored by lengthening and later timing in phrases. In this paper, we analyze the occurrence of creak with respect to properties of the respiratory cycle. We show that creak is more likely to accompany longer exhalations. Furthermore, the results suggest there is little difference in lung volume values regardless of the presence of creak, indicating that creaky voice might be employed to preserve air over the course of longer utterances. We discuss the results in connection to processes of speech planning in spontaneous speech.

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  • 4.
    Aare, Kätlin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Włodarczak, Marcin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Heldner, Mattias
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Backchannels and breathing2014In: Proceedings from FONETIK 2014: Stockholm, June 9-11, 2014 / [ed] Mattias Heldner, Stockholm: Department of Linguistics, Stockholm University , 2014, p. 47-52Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study investigated the timing of backchannel onsets within speaker’s own and dialogue partner’s breathing cycle in two spontaneous conversations in Estonian. Results indicate that backchannels are mainly produced near the beginning, but also in the second half of the speaker’s exhalation phase. A similar tendency was observed in short non-backchannel utterances, indicating that timing of backchannels might be determined by their duration rather than their pragmatic function. By contrast, longer non-backchannel utterances were initiated almost exclusively right at the beginning of the exhalation. As expected, backchannels in the conversation partner’s breathing cycle occurred predominantly towards the end of the exhalation or at the beginning of the inhalation. 

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    Backchannels and breathing
  • 5.
    Aare, Kätlin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics. University of Tartu, Estonia.
    Włodarczak, Marcin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Heldner, Mattias
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Breath holds in spontaneous speech2019In: Eesti ja soome-ugri keeleteaduse ajakiri, ISSN 1736-8987, E-ISSN 2228-1339, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 13-34Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article provides a first quantitative overview of the timing and volume-related properties of breath holds in spontaneous conversations. Firstly, we investigate breath holds based on their position within the coinciding respiratory interval amplitude. Secondly, we investigate breath holds based on their timing within the respiratory intervals and in relation to communicative activity following breath holds. We hypothesise that breath holds occur in different regions of the lung capacity range and at different times during the respiratory phase, depending on the conversational and physiological activity following breath holds. The results suggest there is not only considerable variation in both the time and lung capacity scales, but detectable differences are also present in breath holding characteristics involving laughter and speech preparation, while breath holds coinciding with swallowing are difficult to separate from the rest of the data based on temporal and volume information alone.

  • 6.
    Aare, Kätlin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Włodarczak, Marcin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Heldner, Mattias
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Inhalation amplitude and turn-taking in spontaneous Estonian conversations2015In: Proceedings from Fonetik 2015 Lund, June 8-10, 2015 / [ed] Malin Svensson Lundmark, Gilbert Ambrazaitis, Joost van de Weijer, Lund: Lund University , 2015, p. 1-5Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores the relationship between inhalation amplitude and turn management in four approximately 20 minute long spontaneous multiparty conversations in Estonian. The main focus of interest is whether inhalation amplitude is greater before turn onset than in the following inhalations within the same speaking turn. The results show that inhalations directly before turn onset are greater in amplitude than those later in the turn. The difference seems to be realized by ending the inhalation at a greater lung volume value, whereas the initial lung volume before inhalation onset remains roughly the same across a single turn. The findings suggest that the increased inhalation amplitude could function as a cue for claiming the conversational floor.

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  • 7. Gilmartin, Emer
    et al.
    Aare, Kätlin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics. University of Tartu, Estonia.
    O'Reilly, Maria
    Włodarczak, Marcin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Between and within speaker transitions in multiparty conversation2020In: Proceedings of Speech Prosody, 2020, p. 799-803Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Casual conversation proceeds as a series of contributions from participants, either speaking in the clear or in overlap. The pattern of who is speaking or not (the conversational floor state) changes constantly throughout a conversation. We examine the nature and frequency of these state changes or transitions in multiparty talk, which may involve more complicated floor state transitions than dyadic interactions. We contrast within and between speaker transitions, analyzing the evolution of the conversational floor state from a stretch of single party speech in the clear to the next stretch of single party speech in the clear by the original or a different speaker. We investigate the effect of applying a minimum duration of single party speech in the clear to the incoming speaker’s production, finding substantial differences in how transitions are categorized. Over 40\% of the transitions categorized as between or within speaker change category depending on whether a minimum duration is applied to the following stretch of single party speech.

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  • 8.
    Włodarczak, Marcin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Laskowski, Kornel
    Heldner, Mattias
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Aare, Kätlin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Improving Prediction of Speech Activity Using Multi-Participant Respiratory State2017In: Proceedings of Interspeech 2017 / [ed] Francisco Lacerda, David House, Mattias Heldner, Joakim Gustafson, Sofia Strömbergsson, Marcin Włodarczak, Stockholm: The International Speech Communication Association (ISCA), 2017, p. 1666-1670Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One consequence of situated face-to-face conversation is the co- observability of participants’ respiratory movements and sounds. We explore whether this information can be exploited in pre- dicting incipient speech activity. Using a methodology called stochastic turn-taking modeling, we compare the performance of a model trained on speech activity alone to one additionally trained on static and dynamic lung volume features. The method- ology permits automatic discovery of temporal dependencies across participants and feature types. Our experiments show that respiratory information substantially lowers cross-entropy rates, and that this generalizes to unseen data. 

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1 - 8 of 8
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