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  • 1.
    Ranade, Sonali Sachin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology. Department of Forest Genetics and Plant Physiology, Umeå Plant Science Centre, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, 901 83 Umeå, Sweden.
    Delhomme, Nicolas
    Garcia-Gil, Maria Rosario
    Transcriptome analysis of shade avoidance and shade tolerance in conifers2019In: Planta, ISSN 0032-0935, E-ISSN 1432-2048, Vol. 250, no 1, p. 299-318Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Main conclusion: Gymnosperms respond differently to light intensity and R:FR; although some aspects of shade response appear conserved, yet underlying mechanisms seem to be diverse in gymnosperms as compared to angiosperms.

    Shade avoidance syndrome (SAS) is well-characterized in the shade intolerant model species Arabidopsis thaliana whereas much less is known about shade tolerance response (STR), yet regulation of SAS and STR with reference to conifers remains poorly understood. We conducted a comparative study of two conifer species with contrasting responses to shade, Scots pine (shade-intolerant) and Norway spruce (shade-tolerant), with the aim to understand mechanisms behind SAS and STR in conifers. Pine and spruce seedlings were grown under controlled light and shade conditions, and hypocotyl and seedling elongation following different light treatments were determined in both species as indicators of shade responses. Red to far-red light ratio (R:FR) was shown to trigger the shade response in Norway spruce. In Scots pine, we observed an interaction between R:FR and light intensity. RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) data revealed that SAS and STR responses included changes in expression of genes involved primarily in hormone signalling and pigment biosynthesis. From the RNA-Seq analysis, we propose that although some aspects of shade response appear to be conserved in angiosperms and gymnosperms, yet the underlying mechanisms may be different in gymnosperms that warrants further research.

  • 2.
    Ranade, Sonali Sachin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology. Department of Forest Genetics and Plant Physiology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Delhomme, Nicolas
    García-Gil, M. Rosario
    Global gene expression analysis in etiolated and de-etiolated seedlings in conifers2019In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 14, no 7, article id e0219272Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Plant life cycle begins with germination of seed below the ground. This is followed by seedling’s development in the dark: skotomorphogenesis; and then a light-mediated growth: photomorphogenesis. After germination, hypocotyl grows rapidly to reach the sun, which involves elongation of shoot at the expense of root and cotyledons. Upon reaching ground level, seedling gets exposed to sunlight following a switch from the etiolated (skotomorphogenesis) to the de-etiolated (photomorphogenesis) stage, involving a series of molecular and physiological changes. Gymnosperms have evolved very differently and adopted diverse strategies as compared to angiosperms; with regards to response to light quality, conifers display a very mild high-irradiance response as compared to angiosperms. Absence of apical hook and synthesis of chlorophyll during skotomorphogenesis are two typical features in gymnosperms which differentiate them from angiosperms (dicots). Information regarding etiolation and de-etiolation processes are well understood in angiosperms, but these mechanisms are less explored in conifer species. It is, therefore, interesting to know how similar these processes are in conifers as compared to angiosperms. We performed a global expression analysis (RNA sequencing) on etiolated and de-etiolated seedlings of two economically important conifer species in Sweden to review the differentially expressed genes associated with the two processes. Based on the results, we propose that high levels of HY5 in conifers under DARK condition coupled with expression of few other genes associated with de-etiolation in angiosperms e.g. SPA, DET1 (lower expression under DARK) and CRY1 (higher expression under DARK), leads to partial expression of photomorphogenic genes in the DARK phenotype in conifers as displayed by absence of apical hook, opening of cotyledons and synthesis of chlorophyll.

  • 3.
    Razzak, Abdur
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology. Umeå Plant Science Centre, Department of Forest Genetics and Plant Physiology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå SE-901 87, Sweden.
    Ranade, Sonali Sachin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology. Umeå Plant Science Centre, Department of Forest Genetics and Plant Physiology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå SE-901 87, Sweden.
    Strand, Åsa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology.
    Garcia-Gil, M. R.
    Differential response of Scots pine seedlings to variable intensity and ratio of red and far-red light2017In: Plant, Cell and Environment, ISSN 0140-7791, E-ISSN 1365-3040, Vol. 40, no 8, p. 1332-1340Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigated the response to increasing intensity of red (R) and far-R (FR) light and to a decrease in R: FR ratio in Pinus sylvestris L. (Scots pine) seedling. The results showed that FR high-irradiance response for hypocotyl elongation may be present in Scots pine and that this response is enhanced by increasing light intensity. However, both hypocotyl inhibition and pigment accumulation were more strongly affected by the R light compared with FR light. This is in contrast to previous reports in Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. In the angio-sperm, A. thaliana R light shows an overall milder effect on inhibition of hypocotyl elongation and on pigment biosynthesis compared with FR suggesting conifers and angiosperms respond very differently to the different light regimes. Scots pine shade avoidance syndrome with longer hypocotyls, shorter cotyledons and lower chlorophyll content in response to shade conditions resembles the response observed in A. thaliana. However, anthocyanin accumulation increased with shade in Scots pine, which again differs from what is known in angiosperms. Overall, the response of seedling development and physiology to R and FR light in Scots pine indicates that the regulatory mechanism for light response may differ between gymnosperms and angiosperms.

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