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  • 1.
    Nyström, Peter
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Educational Measurement.
    Åström, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Educational Measurement.
    Nationella prov i biologi, fysik och kemi för grundskolans år 92008Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Regeringen tillslår medel för konstruktion och genomförande av nationella kursprov i biologi, fysik och kemi för elever i årskurs 9 enligt departements-promemoria ”Fler obligatoriska nationella ämnesprov i grundskolan m.m.” I denna promemoria presenteras hur ’regelbundna, obligatoriska kontrollstationer borde införas för att skapa ökad nationell likvärdighet och ge förutsättningar att minska variationen i elevers resultat’. Därför kommer utprovningar av ämnes-prov i biologi, fysik och kemi i årskurs 9 genomföras vårterminen 2009 för vidare implementering våren 2010. Ämnesprov i biologi, kemi och fysik föreslås att användas inom en treårsperiod en gång per ämne.

    Institutionen för beteendevetenskapliga mätningar utvecklar dessa prov inför utprovningen våren 2009. Under hösten 2008 sker framtagning av provexempel, urval av uppgifter, utprövning av uppgifter och sammanställning av proven. Detta arbete sker i samarbete med lärarutbildningen i Sverige, erfarna lärare från grundskolan samt under uppsyn av institutionens vetenskapliga råd, som består av internationella didaktiker med erfarenhet både från forskningsverksamhet inom beteendevetenskaplig mätningar och från skolor. Vi använder den rutin som finns på institutionen i processen att utveckla prov, men använder förstås styrdokumenten som består av kursplaner för biologi, fysik och kemi för grund-skolan. Förutom ett skriftligt prov i vart och ett ämne kommer laborativa uppgifter att utvecklas som ett kompletterade bedömningsmoment inför utprovningarna som sker våren 2009.

    Efter utprovningarna våren 2009 analyseras resultaten och utvärderas inför kommande provomgång, främst våren 2010.

    På denna presentation gås utgångspunkter för provutvecklingen igenom. Möjligheter och svårigheter med tolkningen av kursplanerna i förhållande till provkonstruktionen diskuteras. Vi presenterar även idéer till lösningar till tolkningen av vårt uppdrag.

  • 2.
    Åström, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Departement of Educational Measurement.
    Betygsättning och bedömning i NO2012In: Betyg i teori och praktik: ämnesdidaktiska perspektiv på bedömning i grundskola och gymnasium / [ed] Nordgren, Kenneth, Odenstad, Christina och Samuelsson, Johan, Malmö: Gleerups Utbildning AB, 2012, 2, p. 131-140Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 3.
    Åström, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Departement of Educational Measurement.
    Comparison of student positive attitudes towards science (PATS) with students’ results in Australia, England, Norway and Sweden.2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

     This study investigates the relationship between student achievement in science and students positive attitude towards science according to the results collected in TIMSS 2007. Four countries with some similarities and differences in the school system and science education were selected. The students’ results have a strong correlation to the index PATS in all four countries, but there are some differences between Sweden in particular to the other three countries. In Sweden the students have answered questions particularly to Biology, Chemistry, Physics and Geography and the other countries questions to science as one subject. The conclusions from the study is that the differences in TIMSS points when students’ PATS is regresses against students results as plausible values in science compared to the countries mean is that this measure in Sweden is approximate half a standard deviation in TIMSS points. Differences in students’ PATS regresses against students results as plausible values in science compared to the countries mean for the three other countries in this study are approximate half of the same measure of Swedish students, and even lower for Norway. Some tentative explanations for this difference are discussed in this paper, with focus of countries difference of curriculum structure, assessment habits and school culture.

  • 4.
    Åström, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Departement of Educational Measurement.
    Computer-based try-out for assessing communication goals in physics2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish science curriculum in compulsory school got a new component in the reform 2011 (Skolverket, 2011a). The new component consists of required communications skills that students should show in classroom discussions. In the work with national tests we did a try-out of a possible test item that could be aiming at those skills. The item consisted of two parts, the first was that students should use a number of recommended internet links to find information of the main topic in the item, namely if Sweden should continue to use nuclear energy. The second part consisted of a chat discussion between small groups of students that were done in a database environment where students should argue pros and cons the question. This pilot-test found that students were capable to use computers to search information and to discuss arguments with each other in a chat room. However, the number of students in the pilot test was small and the test item needed strongly development to fit the test frames to adjust to 35 000 students taking a written paper-and-pen test.

  • 5.
    Åström, Maria
    Linköpings universitet.Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier.
    Defining integrated science education and putting it to test2008Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The thesis is made up by four studies, on the comprehensive theme of integrated and subject-specific science education in Swedish compulsory school. A literature study on the matter is followed by an expert survey, then a case study and ending with two analyses of students' science results from PISA 2003 and PISA 2006. The first two studies explore similarities and differences between integrated and subject-specific science education, i.e. Science education and science taught as Biology, Chemsitry and Physics respectively. The two following analyses of PISA 2003 and PISA 2006 data put forward the question whether there are differences in results of students' science literacy scores due to different types of science education.

