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  • 1. Afanasov, Mikhail
    et al.
    Djordjevic, Alessandro
    Liu, Feng
    Mottola, Luca
    Politecnico di Milano, Italy; RI.Se SICS Sweden.
    FlyZone: A Testbed for Experimenting with Aerial Drone Applications2019In: MobiSys '19 Proceedings of the 17th Annual International Conference on Mobile Systems, Applications, and Services, 2019, p. 67-78Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 2.
    Afanasov, Mikhail
    et al.
    Politecnico di Milano, Italy.
    Mottola, Luca
    Politecnico di Milano, Italy and SICS Swedish ICT.
    Ghezzi, Carlo
    Politecnico di Milano, Italy.
    Software Adaptation in Wireless Sensor Networks2018In: ACM Transactions on Autonomous and Adaptive Systems, ISSN 1556-4665, E-ISSN 1556-4703, Vol. 12, no 4, article id 18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present design concepts, programming constructs, and automatic verification techniques to support the development of adaptive Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) software. WSNs operate at the interface between the physical world and the computing machine and are hence exposed to unpredictable environment dynamics. WSN software must adapt to these dynamics to maintain dependable and efficient operation. However, developers are left without proper support to develop adaptive functionality in WSN software. Our work fills this gap with three key contributions: (i) design concepts help developers organize the necessary adaptive functionality and understand their relations, (ii) dedicated programming constructs simplify the implementations, (iii) custom verification techniques allow developers to check the correctness of their design before deployment. We implement dedicated tool support to tie the three contributions, facilitating their practical application. Our evaluation considers representative WSN applications to analyze code metrics, synthetic simulations, and cycle-accurate emulation of popular WSN platforms. The results indicate that our work is effective in simplifying the development of adaptive WSN software; for example, implementations are provably easier to test and to maintain, the run-time overhead of our dedicated programming constructs is negligible, and our verification techniques return results in a matter of seconds.

