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  • 1.
    Carboni, Marco
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Manzi, Jessica
    Univ Roma La Sapienza, Dipartimento Chim, Rome, Italy.
    Armstrong, Antony Robert
    Univ St Andrews, Sch Chem, EaStCHEM, St Andrews, Fife, Scotland.
    Billaud, Juliette
    Univ St Andrews, Sch Chem, EaStCHEM, St Andrews, Fife, Scotland.
    Brutti, Sergio
    Univ Roma La Sapienza, Dipartimento Chim, Rome, Italy.
    Younesi, Reza
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Analysis of the Solid Electrolyte Interphase on Hard Carbon Electrodes in Sodium-Ion Batteries2019In: Chemelectrochem, ISSN 2196-0216, Vol. 6, no 6, p. 1745-1753Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The composition, morphology, and evolution of the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) formed on hard carbon (HC) electrodes upon cycling in sodium‐ion batteries are investigated. A microporous HC was prepared by pyrolysis of d‐(+)‐glucose at 1000 °C followed by ball‐milling. HC electrodes were galvanostatically cycled at room temperature in sodium‐ion half‐cells using an aprotic electrolyte of 1 m sodium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide dissolved in propylene carbonate with 3 wt % fluoroethylene carbonate additive. The evolution of the electrode/electrolyte interface was studied by impedance spectroscopy upon cycling and ex situ by spectroscopy and microscopy. The irreversible capacity displayed by the HC electrodes in the first galvanostatic cycle is probably due to the accumulation of redox inactive NaxC phases and the precipitation of a porous, organic‐inorganic hybrid SEI layer over the HC electrodes. This passivation film further evolves in morphology and composition upon cycling and stabilizes after approximately ten galvanostatic cycles at low current rates.

  • 2.
    Carboni, Marco
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Naylor, Andrew J.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Valvo, Mario
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Younesi, Reza
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Graphite for K-ion Batteries: Stability and Formation of SEI layer2018Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Carboni, Marco
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Naylor, Andrew J.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Valvo, Mario
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Younesi, Reza
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Unlocking high capacities of graphite anodes for potassium-ion batteries2019In: RSC Advances, ISSN 2046-2069, E-ISSN 2046-2069, Vol. 9, no 36, p. 21070-21074Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Graphite is considered a promising candidate as the anode for potassium-ion batteries (KIBs). Here, we demonstrate a significant improvement in performance through the ball-milling of graphite. Electrochemical techniques show reversible K-intercalation into graphitic layers, with 65% capacity retention after 100 cycles from initial capacities and extended cycling beyond 200 cycles. Such an affinity of the graphite towards storage of K-ions is explained by means of SEM and Raman analyses. Graphite ball-milling results in a gentle mechanical exfoliation of the graphene layers and simultaneous defect formation, leading to enhanced electrochemical performance.

  • 4.
    Carboni, Marco
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Younesi, Reza
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Graphite Anode in K-ion Battery: The Solid Electrolyte Interphase probed by Photoelectron Spectroscopy2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Ebadi, Mahsa
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Nasser, Antoine
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Materials Theory. ENSTA ParisTech, 828 Blvd Marechaux, F-91120 Palaiseau, France.
    Carboni, Marco
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Younesi, Reza
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Marchiori, Cleber
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Materials Theory.
    Brandell, Daniel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Araujo, Carlos Moyses
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Materials Theory.
    Insights into the Li-Metal/Organic Carbonate Interfacial Chemistry by Combined First-Principles Theory and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy2019In: The Journal of Physical Chemistry C, ISSN 1932-7447, E-ISSN 1932-7455, Vol. 123, no 1, p. 347-355Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) is a widely used technique to study surfaces and interfaces. In complex chemical systems, however, interpretation of the XPS results and peak assignments is not straightforward. This is not least true for Li-batteries, where XPS yet remains a standard technique for interface characterization. In this work, a combined density functional theory (DFT) and experimental XPS study is carried out to obtain the C 1s and O 1s core-level binding energies of organic carbonate molecules on the surface of Li metal. Decomposition of organic carbonates is frequently encountered in electrochemical cells employing this electrode, contributing to the build up of a complex solid electrolyte interphase (SEI). The goal in this current study is to identify the XPS fingerprints of the formed compounds, degradation pathways, and thereby the early formation stages of the SEI. The contribution of partial atomic charges on the core-ionized atoms and the electrostatic potential due to the surrounding atoms on the core-level binding energies, which is decisive for interpretation of the XPS spectra, are addressed based on the DFT calculations. The results display strong correlations between these two terms and the binding energies, whereas electrostatic potential is found to be the dominating factor. The organic carbonate molecules, decomposed at the surface of the Li metal, are considered based on two different decomposition pathways. The trends of calculated binding energies for products from ethereal carbon-ethereal oxygen bond cleavage in the organic carbonates are better supported when compared to the experimental XPS results.

