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  • 1.
    Hofverberg, Anders
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturvetenskapernas och matematikens didaktik.
    Kemielevers lärandemål i Sverige och Tyskland2016Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [sv]

    Om elever ska trivas och lyckas i skolan behöver många saker falla på plats, bl.a. måste de känna sig motiverade. Dock tycks elevers motivation försämras ju längre de går i skolan, en negativ trend som är särskilt tydlig i naturvetenskapliga ämnen. Följande studie är en del av DoLiS-projektet (Development of Learning in Science), ett samarbetsprojekt mellan Umeå Universitet och IPN (Leibniz-Institut für die Pädagogik der Naturwissenschaften und Mathematik) i Kiel, Tyskland. Inom projektet studeras elevers intresse, motivation, kunskapssyn, kemiförståelse m.m., samt hur sambanden mellan dessa utvecklas över tid. Jag har inom detta breda material fokuserat på motivation, och mer specifikt elevernas anledningar att engagera sig i lärandesituationer, kallat lärandemål (achievement goals).

    Lärandemålen delas vanligtvis upp utifrån hur eleverna definierar och utvärderar kompetens: relativt sig själv (bemästrandemål/mastery goals) eller relativt andra (prestationsmål/performance goals). Det finns även mer detaljerade uppdelningar av lärandemålen och i denna studie undersöktes deras uppdelning och strukturer hos svenska och tyska elever.

    Enkätdata samlades in och för att undersöka lärandemålens strukturer användes en statistisk metod kallad Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA).

    Den centrala forskningsfrågan löd: Vilka uppdelningar och strukturer beskriver bäst lärandemålen hos tyska respektive svenska elever?

    Resultaten tyder på att lärandemålens struktur skiljer sig mellan svenska och tyska elever. Där vi i tyska elevers svar kan utskilja två olika typer av prestationsmål kan vi endast utskilja ett hos svenska elever. En möjlig anledning till skillnaden mellan länderna är den mindre prestationsinriktade svenska kulturen där det är mer tillåtet att göra misstag. Vår ambition är att undersöka hur de nationella kulturerna eventuellt speglas i klassrumsstrukturer, samt hur klassrumsstrukturerna i sin tur påverkar elevernas individuella lärandemål. Förhoppningen är att projektet i slutändan kommer kunna bidra med kunskap om hur lärare på bästa sätt kan stödja elevernas bemästrandemål, som i tidigare studier visat sig vara mer positiva än prestationsmålen.

     

  • 2.
    Hofverberg, Anders
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturvetenskapernas och matematikens didaktik.
    Motivation, students, and the classroom environment: exploring the role of Swedish students’ achievement goals in chemistry2020Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The overarching aim of this thesis is to deepen the knowledge about students’ achievement goals in chemistry and how they relate to students’ epistemic beliefs (beliefs about knowledge) and to their perceptions of classroom goal structures (instructional practices that emphasize certain achievement goals). Achievement goals are defined as the purpose behind students’ engagement in achievement behavior. They are important components in students’ moti­vation and in­fluence students’ success and well-being in school. This thesis primarily focuses on two types of achievement goals: mastery and performance goals. Students with mastery goals define success in relation to prior performances and the task at hand and they strive to develop their competence. Students with performance goals define success in relation to others and they strive to demonstrate their relative competence. To study students’ achievement goals, questionnaire data and responses on a chemistry test were collected from Swedish and German students in Grades 5-11 and analyzed through statistical methods.

    The results show that it was possible to statistically differentiate between two dif­fer­ent performance goals (striving to outperform others and avoid being outperformed by others) in the German data, but not in the Swedish. This challenges the universality of achievement goal models. Regarding the relationship between achievement goals and epistemic beliefs, the results indicated that sophisticated epistemic beliefs correlated with mastery goals and naïve beliefs correlated with performance goals. These relationships varied over time, especially in the transition from lower to upper secondary school, which therefore is an interesting time point to study further. The interaction between achievement goals and classroom goal structures was studied by using them as joint predictors of students’ autonomous motivation and performance on the chemistry test. The most important predictor for high autonomous motivation and high test scores was strong mastery goals. This effect was enhanced when students also perceived strong mastery structures in the classroom. Conversely, mastery goals were less beneficial if students pursued performance goals simultaneously. There were also differences in the interactions between achievement goals and goal structures over school years. Together, the results imply that teachers should support students’ mastery goals through striving to create classroom environments with strong mastery structures.

    In conclusion, this thesis highlights the complexity of achievement goals and their relations to other aspects of the educational context. This shows the need for future research to take, for example, the universality of achievement goal models and the importance of interaction effects into consideration.