  • 3. Ahmed, Saad
    et al.
    Bhakar, Abu
    Bhatti, Naveed Anwar
    Alizai, Muhammad Hamad
    Siddiqui, Junaid Haroon
    Mottola, Luca
    Politecnico di Milano, Italy; RI.SE SICS Sweden.
    The Betrayal of Constant Power × Time: Finding the Missing Joules of Transiently-powered Computers2019In: Proceedings of the 20th ACMSIGPLAN/SIGBED Conference on Languages, Compilers, and Toolsfor Embedded Systems (LCTES ’19), 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 4. Ahmed, Saad
    et al.
    Bhatti, Naveed Anwar
    Alizai, Muhammad Hamad
    Siddiqui, Junaid
    Mottola, Luca
    Politecnico di Milano, Italy; RI.SE SICS Swedish.
    Efficient Intermittent Computing with Differential Checkpointing2019In: LCTES 2019 Proceedings of the 20th ACM SIGPLAN/SIGBED International Conference on Languages, Compilers, and Tools for Embedded Systems, 2019, p. 70-81Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 5. Boano, Carlo Alberto
    et al.
    Duquennoy, Simon
    Foster, Anna
    Gnawali, Omprakash
    Jacob, Romain
    Kim, Hyung-Sin
    Landsiedel, Olaf
    Marfievici, Ramona
    Mottola, Luca
    Politecnico di Milano, Italy; RISE SICS, Sweden.
    Picco, Gian Pietro
    Vilajosana, Xavier
    Watteyne, Thomas
    Zimmerling, Marco
    IoTBench: Towards a Benchmark for Low-power Wireless Networking2018In: Proceedings of the 1st International Workshop on Benchmarking Cyber-Physical Networks and Systems, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 6. Branco, Adriano
    et al.
    Mottola, Luca
    RI.Se SICS Sweden.
    Alizai, Hamad
    Haroon Siddiqui, Junaid
    Intermittent Intermittent Asynchronous Peripheral Operations2019In: SenSys ´19 Proceedings of the 17th ACM International Conference on Embedded Networked Sensor Systems (SENSYS), 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 7. Maioli, Andrea
    et al.
    Mottola, Luca
    Politecnico di Milano, Italy; RI.SE SICS, Sweden.
    Alizai, Muhammad Hamad
    Siddiqui, Junaid Haroon
    On Intermittence Bugs in the Battery-less Internet of Things2019In: LCTES 2019 Proceedings of the 20th ACM SIGPLAN/SIGBED International Conference on Languages, Compilers, and Tools for Embedded Systems, 2019, p. 203-207Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Mottola, Luca
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Architecture and Computer Communication. RISE Swedish Institute of Computer Science, Kista SE164 29, Sweden;Politecnico di Milano, Milano 20133, Italy.
    Picco, Gian Pietro
    University of Trento, Trento 38122, Italy.
    Oppermann, Felix
    Graz University of Technology, Ultimo, NSW 2007, Australia.
    Eriksson, Joakim
    RISE Swedish Institute of Computer Science, Kista SE164 29, Sweden SICS.
    Finne, Niclas
    RISE Swedish Institute of Computer Science, Kista SE164 29, Sweden SICS.
    Fuchs, Harald
    SAP, Walldorf, 69190, Germany.
    Gaglione, Andrea
    University of Trento, Trento 38122, Italy.
    Karnouskos, Stamatis
    SAP, Walldorf, 69190, Germany.
    Montero, Patricio
    Acciona Infraestructuras S.A. Alcobendas, Madrid 28108, Spain.
    Oertel, Nina
    SAP, Walldorf, 69190, Germany.
    Römer, Kay
    Graz University of Technology, Ultimo, NSW 2007, Australia.
    Spiess, Patrik
    SAP, Walldorf, 69190, Germany.
    Tranquillini, Stefano
    University of Trento, Trento 38122, Italy.
    Voigt, Thiemo
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Architecture and Computer Communication. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Systems. RISE Swedish Institute of Computer Science, Kista, SE-164 29, Sweden.
    makeSense: Simplifying the Integration of Wireless Sensor Networks into Business Processes2019In: IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, ISSN 0098-5589, E-ISSN 1939-3520, Vol. 45, no 6, p. 576-596Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A wide gap exists between the state of the art in developing Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) software and current practices concerning the design, execution, and maintenance of business processes. WSN software is most often developed based on low-level OS abstractions, whereas business process development leverages high-level languages and tools. This state of affairs places WSNs at the fringe of industry. The makeSense system addresses this problem by simplifying the integration of WSNs into business processes. Developers use BPMN models extended with WSN-specific constructs to specify the application behavior across both traditional business process execution environments and the WSN itself, which is to be equipped with application-specific software. We compile these models into a high-level intermediate language—also directly usable by WSN developers—and then into OS-specific deployment-ready binaries. Key to this process is the notion of meta-abstraction, which we define to capture fundamental patterns of interaction with and within the WSN. The concrete realization of meta-abstractions is application-specific; developers tailor the system configuration by selecting concrete abstractions out of the existing codebase or by providing their own. Our evaluation of makeSense shows that i) users perceive our approach as a significant advance over the state of the art, providing evidence of the increased developer productivity when using makeSense; ii) in large-scale simulations, our prototype exhibits an acceptable system overhead and good scaling properties, demonstrating the general applicability of makeSense; and, iii) our prototype—including the complete tool-chain and underlying system support—sustains a real-world deployment where estimates by domain specialists indicate the potential for drastic reductions in the total cost of ownership compared to wired and conventional WSN-based solutions.

  • 9.
    Mottola, Luca
    et al.
    Politecnico di Milano, Italy; SICS Swedish ICT.
    Whitehouse, Kamin
    University of Virginia, US.
    Fundamental Concepts of Reactive Control for Autonomous Drones2018In: Communications of the ACM, ISSN 0001-0782, E-ISSN 1557-7317, Vol. 61, no 10, p. 96-104Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Autonomous drones represent a new breed of mobile computing system. Compared to smartphones and connected cars that only opportunistically sense or communicate, drones allow motion control to become part of the application logic. The efficiency of their movements is largely dictated by the low-level control enabling their autonomous operation based on high-level inputs. Existing implementations of such low-level control operate in a time-triggered fashion. In contrast, we conceive a notion of reactive control that allows drones to execute the low-level control logic only upon recognizing the need to, based on the influence of the environment onto the drone operation. As a result, reactive control can dynamically adapt the control rate. This brings fundamental benefits, including more accurate motion control, extended lifetime, and better quality of service in end-user applications. Based on 260+ hours of real-world experiments using three aerial drones, three different control logic, and three hardware platforms, we demonstrate, for example, up to 41% improvements in motion accuracy and up to 22% improvements in flight time.

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