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  • 1. Hagelien, Thomas
    et al.
    Radl, Stefan
    Kloss, Christoph
    Goniva, Christoph
    Dahl, Paul Inge
    Nazir, Shareq Mohd
    Fede, Pascal
    Amini, Shahriar
    Porto: A framework for information interchange and multi-scale fluid mechanics simulations2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 2. Krishnaswamy, Srinivas
    et al.
    Nazir, Shareq Mohd
    Srikanth, P. V. K.
    Ponnani, Krisnaswamy N.
    Process Condensate Stripper Performance in Ammonia Plants2012In: Nitrogen+Syngas, ISSN 1750-6891, no 315Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Nazir, Shareq Mohd
    Department of Energy and Process Engineering, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway.
    Techno-economic analysis of combined cycle power plants integrated with chemical looping reforming and CO2 capture2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The current thesis is a part of the EU FP7 Project titled NanoSim. It focuses on techno-economic analysis of combined cycle power plants with integrated pre-combustion CO2 capture and reforming of Natural Gas (NG). The process consists of reforming of NG, Water-Gas Shift (WGS) reactors, CO2 capture and compression section, and a hydrogen-fueled combined cycle power plant. Two reactor concepts for reforming of NG, Chemical Looping Reforming (CLR) and Gas Switching Reforming (GSR), were considered in this thesis. The respective integrated processes are denoted as CLR-CC and GSR-CC. Both the CLR and GSR involve gas-solid reactions and use a metallic oxygen carrier for the reforming of NG. Exergy analysis carried out shows that CLR has a better thermodynamic potential when compared to the traditional gas-gas partial oxidation process. The design pressure in the CLR was found to be an important parameter in the CLR-CC process that effects the process design and integration. Hence, the CLR-CC process was designed and analysed at different design pressures in the CLR between 5 to 30 bar. The net electrical efficiency of the process increases with an increase in pressure. Anyhow, beyond a pressure of 18 bar, which is also the pressure of the air bleed from the compressor discharge of the selected gas turbine system (F-class gas turbine system in this case), an additional air compressor is required with relatively lower gain in the net electrical efficiency. It was also understood that the reforming and water-gas shift reactions are exothermic, and the heat recovery from these reaction steps to produce steam for the steam cycle in the power plant affects the net electrical efficiency. Different options for heat integration were analysed without modifying the basic design of the Heat Recovery Steam Generator (HRSG). The net electrical efficiency of the CLR-CC process was estimated to be between 40.6 and 46.5%. Producing high-pressure steam instead of low-pressure steam from heat recovery from reforming and water-gas shift reactions, and integrating with HRSG shows a difference of 4%-points in the net electrical efficiency. To carry out the techno-economic analysis of the CLR-CC, a 1D model (includes kinetics of gas-solid reactions and hydrodynamics in the reactor) of the CLR developed in MATLAB was linked with the steady state process models for WGS, CO2 capture and compression section in Aspen Hysys V8.6, and the steady state combined cycle power plant model in Thermoflex component of the Thermoflow Suite V26. The multi-scale model linking approach was established to link the dynamic 1D model of the CLR with the steady state process models for a smooth interaction and flow of process data between them. With the help of this linking approach, a sensitivity study for the effect of air flowrate in the oxidation reactor, steam/carbon ratio in the fuel reactor and the oxidation reactor outlet temperature of the CLR, on the net electrical efficiency was carried out. The levelised cost of electricity (LCOE) of the CLR-CC was also estimated and it was found that it is highly sensitive to the fuel cost followed by the process contingency costs (capital costs accounting for maturity of the process technology). The LCOE of the CLR-CC process lies between 75.3 and 144.8 $/MWh. The CO2 avoidance rates of more than 85% is possible in CLR-CC. Techno-economic assessment of the GSR-CC process was carried out and the net electrical efficiency, CO2 avoidance rates and LCOE were estimated. Sensitivity studies with respect to oxygen carrier utilization and steam/carbon ratio in the GSR is presented in the thesis. The net electrical efficiency of the GSR-CC process lies between 45.1 and 46.2% with CO2 avoidance rates of more than 95%. A case without the WGS in the GSR-CC was also studied and the net electrical efficiency was estimated to be around 47.3%. The LCOE of the GSR-CC process is found to be highly sensitive to the fuel cost and can be as low as 80 $/MWh when the NG price is 4.5 $/GJ-LHV (when compared to 9.8 $/GJ-LHV considered in analysis of GSR-CC). There is still scope to improve and optimize the CLR-CC and GSR-CC processes. Further research on these processes can help in improving the techno-economic behavior and make it competitive against the post-combustion capture Technologies.