    The expert survey compares theories of integration to the Swedish science education context. Also some difference in intention, in the school case study, some slight differences in the way teachers plan the science education  are shown, mainly with respect to how teachers involve students in their planning.

    The statistical analysis of integrated and subject-specific science education comparing students' science results from PISA 2003 shows no difference between students or between schools. The analysis of PISA 2006, however, shows small differences between girls' results with integrated and subject-specific science education both in total scores and in the three scientific literacy competencies. No differences in boys' results are shown on different science education.

  • 6.
    Åström, Maria
    Linköpings universitet.Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier.
    Differences between students in Swedish compulsory schools with integrated andsubject-specific science education in PISA 2006Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study is a comparison between three groups of teaching organisations in Sweden that work either with integrated Science, subject-specific Science or a mixed form of the two. Comparison is made between the students’ total Science scores in the PISA 2006 study and the three scores in student competency regarding Knowledge in Science and Knowledge about Science. This comparison is made both at the individual and school level. There are differences between students with integrated Science education and students with subjectspecific Science. These differences are found both in the total scores and in some of the subscores. An even more striking difference is found between boys and girls in the different groups. There are big differences in test scores for girls with integrated Science as compared to girls with subject-specific Science; this difference is almost nonexistent for boys. Some caution must be shown in drawing conclusions from this finding, however, since girls’ and boys’ groups differ in mean ESCS, and there are differences in the percentage of students who speak another language at home than Swedish. Some plausible explanations for the differences are discussed based on inferences from other studies.

  • 7.
    Åström, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    En Delphi-studie av initierade brukares uppfattningar om karaktärer av integrerad naturvetenskap i senare delen av svensk grundskola2010In: Didaktisk Tidskrift, ISSN 1101-7686, ISSN ISSN 1101-7686, Vol. 19, no 3, p. 113-132Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här tentativa studien undersöker hur experter, väl insatta i den svenska debatten om integrerad NO uppfattar vad integrerad NO är, hur den tillämpas och vilka skäl som finns för att undervisa NO integrerat istället för att undervisa ämnesuppdelat. Diskussionen om integrerad eller ämnesuppdelad NO hade en kulmen på 1980-talet i Sverige som gav upphov till två varianter att undervisa NO på i grundskolan, antingen som ett ämne eller som tre ämnen, biologi, kemi och fysik. Dessa varianter finns för närvarande som två likvärdiga sätt att gradera betyg på. Nu är det aktuellt att ta bort möjligheten att sätta NO-betyg och i stället endast biologi-, fysik- och kemibetyg, vilket gör det intressant att undersöka hur idén om vad integrerad och ämnesuppdelad NO-undervisning har för likheter och skillnader. Undersökningen är genomförd som en Delphistudie, där informanterna har värderat 30 påståenden om integrerad och ämnesuppdelad undervisning. Svaren sammanställdes med medelvärden och medianer och presenterades för informanterna i en andra enkätomgång. Informanterna erbjöds möjlighet att ändra sina svar efter att ha tagit del av centralmått på värderingar av påståendena beräknat från samtliga svaranden. Resultatet av den första undersökningsomgången redovisas i tabell där centralmått på informanternas sammanlagda värdering redovisas. Informanternas svar jämförs med den teori som ursprungligen använts för att konstruera frågorna och diskuteras. Även metodiska frågor i samband med undersökningen diskuteras.

  • 8.
    Åström, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Educational Measurement.
    Genomförande av pilotprojektet de nationella ämnesproven i biologi, fysik och kemi för år 9 i grundskolan2009Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 9.
    Åström, Maria
    Linköpings universitet.Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier.
    Integrated and subject-specific: an empirical exploration of science education in Swedish compulsory school2007Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is an explorative experimental study in two parts of different ways of organising Science education in the Swedish context. The first study deals with the question if students attain higher scores on test results if they have been working with integrated Science compared to subject-specific Science i.e. Biology, Chemistry and Physics. The second study concerns the similarities and differences between integrated Science education and Science education in Biology, Chemistry and Physics, especially in the teaching organisation.

    The introduction describes the nature of integrated curriculum, what integrated learning is, issues about integrated Science education, in what way integration is carried out, between subjects or within subjects, what the opposite to integrated Science is (here named as  subjectspecific science education) in the Swedish context and what the Swedish curriculum has to say about integrated Science. Previous studies in integrated curriculum looking at students’ results are referred to, and it is argued for the use of the OECD’s PISA assessment instrument in this study.

