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  • 1.
    Davari, Mohammad Mehdi
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for ECO2 Vehicle design.
    Jerrelind, Jenny
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for ECO2 Vehicle design.
    Stensson Trigell, Annika
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for ECO2 Vehicle design.
    Edrén, Johannes
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for ECO2 Vehicle design.
    Investigating the potential of wheel corner modules in reducing rolling resistance of tires2014In: FISITA 2014 World Automotive Congress - Proceedings, FISITA , 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The improvement in tire rolling efficiency is one of the key elements to optimize the fuel economy and thereby reduce the vehicle emissions. Earlier efforts to reduce the rolling resistance have mainly been focusing on new materials in the tire compounds. The overall research aim of this study is to present the potentials of implementing innovative chassis concepts with the focus on Wheel Corner Modules (WCM) by describing the possibilities in affecting rolling resistance and relating them to previous research findings. The core idea of the concept is to actively control and actuate all degrees of freedom in the wheel i.e. implementing steering, suspension and propulsion functions into a unique module which can be implemented in each corner of the vehicle. Using this concept the limitations of traditional wheel kinematics can be resolved extensively. This article presents the first step towards creating a vehicle simulation model that can show how the WCM functionality can influence the rolling resistance. A model of loss is chosen after analysing the behaviour of a three different rubber models and then implemented into a brush tire model. An effective way, but less complicated compared to current methods, to introduce the loss into tire model is presented. In conventional suspensions, the design is compromising between for example safety, comfort and rolling resistance, etc. at all driving conditions. However, using the WCM, the possibility of achieving a better compromise between those objectives is possible.Finally, based on WCM functionalities a plausible control architecture is proposed. 

  • 2.
    Davari, Mohammad Mehdi
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for ECO2 Vehicle design.
    Jerrelind, Jenny
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Stensson Trigell, Annika
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Edrén, Johannes
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Investigating the Potential of Wheel Corner Modules in Reducing Rolling Resistance of Tyres2014In: Proceedings of FISITA "14 World Automotive Congress, Maastricht, Netherlands (2014), 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The improvement in tire rolling efficiency is one of the key elements to optimize the fuel economy and thereby reduce the vehicle emissions. Earlier efforts to reduce the rolling resistance have mainly been focusing on new materials in the tire compounds. The overall research aim of this study is to present the potentials ofimplementing innovative chassis concepts with the focus on Wheel Corner Modules (WCM) by describing thepossibilities in affecting rolling resistance and relating them to previous research findings. The core idea of theconcept is to actively control and actuate all degrees of freedom in the wheel i.e. implementing steering,suspension and propulsion functions into a unique module which can be implemented in each corner of the vehicle. Using this concept the limitations of traditional wheel kinematics can be resolved extensively. This article presents the first step towards creating a vehicle simulation model that can show how the WCM functionality can influence the rolling resistance. A model of loss is chosen after analysing the behaviour of three different rubber models and then implemented into a brush tire model. An effective way, but less complicatedcompared to current methods, to introduce the loss into tire model is presented. In conventional suspensions, thedesign is compromising between for example safety, comfort and rolling resistance, etc. at all drivingconditions. However, using the WCM, the possibility of achieving a better compromise between those objectivesis possible. Finally, based on WCM functionalities a plausible control architecture is proposed.

  • 3.
    Edrén, Johannes
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Jerrelind, Jenny
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Stensson Trigell, Annika
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Drugge, Lars
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Implementation and evaluation of force allocation control of a down-scaled prototype vehicle with wheel corner modules2013In: International Journal of Vehicle Systems Modelling and Testing, ISSN 1745-6436, Vol. 8, no 4, p. 335-363Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The implementation of wheel corner modules on vehicles creates new possibilities of controlling wheel forces through the utilisation of multiple actuators and wheel motors. Thereby new solutions for improved handling and safety can be developed. In this paper, the control architecture and the implementation of wheel slip and chassis controllers on a down-scaled prototype vehicle are presented and analysed. A simple, cost-effective force allocation algorithm is described, implemented and evaluated in simulations and experiments. Straight line braking tests were performed for the three different controller settings individual anti-lock brakes (ABS), yaw-torque-compensated ABS and force allocation using both wheel torque and steering angle control at each wheel. The results show that force allocation is possible to use in a real vehicle, and will enhance the performance and stability even at a very basic level, utilising very few sensors with only the actual braking forces as feedback to the chassis controller.

  • 4.
    Edrén, Johannes
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Jonasson, Mats
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Jerrelind, Jenny
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Stensson Trigell, Annika
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Utilization of Vertical Loads by Optimization for Integrated Vehicle Control2012In: Proceedings of AVEC12, 11th Symposium on Advanced Vehicle Control, September 9-12, Seoul, Korea, 2012., 2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents results on how to optimally utilise vertical loading on individual wheels in order to improve vehicle performance during limit handling. Numerical optimisation has been used to find solutions on how the active suspension should be controlled and coordinated together with friction brakes and electric power assisted steering (EPAS). Firstly, it is investigated whether the brake distance can be shortened. Secondly, the performance during an evasive manoeuvre is investigated. The result shows that brake distance can be improved by at least 0.5 m and the speed through the evasive manoeuvre by roughly 1 km/h for the studied vehicle. Quick actuators is shown to give even better performance. These results provide guidance on how active suspension can be used to give significant improvements in vehicle performance.