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  • 3.
    Hofverberg, Anders
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturvetenskapernas och matematikens didaktik.
    Winberg, Mikael
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturvetenskapernas och matematikens didaktik.
    Interplay between achievement goals and goal structures: Effects on achievement and motivation2019Inngår i: Book of Abstracts EARLI 2019, 2019Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Research has shown direct and indirect effects of students’ achievement goals and classroom goal structures on school performance and motivation. However, whether, and how, the effects of students’ achievement goals depend on classroom goal structures has not received much attention. Moreover, extant studies have not accounted for nonlinear effects, which may mask matching effects between goals and structures. Our study aims at providing a nuanced picture of the direct, interaction, and nonlinear effects of achievement goals and goal structures on student’s test performance and motivation in chemistry. Multiple linear regression in combination with response surface plots were used in the analysis of questionnaire data from 909 students involved in a cross-sectional survey in Grades 6-10. Results indicate that interactions between goals are more influential on student achievement and motivation than interactions between goals and structures. No evidence for a general matching effect between goals and goal structures was found. Mastery goals were universally beneficial, but in particular when students were low in performance goals and the perceived performance structure was weak. Overall, it seems that the influence of classroom goal structures on the effect of achievement goals may be smaller than previously assumed.

  • 4.
    Hofverberg, Anders
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturvetenskapernas och matematikens didaktik.
    Winberg, Mikael
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturvetenskapernas och matematikens didaktik.
    Relationships between achievement goals and epistemic beliefs: developmental trends over Grades 5–112017Inngår i: Education in the Crossroads of Economy and Politics: Role of Research in the Advancement of Public Good. Book of abstracts, 2017, s. 385-385Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The aims of the study are to describe how students’ epistemic beliefs and achievement goals develop over grades 5–11, to describe the correlations between epistemic beliefs and achievement goals, and how these correlations develop over grades 5–11. Furthermore, we will explore the data for indications of causal relationships between students’ goals and epistemic beliefs, and the directionality of these relationships. The analyses builds on data from a cross-sectional survey distributed to all students in grades 5–11 in two municipalities in Sweden in 2014. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) of students’ responses revealed four valid constructs concerning students’ epistemic beliefs: Development, Justification, Certainty, and Source. Regarding students’ achievement goals, two constructs were identified: Mastery approach goals and Performance goals (including both approach and avoidance goals). Students’ factor scores on the constructs were used for calculating zero order Spearman correlations between constructs. Overall, students’ epistemic beliefs were stable over the grades, while performance goals increased at the transition between primary and secondary school. Mastery goals showed a mainly decreasing trend over the grades. Development and Justification of knowledge showed positive significant correlations with Mastery goals over grades 5–11, while naïve beliefs about Certainty and Source of knowledge were moderately and positively correlated with Performance goals in grades 5–7, weakly correlated in grade 8–9, and insignificant in grades 10 and 11. For the conference, results will be complemented with longitudinal data, focusing on causal relations between epistemic beliefs and achievement goals.

  • 5.
    Hofverberg, Anders
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturvetenskapernas och matematikens didaktik.
    Winberg, Mikael T.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturvetenskapernas och matematikens didaktik.
    Achievement goal factor structure among chemistry students in Grade 5 – 11: A comparison between Sweden and Germany2017Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, the factor structure of German and Swedish students’ achievement goals in chemistry were investigated. The national culture of Germany and Sweden are very different in the masculinity versus femininity dimension, expressing the level of competitiveness and the way performance is evaluated in the society. Therefore, the structure of students’ achievement goals, in part based on their evaluation of performance, may very well differ between the countries. The results showed that a three-factor CFA model, separating mastery-approach, performance-approach, and performance-avoidance goals, fitted the German data best. In Sweden, the three-factor model and a two-factor model combining the two performance goals fitted the data equally well. However, the correlation between the performance approach and avoidance goals in the Swedish three-factor model was not significantly different from 1 and the separation thus lacked practical significance. Further, the same pattern was repeated for grade 5 – 11 individually within each country. Measurement invariance between grades within the countries support an invariant factor structure, and thus age-independent factor structures. We argue that differences in factor structures between the two countries are related to the differences in national culture.