  • 4.
    Nazir, Shareq Mohd
    et al.
    Department of Energy and Process Engineering, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, 7491 Trondheim, Norway.
    Bolland, Olav
    Department of Energy and Process Engineering, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, 7491 Trondheim, Norway.
    Amini, Shahriar
    Department of Energy and Process Engineering, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, 7491 Trondheim, Norway ; SINTEF Materials and Chemistry, 7034 Trondheim, Norway.
    Analysis of combined cycle power plants with chemical looping reforming of natural gas and pre-combustion CO2 capture2018In: Energies, ISSN 1996-1073, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 11, no 1, article id 147Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, a gas-fired combined cycle power plant subjected to a pre-combustion CO2 capture method has been analysed under different design conditions and different heat integration options. The power plant configuration includes the chemical looping reforming (CLR) of natural gas (NG), water gas shift (WGS) process, CO2 capture and compression, and a hydrogen fuelled combined cycle to produce power. The process is denoted as a CLR-CC process. One of the main parameters that affects the performance of the process is the pressure for the CLR. The process is analysed at different design pressures for the CLR, i.e., 5, 10, 15, 18, 25 and 30 bar. It is observed that the net electrical efficiency increases with an increase in the design pressure in the CLR. Secondly, the type of steam generated from the cooling of process streams also effects the net electrical efficiency of the process. Out of the five different cases including the base case presented in this study, it is observed that the net electrical efficiency of CLR-CCs can be improved to 46.5% (lower heating value of NG basis) by producing high-pressure steam through heat recovery from the pre-combustion process streams and sending it to the Heat Recovery Steam Generator in the power plant.

  • 5.
    Nazir, Shareq Mohd
    et al.
    Department of Energy and Process Engineering, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim 7491, Norway.
    Bolland, Olav
    Department of Energy and Process Engineering, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim 7491, Norway.
    Amini, Shahriar
    Department of Energy and Process Engineering, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim 7491, Norway ; SINTEF Materials and Chemistry, Trondheim, Norway.
    Full plant scale analysis of natural gas fired power plants with pre-combustion CO2 capture and Chemical Looping Reforming (CLR)2017In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 114, p. 2146-2155Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, first of its kind complete plant scale integration of pre-combustion CO2 capture method with Chemical Looping Reforming (CLR) of Natural Gas (NG), Water Gas Shift (WGS) process, CO2 capture and CO2 compression in a combined cycle power plant has been presented. The CLR consisted of oxidation and fuel reactor. The oxidation reactor oxidizes the metal oxygen carrier with compressed air and produces an oxygen depleted air stream (N-2 stream) as by-product. The fuel reactor reforms the NG with the metal oxide in presence of steam to produce syngas. The syngas is further subjected to WGS and CO2 capture using a-MDEA, to prepare a H-2-rich fuel, which is combusted in the Gas Turbine (GT) system. The heat from cooling of process streams in the pre-combustion CO2 capture method, is used to prepare saturated low pressure steam, fraction of which is used in reboiler to regenerate the amine for CO2 capture, and the remainder is expanded in Steam Turbine (ST) to generate power. The power plant is a combined cycle with two GT, two Heat Recovery Steam Generators (HRSG) and one ST. 12% of air entering the GT is used in the oxidation reactor of CLR, and equivalent amount of N-2 stream is compressed and added as diluent in the GT. The overall process was integrated and analysed at full load conditions. The current process has also been compared with Natural Gas Combined Cycle (NGCC) plant without CO2 capture. The net electric efficiency of the power plant with pre-combustion CO2 capture in this study is 43.1%, which is 15.3%-points less than the NGCC plant without capture. Major energy penalty in the process comes from air compressor, the diluent N-2 stream compressor and due to low degree of process integration to avoid complexity.