  • 5.
    Edrén, Johannes
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Jonasson, Mats
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Jerrelind, Jenny
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Stensson Trigell, Annika
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Drugge, Lars
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Energy efficient cornering using over-actuation2019In: Mechatronics (Oxford), ISSN 0957-4158, E-ISSN 1873-4006, Vol. 59, p. 69-81Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This work deals with utilisation of active steering and propulsion on individual wheels in order to improve a vehicle's energy efficiency during a double lane change manoeuvre at moderate speeds. Through numerical optimisation, solutions have been found for how wheel steering angles and propulsion torques should be used in order to minimise the energy consumed by the vehicle travelling through the manoeuvre. The results show that, for the studied vehicle, the energy consumption due to cornering resistance can be reduced by approximately 10% compared to a standard vehicle configuration. Based on the optimisation study, simplified algorithms to control wheel steering angles and propulsion torques that results in more energy efficient cornering are proposed. These algorithms are evaluated in a simulation study that includes a path tracking driver model. Based on a combined rear axle steering and torque vectoring control an improvement of 6–8% of the energy consumption due to cornering was found. The results indicate that in order to improve energy efficiency for a vehicle driving in a non-safety-critical cornering situation the force distribution should be shifted towards the front wheels.

  • 6.
    Edrén, Johannes
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering.
    Jonasson, Mats
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering. Volvo Car Corporation, Sweden .
    Jerrelind, Jenny
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering.
    Trigell, Annika Stensson
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering.
    Drugge, Lars
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering.
    Utilisation of optimisation solutions to control active suspension for decreased braking distance2015In: Vehicle System Dynamics, ISSN 0042-3114, E-ISSN 1744-5159, Vol. 53, no 2, p. 256-273Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This work deals with how to utilise active suspension on individual vehicle wheels in order to improve the vehicle performance during straight-line braking. Through numerical optimisation, solutions have been found as regards how active suspension should be controlled and coordinated with friction brakes to shorten the braking distance. The results show that, for the studied vehicle, the braking distance can be shortened by more than 1 m when braking from 100 km/h. The applicability of these results is studied by investigating the approach for different vehicle speeds and actuator stroke limitations. It is shown that substantial improvements in the braking distance can also be found for lower velocities, and that the actuator strokes are an important parameter. To investigate the potential of implementing these findings in a real vehicle, a validated detailed vehicle model equipped with active struts is analysed. Simplified control laws, appropriate for on-board implementation and based on knowledge of the optimised solution, are proposed and evaluated. The results show that substantial improvements of the braking ability, and thus safety, can be made using this simplified approach. Particle model simulations have been made to explain the underlying physical mechanisms and limitations of the approach. These results provide valuable guidance on how active suspension can be used to achieve significant improvements in vehicle performance with reasonable complexity and energy consumption.

  • 7.
    Edrén, Johannes
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Jonasson, Mats
    Vehicle Dynamics and Active Safety, Volvo Car Corporation, Göteborg, Sverige.
    Stensson Trigell, Annika
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Drugge, Lars
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Jerrelind, Jenny
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    The developement of a down-scaled over-actuated vehicle equipped with autonomous corner module functionality2010In: FISITA Proceedings 2010, paper F2010B056, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the development of a functional down-scaled prototype of a passenger car with capability to control steering, wheel torques, wheel loads and camber individually. The adopted chassis technology is based on a modularised platform, referred to as Autonomous corner modules (ACM), which simplifies the re-use of components at the four corners of the vehicle and between different vehicles.

    This work gives an insight in the design of the vehicle and the selection of electrical actuators and sensors to provide all ACM functions. Since a part of the implemented chassis components do not admit to be scaled down at the same level, necessary design modifications are suggested. The problems of scaling, meaning that a down-scaled prototype cannot fully emulate a full-scaled vehicle’s all functions simultaneously, are a great disadvantage of down scaling. For example is gravity one desired parameter that is hard to physically scale down.

    In order to evaluate the behaviour of the down-scaled prototype, it is of high importance to establish the characteristics of the developed vehicle and its subsystems. In particular, tyre design is considered as complex. For this reason, different ideas of methods to confirm tyre characteristics are proposed.

    Also the paper presents the initial process of developing the prototype vehicle that is later to be used in vehicle dynamics research.