  • 6.
    Liu, Chenjuan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Carboni, Marco
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Brant, William
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Pan, Ruijun
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Inorganic Chemistry.
    Hedman, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Zhu, Jie-Fang
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Gustafsson, Torbjörn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Younesi, Reza
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Insights into the Stability of Discharge Products in Na-O2 BatteriesManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Liu, Chenjuan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Carboni, Marco
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Brant, William
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Pan, Ruijun
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström.
    Hedman, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström.
    Zhu, Jiefang
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström.
    Gustafsson, Torbjörn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström.
    Younesi, Reza
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström.
    On the Stability of NaO2 in Na–O2 Batteries2018In: ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, ISSN 1944-8244, E-ISSN 1944-8252, Vol. 10, no 16, p. 13534-13541Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Na–O2 batteries are regarded as promising candidates for energy storage. They have higher energy efficiency, rate capability, and chemical reversibility than Li–O2 batteries; in addition, sodium is cheaper and more abundant compared to lithium. However, inconsistent observations and instability of discharge products have inhibited the understanding of the working mechanism of this technology. In this work, we have investigated a number of factors that influence the stability of the discharge products. By means of in operando powder X-ray diffraction study, the influence of oxygen, sodium anode, salt, solvent, and carbon cathode were investigated. The Na metal anode and an ether-based solvent are the main factors that lead to the instability and decomposition of NaO2 in the cell environment. This fundamental insight brings new information on the working mechanism of Na–O2 batteries.

  • 8.
    Liu, Chenjuan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Carboni, Marco
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Brant, William R.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Pan, Ruijun
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Inorganic Chemistry.
    Hedman, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Zhu, Jiefang
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Gustafsson, Torbjörn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Younesi, Reza
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Insights into the Stability of Discharge Products in Na-O2 Batteries2017Other (Other academic)
  • 9.
    Naylor, Andrew J.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Carboni, Marco
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Valvo, Mario
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Younesi, Reza
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Interfacial Reaction Mechanisms on Graphite Anodes for K-Ion Batteries2019In: ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, ISSN 1944-8244, E-ISSN 1944-8252, Vol. 11, no 49, p. 45636-45645Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Potassium-ion (K-ion) batteries (KIBs) potentially offer numerous advantages over conventional lithium-ion batteries as a result of the high natural abundance of potassium and its lower positive charge density compared with lithium. This introduces the possibility of using K-ion in fast charging applications, in which cost effectiveness is also a major factor. Unlike in sodium-ion batteries, graphite can be used as an anode in K-ion cells, for which an extensive supply chain, electrode manufacturing infrastructure, and knowledge already exist. However, the performance of graphite anodes in K-ion cells does not meet expectations, with rapid capacity fading and poor first cycle irreversible capacities often reported. Here, we investigate the formation and composition of the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) as well as K+ insertion in graphite anodes in KIBs. Through the use of energy-tuned synchrotron-based X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, we make a detailed analysis at three probing depths up to ∼50 nm of graphite anodes cycled to various potentials on the first discharge-charge cycle. Extensive SEI formation from a KPF6/DEC/EC electrolyte system is found to occur at low potentials during the insertion of potassium ions into graphite. During the subsequent removal of potassium ions from the structure, the thick SEI is partially stripped from the electrode, demonstrating that the SEI layer is unstable and contributes to a significant proportion of the capacity upon both discharge and charge. With this in mind, further work is required to develop an electrolyte system with stable SEI layer formation on graphite in order to advance the KIB technology.

1 - 9 of 9
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