  • 6.
    Nazir, Shareq Mohd
    et al.
    Department of Energy and Process Engineering, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway.
    Cloete, Jan Hendrik
    SINTEF Industry, Trondheim, Norway.
    Cloete, Schalk
    SINTEF Industry, Trondheim, Norway.
    Amini, Shahriar
    Department of Energy and Process Engineering, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway ; SINTEF Industry, Trondheim, Norway.
    Efficient hydrogen production with CO2 capture using gas switching reforming2019In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, Vol. 185, p. 372-385Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hydrogen is a promising carbon-neutral energy carrier for a future decarbonized energy sector. This work presents process simulation studies of the gas switching reforming (GSR) process for hydrogen production with integrated CO2 capture (GSR-H2 process) at a minimal energy penalty. Like the conventional steam methane reforming (SMR) process, GSR combusts the off-gas fuel from the pressure swing adsorption unit to supply heat to the endothermic reforming reactions. However, GSR completes this combustion using the chemical looping combustion mechanism to achieve fuel combustion with CO2 separation. For this reason, the GSR-H2 plant incurred an energy penalty of only 3.8 %-points relative to the conventional SMR process with 96% CO2 capture. Further studies showed that the efficiency penalty is reduced to 0.3 %-points by including additional thermal mass in the reactor to maintain a higher reforming temperature, thereby facilitating a lower steam to carbon ratio. GSR reactors are standalone bubbling fluidized beds that will be relatively easy to scale up and operate under pressurized conditions, and the rest of the process layout uses commercially available technologies. The ability to produce clean hydrogen with no energy penalty combined with this inherent scalability makes the GSR-H2 plant a promising candidate for further research

  • 7.
    Nazir, Shareq Mohd
    et al.
    Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway.
    Cloete, Jan Hendrik
    Sintef Industry, Trondheim, Norway.
    Cloete, Schalk
    Sintef Industry, Trondheim, Norway.
    Amini, Shahriar
    Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway ; Sintef Industry, Trondheim, Norway.
    Efficient hydrogen production with CO2 capture using gas switching reforming (GSR): techno-economic assessment2019In: Proceedings of the 32nd International Conference on Efficiency, Cost, Optimization, Simulation and Environmental Impact of Energy Systems (ECOS), 2019, p. 635-644Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hydrogen is identified as one of the clean energy carriers in the future energy scenario. This work presents a process to produce low cost hydrogen with CO2 capture using gasswitching reforming (GSR). The process steps include GSR, water-gas shift, purehydrogen recovery in pressure-swing adsorption process and CO2 and hydrogencompression trains. The overall process, denoted as GSR-H2, produces 99.999% purehydrogen with >96% CO2 capture. In this study, GSR-H2 is compared economically with the conventional steam-methane reforming (SMR) plant that produces hydrogenwithout CO2 capture. GSR-H2 produces 10% more hydrogen when compared to theSMR plant, but consumes significant imported electricity. The cost of hydrogenproduced from the GSR-H2 and SMR plant is similar (1.67 €/kg-H2) with a CO2 tax of only 20 €/ton, even with GSR-H2 being a near zero emission plant. In a future energy scenario where the CO2 emission tax is high and the electricity price is low, GSR-H2will significantly outperform the conventional SMR plant.