  • 8.
    Edrén, Johannes
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Sundström, Peter
    Modelon AB, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Jonasson, Mats
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Jacobson, Bengt
    Chalmers Univerity of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Andreasson, Johan
    Modelon AB, Lund, Sweden.
    Stensson Trigell, Annika
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Road friction effect on the optimal vehicle control strategy in two critical manoeuvres2014In: International Journal of Vehicle Safety, ISSN 1479-3105, Vol. 7, no 2, p. 107-130Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents results on how to optimally negotiate two safety-critical vehicle manoeuvres depending on available actuators and road friction level. The motive for this research has been to provide viable knowledge of limitations of vehicle capability under the presence of environmental preview sensors, such as radar, camera and navigation. An optimal path is in this paper found by optimising the sequence of actuator requests during the two manoeuvres. Particular interest is paid on how the vehicle control strategy depends on friction. This work shows that actuation of forces and torques on and around the vehicle centre of gravity are all approximately scaled with the friction coefficient. However, this pattern is not valid at a wheel individual level, i.e. the optimal force allocation among the wheels differs under different friction conditions. One key is that lower friction level yields lower load transfer which substantially influences the wheel individual tyre force constraints.

  • 9.
    Jerrelind, Jenny
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Edrén, Johannes
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Li, Shiruo
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Davari, Mohammad Mehdi
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Drugge, Lars
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Stensson Trigell, Annika
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Exploring active camber to enhance vehicle performance and safety2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to evaluate optimal active camber strategies for improvement of vehicle performance and safety during limit handling. Numerical optimisation is used to find solutions on how the active camber should be controlled and coordinated in cooperation with individual braking and front axle steering. Based on the characteristics of a multi-line brush tyre model, a Simple Magic Formula description is developed where camber dependency, load sensitivity and first order speed dependent relaxation dynamics are included. The vehicle is analysed during an evasive manoeuvre when the vehicle is running at the limit. It is evident from the results that active camber control can improve safety and performance during an avoidance manoeuvre.

  • 10.
    Rehnberg, Adam
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for ECO2 Vehicle design.
    Edrén, Johannes
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for ECO2 Vehicle design.
    Eriksson, Magnus
    Drugge, Lars
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for ECO2 Vehicle design.
    Stensson Trigell, Annika
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for ECO2 Vehicle design.
    Scale model investigation of the snaking and folding stability of an articulated frame steer vehicle2011In: International Journal of Vehicle Systems Modelling and Testing, ISSN 1745-6436, Vol. 6, no 2, p. 126-144Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes the development and evaluation of an articulated frame steer testvehicle on a model-scale. Vehicles with articulated steering are known to exhibit unstable behaviour in the form of snaking or folding instabilities when operated at high speed, as previously studied using analytical models, simulations and full vehicle tests. The aim ofthis study is to design a scaled test vehicle that is able to reproduce unstable modes found in articulated vehicles. The model vehicle may provide greater insight than simulations, while avoiding the costs and hazards associated with full vehicle tests. The objective is also to investigate how well a linearised planar model and eigenvalue analysis can predict vehicle stability properties. Experimental and theoretical results have been critically analysed, and found to exhibit typical full vehicle behaviour. The linear mathematical model exhibited similar trends when compared to the scale model test results.

  • 11.
    Wanner, Daniel
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Drugge, Lars
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Edrén, Johannes
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Stensson Trigell, Annika
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Modelling and experimental evaluation of driver behaviour during single wheel hub motor failures2015In: Proceedings of the 3rd International Symposium on Future Active Safety Technology Towards zero traffic accidents (FASTzero'15), 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A failure-sensitive driver model has been developed in the research study presented in this paper. The model is based on measurements of human responses to dierent failure conditions inuencing the vehicle directional stability in a moving-base driving simulator. The measurements were made in a previous experimental study where test subjects were exposed to three sudden failure conditions that required adequate corrective measures to maintain the vehicle control and regain the planned trajectory. A common driver model and a failure-sensitive driver model have been compared, and results for the latter agree well with the measured data. The proposed failure-sensitive driver model is capable of maintaining the vehicle control and regaining the planned trajectory similarly to the way in which humans achieved this during a wheel hub motor failure in one of the rear wheels.

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  • 12.
    Wanner, Daniel
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Edrén, Johannes
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Jonasson, Mats
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Wallmark, Oskar
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electrical Energy Conversion.
    Drugge, Lars
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Stensson Trigell, Annika
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Fault-Tolerant Control of Electric Vehicles with In-Wheel Motors through Tyre-Force Allocation2012In: Proceedings of the 11th International Symposium on Advanced Vehicle Control, Seoul: Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers (JSAE) , 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a fault handling strategy for electric vehicles with in-wheel motors. The ap-plied control algorithm is based on tyre-force allocation. One complex tyre-force allocation meth-od, which requires non-linear optimization, as well as a simpler tyre force allocation method are developed and applied. A comparison between them is conducted and evaluated against a standard reference vehicle with an Electronic Stability Control (ESC) algorithm. The faults in consideration are electrical faults that can arise in in-wheel motors of permanent-magnet type. The results show for both tyre-force allocation methods an improved re-allocation after a severe fault and thus re-sults in an improved state trajectory recovery. Thereby the proposed fault handling strategy be-comes an important component to improve system dependability and secure vehicle safety.

    Download full text (pdf)
    Wanner2012
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