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  • 1.
    Anund, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, The Human in the Transport system..
    Larsson, Kristina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, The Human in the Transport system..
    Weidel, My
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, The Human in the Transport system..
    Nygårdhs, Sara
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, The Human in the Transport system..
    Hardestam, Hugo
    Transdev, Sverige.
    Monstein, Christian
    Transdev, Sverige.
    Skogsmo, Ingrid
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users.
    Bröms, Per
    RISE.
    Autonoma elektrifierade bussar: sammanlagda erfarenheter med fokus på användare2023Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Ride the future is a mobility solution with three electrified autonomous buses that operate a 4.2 km long loop at Linköping University and Vallastaden. There is a need to summarize the results obtained, to achieve Ride the future’s goal of showing how an autonomous electrified bus can be part of the mobility in the modern dense city. The purpose of this report is to summarize and discuss these with a starting point in what this means for the users and where aspects around vehicles and operation, infrastructure, the users’ perception of attractiveness, accessibility, convenience and inclusion are included.

    A compilation of completed user studies shows that the majority of travellers who have tested the buses are positive about the journey, but that efforts are required to attract motorists. Furthermore, an increased focus is needed on the development of how the vehicles should be able to communicate with passengers on the bus, but also with those who interact with the bus outside (pedestrians, cyclists and other vehicle drivers). The driver is important from the point of view of the situation we have today with somewhat immature technology. The drivers support both the bus and the passengers, especially children, the elderly and people with disabilities. However, for the mobility service to be available to all passengers development and improvement of both physical infrastructure and digital solutions is needed.

    Ride the future intends to continue with the joint ambition of the project's parties to test and contribute to the development of the solutions required for a future sustainable mobility system within both the dense city and the countryside. Within this ambition, both technical, inter-personal and business issues are identified as necessary to work on.

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  • 2.
    Anund, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, The Human in the Transport system.. Rehabilitation Medicine, Linköping University, Sweden and Stockholm Stress Centre, Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Ludovic, Ricker
    STIB-MIVB, Belgium.
    Caroleo, Brunella
    LINKS Foundation, Italy.
    Hardestam, Hugo
    Transdev Sweden AB.
    Dahlman, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, The Human in the Transport system.. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Skogsmo, Ingrid
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users.
    Nicaise, Mathieu
    STIB-MIVB, Belgium.
    Arnone, Maurizio
    LINKS Foundation, Italy.
    Lessons learned from setting up a demonstration site with autonomous shuttle operation: based on experience from three cities in Europe2022In: Journal of Urban Mobility, ISSN 2667-0917, Vol. 2, article id 100021Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The interest in operating autonomous vehicles is growing and several demonstration sites using automated shuttles have been established all over the world. Major work is involved in setting up an automated shuttle operation that involves more than identifying the relevant site, including adhering to current regulations and obtaining approval, as well as a considerable amount of preparation and commissioning required at the site. The shuttle must pass relevant national vehicle regulations, and the operation site has to undergo a site assessment. This paper is based on lessons learned achieved from setting up automated shuttle operations in three different areas in Europe: Brussel (Belgium), Linköping (Sweden) and Turin (Italy). The focus is on the practical aspects of operation. Through the experience we have gained of setting up demonstration sites at three locations in Europe, we have identified the need to summarise the lessons learned from preparing AV shuttle operation sites in order to facilitate the implementation of other operation sites. Hence, this paper aims to consolidate lessons learned during preparation and implementation of automated shuttle operations in near urban environments and to identify the path toward future implementation. The three sites operate different brands and number of shuttles, different types of infrastructure and varying local conditions. The focus here was on generic lessons learned and not to understand differences between brands and operators. It is clear that further development of the AV shuttles is vital to ensure that they operate smoothly in complex traffic situations considering lane and road width, shared spaces, snow, dust, rain, leaves, birds, etc. Adapting the road infrastructure to enable the shuttles to run in the autonomous mode should be avoided, instead the shuttle development should prioritise fitting into the existing traffic environment and eco system. Mitigation areas have been identified covering: road infrastructure, weather dependant operation, season dependent operation, improvement of localisation, digital infrastructure, design and working conditions, and citizens’ user experience.

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  • 3.
    Forsman, Åsa
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Trafiksäkerhet och trafiksystem, TST.
    Jansson, Jonas
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Trafik och trafikant,TRAF.
    Forward, Sonja
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Mobilitet, aktörer och planering, MAP.
    Nuruzzaman, Robin
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Mobilitet, aktörer och planering, MAP.
    Skogsmo, Ingrid
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Trafik och trafikant,TRAF.
    Vadeby, Anna
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Trafiksäkerhet och trafiksystem, TST.
    Riding in a safe system – workshop on safety for powered-two-wheelers: final report from a workshop held on 9–13 June 20212021Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Rapporten är framtagen med ekonomiskt bidrag från Skyltfonden, Trafikverket. Ståndpunkter och slutsatser i rapporten reflekterar författaren och överensstämmer inte med nödvändighet med Trafikverkets ståndpunkter och slutsatser inom rapportens ämnesområde.