  • 8.
    Nazir, Shareq Mohd
    et al.
    Department of Energy and Process Engineering, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway.
    Cloete, Jan Hendrik
    Department of Energy and Process Engineering, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway.
    Cloete, Schalk
    SINTEF Industry, Trondheim, Norway.
    Amini, Shahriar
    Department of Energy and Process Engineering, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway ; SINTEF Industry, Trondheim, Norway.
    Gas switching reforming (GSR) for power generation with CO2 capture: Process efficiency improvement studies2019In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, Vol. 167, p. 757-765Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the process improvement studies of a combined cycle power plant integrated with a novel gas switching reforming (GSR) process for hydrogen production with integrated CO2 capture. The overall process is denoted as GSR-CC (gas switching reforming-combined cycle). Five cases are presented in which a systematic approach was adopted to improve the net electrical efficiency of the GSR-CC process. Two cases focus on reducing the number of unit operations and the other three cases focus on heat integration. The net electrical efficiency of the base case GSR-CC process is 45.8% whereas the improved GSR-CC has a net electrical efficiency of 51.1%. The efficiency penalty in the improved GSR-CC process is only 7.2 %-points with respect to the reference case natural gas combined cycle power plant without CO2 capture, and is less than post-combustion capture methods presented in literature. The CO2 avoidance in the GSR-CC is more than 95%. GSR-CC also gives a flexibility in the output from the plant in terms of pure H-2 or electricity and the optimal plant configuration is designed to maximize this flexibility.

    The full text will be freely available from 2020-11-09 15:30
  • 9.
    Nazir, Shareq Mohd
    et al.
    Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Høgskoleringen 1, Trondheim 7491, Norway.
    Cloete, Jan Hendrik
    Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Høgskoleringen 1, Trondheim 7491, Norway.
    Cloete, Schalk
    Sintef Industry, S.P. Andersens veg 5, Trondheim 7031, Norway.
    Amini, Shahriar
    Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Høgskoleringen 1, Trondheim 7491, Norway ; Sintef Industry, S.P. Andersens veg 5, Trondheim 7031, Norway.
    Techno-economic Comparison Of Combined Cycle Power Plants With Pre-combustion CO2 Capture Via Two Different Reforming Methods: Chemical Looping Reforming And Gas Switching Reforming2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper focuses on the techno-economic comparison of gas-fired combined cycle power plants with CO2 capture and tworeforming methods, chemical looping reforming (CLR) and gas-switching reforming (GSR). The overall processes are denoted asCLR-CC and GSR-CC respectively. The net electrical efficiency of the CLR-CC and GSR-CC is 42.1% and 46.2% respectively.Anyhow, with improvements in the gas turbine configuration, the net electrical efficiency improves by 2.5%. GSR-CC has ahigher CO2 avoidance (>95%). The levelised cost of electricity (LCOE) for CLR-CC is lower than that of GSR-CC for basedload operation of the power plant. Anyhow, GSR-CC provides flexibility in terms of output, electricity or pure H2. The capitalrequirement in the GSR-CC is higher due to the requirement of multiple standalone reactors to maintain a steady flow of thesyngas produced from the GSR. The LCOE of both the processes is sensitive to the fuel cost. Further improvements in the GSRCCprocess can make the process competitive to post-combustion capture.