    The thesis consists of two studies, one quantitative and one qualitative, within the above framework. The quantitative study is an attempt to find differences in scores on students’ written results on a large-scale assessment in scientific literacy between students studying in different organisations of Science education. The qualitative study is an attempt to  describe differences at classroom level between integrated Science and subject-specific Science. This gives a quite rich description of four schools (cases) in a small town and how they organise their teaching integrated or subject-specific.

    No differences in students’ results between different Science organisations were found in the quantitative study in this thesis. Possible explanations for the lack of differences in students’ results are discussed in the article. An additional investigation that attempts to test the variable used in the quantitative study is carried out in the thesis, with an attempt to sharpen the teacher organisation variable. This is done to find out if it is possible that there can be found differences with the sharpened variable.

    The qualitative study gives a glimpse of some differences in the implemented curriculum between schools working with integrated Science education and a school that works subjectspecifically. The teachers do the overall lesson plans in different ways according to which organisation according to integrated or subject-specific Science they work with. When asked in a survey what kind of Science organisation they have, students from the four schools studied answered differently between schools and also, sometimes, within the same school. A further analysis of this second study is carried out by defining a conceptual framework used as structure and a possible explanation for differences between students’ views and teachers’ views on the organisation of Science education. This latter analysis tries to give an enriched description in mainly the two levels of the implemented and attained curricula, and tries to discuss the difference in students’ attained curriculum.

    A final discussion concludes the thesis and concerns an elaboration of the results of the thesis, problems with the main variable involved in the two studies and the possibility that the teacher actions effects also the magnitude of students’ achievement on tests.

  • 10.
    Åström, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Departement of Educational Measurement.
    Integrerat eller ämnesuppdelat?2012In: Skola och naturvetenskap: politik, praktik, problematik i belysning av ämnesdidaktisk forskning / [ed] Strömdahl, Helge och Tibell, Lena, Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2012, 1, p. 61-74Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Åström, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Educational Measurement.
    Nationellt ämnesprov för år 9: läget inför provet våren 20102009In: Biologen, ISSN 0345-1127, Vol. 74, no 3, p. 16-17Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 12.
    Åström, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Educational Measurement.
    Nationellt ämnesprov i biologi, fysik och kemi för år 9: läget inför provet våren 20102009In: LMNT-nytt, ISSN 1402-0041, no 2Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 13.
    Åström, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Departement of Educational Measurement.
    What Do Teachers Find Problematic With Non-traditional Scientific Test Content?2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper deals with teachers’ statements about assessing students’ results from items with non-traditional science content in the national science assessments in Sweden. Non-traditional science content in this case is items that concerns social and scientific issues (SSI). The content deals with use of science in society. This content has emerged in the curriculum in several countries in an effort to improve students’ interest for science, to implement meaningfulness in learning and train students to learn science for adults use (Sadler, Barab, & Scott, 2007; Sadler & Zeidler, 2009; Dana L.  Zeidler, Sadler, Applebaum, & Callahan, 2009; Dana L. Zeidler, Sadler, Simmons, & Howes, 2005). Sweden has shown descending results in international studies, particularly PISA (Skolverket, 2013) so voices are raised how to improve teaching. Curriculum reform is a common way to change premises in school (Fensham, 2008). Swedish students get accurate results from PISA on items concerning traditional curriculum content, but items with non-traditional curriculum content show lower students’ results (Skolverket, 2010). When looking into teachers’ statements of test items with unfamiliar content that mirrors the curriculum content the question raises; what do teachers think of SSI content? In teacher surveys attached to the tests more than half of answering teachers state that they use SSI in their own tests (Åström, 2013). This study focuses on what teacher write in own words about test items.

    1) what do teachers find troublesome concerning social and scientific issuescontent in national tests?

    2) what expectations and apprehensions do teachers have to SSI items?

    3) do teachers comments concerning SSI content in tests develop between years?

  • 14.
    Åström, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Departement of Educational Measurement.
    What need teachers learn more about when assessing students?: Teachers’ comments to Socioscientific issues in national tests in Sweden2013In: Den fjärde nordiska ämnesdidaktiska konferensen, NoFa4: Faglig kunnskap i skole og Laererutdanning, 2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Socio-scientific issues are part of the Swedish curriculum since 1994. Revisions of the science syllabi 2000 and 2011 stress this part of the science curriculum. Starting with national science tests in year 2009 this was considered as one crucial part in constructing items. This presentation considers collected statements from teachers giving feed-back on the tests in a web based formula during the years 2009, 2010, 2011. Socio-scientific issues are one of two most commented areas of test items from the teachers. The research question was to find what teachers’ state they have different challenges when assessing students’ answers on socio-scientific issues on the national tests in biology, chemistry and physics in year 9 in compulsory school. Teachers were requested to answer a survey with questions about the test after scoring students answers. Questions dealt with for instant if they found the standard settings sufficiently and if they found the test aligned to the syllabus. The most common survey item form was multiple choice questions but there were also some possibilities to personal statements were teachers could write succeeding text to their own choice. There are approximately 800 biology, physics and chemistry teachers that answered the surveys each spring. Between 2 and 11 percent of teachers in the years 2009, 2010 and 2011 had some comment on the socio-scientific issues, depending on what test (biology, physics or chemistry) they had assessed students’ answers on the different years. A majority of teachers state that they use socio-scientific issues in teaching and in teacher constructed tests. However teachers are insecure in how to judge students’ answers in the national tests. Possible problems found in teachers statements about items are presented and discussed.