    Den 9–23 juni 2021 hölls en internationell workshop om säkerhet för motoriserade tvåhjulingar. Workshopen, Riding in a safe system, hölls som en serie virtuella möten och arrangerades av International Transport Forum (ITF), Trafikverket, Internationella motorcykelförbundet (FIM), motorcykeltillverkarnas föreningar IMMA och ACEM, samt Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut (VTI). Workshopen var en uppföljning av den tredje globala ministerkonferensen om trafiksäkerhet, som hölls i Stockholm i februari 2020, men den byggde också på en tidigare workshop 2008 i Lillehammer och 2015 års ITF-rapport Improving Safety for Motorcycle, Scooter and Moped Riders.

    Workshopens centrala del bestod av sex expertsessioner: (i) hållbar trafiksäkerhet, arbetsmiljöfrågor och upphandling, (ii) byte av färdsätt och mobilitet i staden, (iii) träning, utbildning och körkortstagande, (iv) fordonssäkerhet, skyddsutrustning och intelligenta transportsystem, (v) väginfrastruktur och vägmiljö, (vi) hastighetsanpassning och efterlevnad i olika miljöer. I varje expertsession diskuterades också säkerhet för barn och unga.

    Deltagarna i sessionerna var inbjudna experter på respektive område och varje sessionerna leddes av en moderator och en rapportör. Experterna representerade olika typer av organisationer och kom från olika delar av världen. Workshopen utmynnade i åtta prioriterade åtgärder för att förbättra trafiksäkerheten för motoriserade tvåhjulingar och integrera dessa i ett säkert vägtransportsystem (Safe System) till 2030: 

    1. Tillämpa hållbar trafiksäkerhet – Offentliga och privata organisationer bör tillämpa bästa tillgängliga kunskap och rapportera om sin organisations fotavtryck med avseende på säkerhet för motoriserade tvåhjulingar.

    2. Stöd byte av färdsätt – Städer och vägmyndigheter bör utveckla nya lösningar för mobilitet i stadsmiljö som inkluderar motoriserade tvåhjulingar.

    3. Använd säkra fordon och säker skyddsutrustning – införandet av säkra fordon och produkter bör främjas genom reglering, upphandling och incitament.

    4. Utbilda säkra förare – Regeringar, myndigheter, intresseorganisationer och industrin bör påskynda tillgången till effektiva och tillgängliga utbildningsprogram i alla regioner, särskilt i låg- och medelinkomstländer.

    5. Designa om infrastrukturen – Regeringar och vägmyndigheter bör följa den senaste standarden och uppdatera sina vägmanualer och riktlinjer för design och underhåll så att de inkluderar bästa tillgängliga praxis för motoriserade tvåhjulingar.

    6. Säkerställ rätt hastighet – Vägmyndigheter bör fastställa lämpliga hastighetsgränser som är i linje med principerna för ett säkert vägtransportsystem. Alla intressenter bör medverka till god hastighetsefterlevnad genom att stödja lämpliga åtgärder.

    7. Skydda barn och unga –Om barn färdas som passagerare på en motoriserad tvåhjuling bör lämplig skyddsutrustning användas, och fordonet bör ha relevanta skyddssystem. Vidare ska barn skyddas när de vistas i områden runt skolor.

    8. Ta fram ny kunskap – Myndigheter, industrin och forskarsamhället ska fylla kunskapsluckor och utveckla innovativa lösningar som ökar säkerheten för användare av motoriserade tvåhjulingar.

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    Riding in a safe system
  • 4.
    Forsman, Åsa
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System.
    Jansson, Jonas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users.
    Forward, Sonja
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Nuruzzaman, Robin
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Skogsmo, Ingrid
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users.
    Vadeby, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System. Scania.
    Riding in a safe system – workshop on safety for powered-two-wheelers: final report from a workshop held on 9–13 June 20212021Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    An international workshop on safety for powered-two-wheelers (PTWs), Riding in a safe system, was held as a series of virtual meetings 9–23 June 2021. The workshop was co-organised by the International Transport Forum (ITF), the Swedish Transport Administration, the International Motorcycling Federation (FIM), the motorcycle manufacturers associations (IMMA and ACEM), and the Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI). The workshop was a follow-up of the Third Global Ministerial Conference on Road Safety, held in Stockholm in February 2020, but it also built on a previous workshop in 2008 in Lillehammer and the 2015 ITF research report “Improving Safety for Motorcycle, Scooter and Moped Riders”. 

    The workshop, which included six expert sessions, focused on seven different areas: (i) Sustainable practices, work-related issues and procurement, (ii) Modal shift and urban needs, (iii) Training, education, and licensing, (iv) Vehicle safety, protective safety, and Intelligent Transport Systems, (v) Road infrastructure and road environment, (vi) Speed management, adapting speeds and behaviour to different environments, (vii) Youth and child safety. 