  • 10.
    Nazir, Shareq Mohd
    et al.
    Department of Energy and Process Engineering, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway.
    Cloete, Schalk
    SINTEF Materials and Chemistry, Trondheim, Norway.
    Bolland, Olav
    Department of Energy and Process Engineering, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway.
    Amini, Shahriar
    Department of Energy and Process Engineering, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway ; SINTEF Materials and Chemistry, Trondheim, Norway.
    Techno-economic assessment of the novel gas switching reforming (GSR) concept for gas-fired power production with integrated CO2 capture2018In: International journal of hydrogen energy, ISSN 0360-3199, E-ISSN 1879-3487, Vol. 43, no 18, p. 8754-8769Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The focus of this study is to carry out techno-economic analysis of a pre-combustion capture method in Natural Gas based power plants with a novel reactor concept, Gas Switching Reforming (GSR). This reactor concept enables auto thermal natural gas reforming with integrated CO 2 capture. The process analysed integrates GSR, Water Gas Shift (WGS), and Pressure Swing Adsorption (PSA) into a Natural Gas based combined cycle power plant. The overall process is defined as GSR-CC. Sensitivity studies have been carried out to understand the performance of the GSR-CC process by changing the oxygen carrier utilization and Steam/Carbon ratio in GSR. The net electrical efficiency of the GSR-CC lies between 45.1% and 46.2% and the levelised cost of electricity lies between 124.4 and 128.1 $/MWh (at European natural gas prices) for the parameter space assumed in this study. By eliminating the WGS step from the process, the net electrical efficiency improves to 47.4% and the levelised cost of electricity reduces to 120.7 $/MWh. Significant scope exists for further efficiency improvements and cost reductions from the GSR-CC system. In addition, the GSR-CC process achieves high CO 2 avoidance rates (>95%) and offers the possibility to produce pure H 2 during times of low electricity demands.

  • 11.
    Nazir, Shareq Mohd
    et al.
    Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway.
    Morgado, Joana Francisco
    Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway;University of Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal;Ifavidro Lda, Portugal.
    Andersson, Stefan
    SINTEF Industry, Trondheim, Norway.
    Guo, Zheng Xiao
    University College London, United Kingdom.
    Amini, Shahriar
    Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway;SINTEF Industry, Trondheim, Norway.
    Development of nano-structured materials through a novel multi-scale modeling framework for energy conversion with CO2 capture2019Other (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Nazir, Shareq Mohd
    et al.
    Department of Energy and Process Engineering, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway.
    Morgado, Joana Francisco
    Department of Energy and Process Engineering, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway;Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal.
    Bolland, Olav
    Department of Energy and Process Engineering, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway.
    Quinta-Ferreira, Rosa
    Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal.
    Amini, Shahriar
    Department of Energy and Process Engineering, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway;SINTEF Industry, Trondheim, Norway.
    Techno-economic assessment of chemical looping reforming of natural gas for hydrogen production and power generation with integrated CO2 capture2018In: International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control, ISSN 1750-5836, E-ISSN 1878-0148, Vol. 78, p. 7-20Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The current study presents the techno-economic analysis of the CLR-CC process. The CLR-CC process comprises of chemical looping reforming (CLR) of Natural Gas, water gas shift, CO2 capture and compression, and combined cycle power plant. A 1-D phenomenological model was developed using MATLAB and is used to study the performance of CLR, whereas the remaining part of the process was analysed using commercial software tools like Aspen and Thermoflow. The effect of design conditions in CLR, mainly the air flowrate to the oxidation reactor, oxidation reactor outlet temperature and the steam flowrate to the fuel reactor of CLR, on the overall techno-economic performance of the CLR-CC process is reported. The CH4 conversion in CLR, net electrical efficiency, CO2 avoidance rate and the Levelised Cost of Electricity (LCOE) have been identified as technoeconomic performance indicators. For the sensitivity study carried out in this study through 12 cases, the net electrical efficiency of the CLR-CC process varies between 40.0 and 43.4%, whereas the LCOE varies between 75.3 and 144.8 $/MWh, which is highly dependent on the fuel cost and process contingency rates.

    The full text will be freely available from 2020-08-01 15:53
  • 13. Szima, Szabolcs
    et al.
    Nazir, Shareq Mohd
    Cloete, Schalk
    Amini, Shahriar
    Fogarasi, Szabolcs
    Cormos, Ana-Maria
    Cormos, Calin-Cristian
    Gas switching reforming for flexible power and hydrogen production to balance variable renewables2019In: Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Vol. 110, p. 207-219Article in journal (Refereed)
1 - 13 of 13
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