  • 6.
    Hofverberg, Anders
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturvetenskapernas och matematikens didaktik.
    Winberg, Mikael T.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturvetenskapernas och matematikens didaktik.
    Achievement goals and classroom goal structures: Do they need to match?2020Inngår i: The Journal of educational research (Washington, D.C.), ISSN 0022-0671, E-ISSN 1940-0675, Vol. 113, nr 2, s. 145-162Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    It is often assumed that students’ personal achievement goals are most beneficial when they match the goal structures of the classroom, but interaction between achievement goals and goal structures is not well researched. In this study, we aim at providing a nuanced picture of the direct, interaction, and nonlinear effects of achievement goals and goal structures on test performance and autonomous motivation. We used multiple linear regressions, including interaction and quadratic terms, in combination with response surface methodology to analyze questionnaire data from students in Grades 6-10. We found no evidence for a general match effect, and only weak indications of interactions between achievement goals and goal structures. Thus, the match between classroom goal structures and students’ personal goals may be less important for students’ motivation and achievement than previously assumed. Still, based on our results we recommend a focus on mastery structures in the classroom.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 7.
    Hofverberg, Anders
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturvetenskapernas och matematikens didaktik.
    Winberg, Mikael T.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturvetenskapernas och matematikens didaktik.
    Are mastery structures beneficial for everyone?: The interaction between mastery structures and achievement goals in grades 6-10Manuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 8.
    Hofverberg, Anders
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturvetenskapernas och matematikens didaktik.
    Winberg, Mikael T.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturvetenskapernas och matematikens didaktik.
    Challenging the Universality of Achievement Goal Models: a Comparison of Two Culturally Distinct Countries2020Inngår i: Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, ISSN 0031-3831, E-ISSN 1470-1170, Vol. 64, nr 3, s. 333-354Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Achievement goal theory is one of the most widespread motivation models within education research. Strong empirical support exists for the trichotomous model, comprising mastery-approach, performance-approach, and performance-avoidance goals. However, research also indicate problems with model transferability between contexts. In this study, based on questionnaire data from 4201 students, we use confirmatory factor analysis to compare the factor structures of students’ achievement goals in two culturally distinct countries. Factor structures for Grades 5–11 within the two countries were also compared. Results show that the separation between performance-approach and performance-avoidance goals differs between the two countries, and that this difference is consistent over the grades. Hence, results indicate that the model is not freely transferable between countries. The results are discussed in relation to differences in national culture and other proposed explanations such as age, perceived competence, and questionnaire characteristics.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 9.
    Hofverberg, Anders
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturvetenskapernas och matematikens didaktik. UmSER.
    Winberg, Mikael T.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturvetenskapernas och matematikens didaktik. UmSER.
    Challenging the Universality of Achievement Goals: A Comparison of Two Culturally Distinct Countries2018Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to investigate the factor structure of achievement goals among students in Sweden and Germany, two countries differing substantially in competitiveness according to Hofstede’s dimensions of national culture. As the competitiveness dimension resembles performance goal classroom structures, shown to affect students’ achievement goals, we propose that the structure of students’ achievement goals may differ between the countries. Through confirmatory factor analyses, we found that a three-factor model, separating mastery-approach, performance-approach,and performance-avoidance goals, fitted the German students’ data best. In Sweden, the three-factor model and a two factormodel combining the two performance goals fitted the data equally well. However, the correlation between the performance approach and avoidance goals in the Swedish three-factor model was not significantly different from 1 and we thus considered the separation to lack practical significance. We discuss national culture, and other variables, as explanations for the differences in achievement goal factor structures.

  • 10.
    Winberg, Mikael T.
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturvetenskapernas och matematikens didaktik.
    Hofverberg, Anders
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturvetenskapernas och matematikens didaktik.
    Lindfors, Maria
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturvetenskapernas och matematikens didaktik.
    Relationships between epistemic beliefs and achievement goals: developmental trends over grades 5–112019Inngår i: European Journal of Psychology of Education, ISSN 0256-2928, E-ISSN 1878-5174, Vol. 34, nr 2, s. 295-315Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Examining how students' epistemic beliefs (EB) influence their cognition is central to EB research. Recently, the relation between students' EB and their motivation has gained attention. In the present study, we investigate the development of the relationship between students' EB and their achievement goals (AG) over grades 5–11. Previous studies on this topic are limited, in both number and range, and have produced inconsistent results. We performed a cross-sectional study, ranging over grades 5–11, and a 3-year longitudinal study (n = 1230 and 323, respectively). Data on students' EB and AG were collected via questionnaires. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) supported a two-factor goal model (Mastery and Performance goals) and a structure of students' EB comprising Certainty, Source, Development, and Justification. For each grade, students' CFA scores on the respective goals were regressed on their scores on the EB dimensions by orthogonal projection to latent structures analysis. Although results indicated a weak relation between students' EB and AG, trends in the cross-sectional data were largely replicated in the longitudinal study. Though naïve EB were in general associated with performance goals and sophisticated EB with mastery goals, the transition to upper secondary school was associated with changes in the relationship between students' EB and AG. We discuss how the commonly used formulations of EB items may affect their ability to measure the naïve-sophisticated continuum, in turn affecting the predictive roles of EB dimensions.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 11.
    Winberg, Mikael T.
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturvetenskapernas och matematikens didaktik. UmSER.
    Hofverberg, Anders
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturvetenskapernas och matematikens didaktik.
    Lindfors, Maria
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturvetenskapernas och matematikens didaktik.
    Parchmann, Ilka
    Bernholt, Andrea
    Bernholt, Sascha
    Höft, Lars
    Blankenburg, Janet
    Kampa, Nele
    Kognition, kunskapssyn, intresse och motivation i kemi: en jämförelse av elevers utveckling över skolåren 5–10 i Sverige och Tyskland2019Inngår i: Resultatdialog 2019, Stockholm: Vetenskapsrådet , 2019, s. 112-116Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
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