    Eight priority actions were recognized by the workshop to achieve the integration of PTWs in the safe system by 2030. These actions build on the Stockholm declaration and its 9 recommendations. The actions are generalized results from the outcome of the expert sessions. The 8 priority actions from the workshop are: (i) Move to sustainable practice, (ii) Support modal shift, (iii) Adopt safe vehicles and equipment, (iv) Educate safe riders, (v) Redesign infrastructure, (vi) Ensure safe speed, (vii) Protect children, and (viii) increase knowledge. 

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  • 5.
    Skogsmo, Ingrid
    Volvo Car Corporation, Sweden.
    Volvos's side impact protection system: With the seat mounted SIPS-bag1996In: Proceedings of International forum on road safety research. Conference in Bangkok, Thailand, October 25-27, 1995: Part 2 / [ed] Kenneth Asp, Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, 1996, p. 1-12Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Skogsmo, Ingrid
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users.
    Andersson, Jeanette
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Jernberg, Christian
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Aramrattana, Maytheewat
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle Systems and Driving Simulation..
    One2Many: remote operation of multiple vehicles2023Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    One2Many, the title of this report, refers to remote operation of vehicles where an operator handles several vehicles simultaneously. This may increase efficiency and opportunities for profitability. The objective of this report is to identify essential and relevant developments of the regulatory framework, as well as business models and working conditions for support of safe and sustainable introduction of a single person’s remote operation of multiple vehicles. 

    As a starting point, this report describes the taxonomy used and a state-of-the-art study. Most literature deals with technical challenges around remote operation while non-technical challenges, as well operation of multiple vehicles, are poorly covered. This report aims at addressing this gap by considering non-technical aspects for remote operation. 

    Legal aspects are described and analysed, resulting in recommendations for next steps for legislation and regulation. Furthermore, business models and working environment are discussed, taking advantage of two real world use cases: goods transport (Einride trucks), and public transportation (Ride the Future automated shuttles). 

    One2Many summarises regulatory considerations in a Memorandum, and additionally concludes that: 

    • Research is needed regarding legal challenges for the three different modes of remote operation (remote driving, remote assistance, remote supervision) and how to address them in future regulation to best deal with safety concerns and to support remote operation. Liability issues and concerns also need to be handled. 

    • The main advantage of introducing remote operating for several vehicles per operator will most likely be uptime. The employee cost is foreseen to decrease, but potential surrounding functions need to be studied in order to determine if the cost of personnel actually would go down. 

    • Several working environment considerations should be further discussed, e.g. regarding what type of controls would be most effective and safe to use, and whether it matters if an operator has a background as driver of conventional vehicles.

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  • 7.
    Skogsmo, Ingrid
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users.
    Anund, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, The Human in the Transport system..
    Mobility for All: Who Is “All”, and How Are “All” Addressed by Ongoing Initiatives for Mobility Solutions and Services Using Automated Shuttles?2021Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Visions for future mobility solutions often contain expressions such as “mobility must be available and affordable for all” and “accessible to all”. This paper discusses who “all” is, what “all” should be able to reach and how future mobility concepts, represented by automated shuttles, address “all”. First, aspects to consider when discussing “mobility for all” are identified. Based on a benchmarking of sites with automated shuttles services, and a stakeholder workshop involving cities - the paper analyses coverage of “for all” aspects in shuttle initiative ambitions, objectives, target groups, and underlying driving forces among the involved cities and regions. Results indicate that explorative objectives, focusing vehicles and technology, dominate among existing shuttle initiatives. Less is done on services to simplify usage. Diving forces coupled to “for all” are not in majority. The paper concludes with recommendations for factors to consider when addressing mobility “for all” by automated shuttle services.

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  • 8.
    Skogsmo, Ingrid
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users.
    Anund, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, The Human in the Transport system..
    UN’s Sustainable Development Goal for safe, sustainable transport systems for all: do automated shuttles have a role?2022In: Road Safety on Five Continents – RS5C. Proceedings / [ed] Anna Vadeby and Stephen P. Mattingly, Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, 2022, p. 42-43Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2015 the UN launched the 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) and associated targets. The need to ...”provide access to safe, affordable, accessible and sustainable transport systems for all, improving road safety, notably by expanding public transport...” is specifically pointed out in Goal 11 about sustainable cities and communities. Additionally to the SDGs there are numerous examples of national, regional, and local levels targets and visions for safe travel, zero fatalities, and/or no injuries.

    There are hopes and expectations that automated mobility can contribute both to improving road safety and increasing the use of public transportation. Automated vehicles are subject of significant development efforts. Several concepts are being tried out, for example shuttle services involving automated electric minibusses. Targets can however only be achieved if users and the public use the solutions that are provided. This in turn requires that users are aware of, have access to and appreciate what is being offered. There is a growing understanding that it is essential to involve people in the further development and deployment of automated vehicles and their use. 

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