  • 15.
    Åström, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Departement of Educational Measurement.
    Abrahamsson, Mattias
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Departement of Educational Measurement.
    Almarlind, Pia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Departement of Educational Measurement.
    Bengtsson, Jerker
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Departement of Educational Measurement.
    Ämnesproven 2010 i grundskolans årskurs 9 och specialskolans årskurs 102011Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 16.
    Åström, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Educational Measurement.
    Almarlind, Pia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Educational Measurement.
    Developing process of Swedish Science Assessment2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 17.
    Åström, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Educational Measurement.
    Ancker-Hansen, Jens
    Balancing national science assessments according to the curriculum: experience from new Swedish development2009In: ESERA 2009, Istanbul, Turkey / [ed] Tasar, M. F., Cakmakci, G., Akgul, E., 2009, p. 254-Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 18.
    Åström, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Educational Measurement.
    Bengtsson, Jerker
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Educational Measurement.
    Performance Assessments in Swedish National Assessment2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Åström, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Educational Measurement.
    Eklöf, Hanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Departement of Educational Measurement.
    Elevers syn på nationella prov: Resultat från elevenkät vid genomförandet av nationella ämnesprov i biologi, fysik och kemi i grundskolans årskurs 9 våren 20092010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2009, national tests in biology, chemistry and physics were administered for the first time to Grade 9 pupils in Swedish compulsory school. This report presents descriptive results from a questionnaire that was administered to a sample of students taking these national tests. The main purpose of the questionnaire study was to investigate how these tests were perceived by the pupils: how they experienced the test and the test situation, whether they found the test important and whether they felt motivated to do their best on the test. The questionnaire also contained items asking for pupil attitudes towards the subject tested, as well as items asking for how pupils work with the respective subjects in the classroom. Results show that pupils in general seemed positive towards the national test although many pupils found the national test different from tests they usually have in school. A majority of the pupils further reported that they perceived the test as an important test and that they were rather motivated to do their best on the test. Still, a fair amount of pupils reported that they could have tried harder on the test. The students also reported rather positive attitudes towards the subjects tested, particularly Biology seems well liked by the students. The chemistry subject, however, seem less well-liked than the other subjects and the pupils taking the chemistry test to a higher degree reported that the test did not feel important, that test items were difficult to understand, and that the test items were different from their regular test. Pupils also report that they do not have chemistry tests very frequently, but this is true also for Biology and Physics. Last, the ways the pupils report that they work with the subjects on a daily basis are in agreement with reports obtained from international comparative studies in these subjects.

  • 20.
    Åström, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Departement of Educational Measurement.
    Eklöf, Hanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Departement of Educational Measurement.
    Elevers syn på nationella prov: Resultat från elevenkät vid genomförandet av nationella ämnesprov i biologi, fysik och kemi i grundskolans årskurs 9 våren 20102011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to describe how a sample of Grade 9 pupils experienced the first high-stakes national tests in the science subjects that were administered in Swedish schools in 2010. A sample of students completed a questionnaire which asked for test perceptions in terms of perceived importance, motivation, effort and anxiety. The questionnaire also contained items asking for how the pupils prepared for the test, how often they have tests in school and if they are familiar with the learning targets. A corresponding questionnaire was used in the national test context in 2009 and where applicable, results are compared.

    The results show that, in general, the pupils perceived the national test as difficult but important. A majority of the pupils further reported that they were motivated to do their best on the test and that they invested a fair amount of effort when completing test items. However, many pupils also reported test anxiety. Almost all pupils report having enough time to complete the test, and approximately half of the sampled students reported that items in the national test were easy to understand and fairly interesting, however not similar to the questions they usually have in school tests. The students at the national test in 2010 perceived the test more important and reported a higher level of motivation and effort –and test anxiety - than the students taking the national test in 2009. The stakes of the test also was higher in 2010. In their answers to a free response questionnaire item, many pupils commented on that the test was difficult, many pupils also perceived the test as “different”. A fair amount of pupils also reported that they found the test “fun”. Even if the pupils perceived the test as important, as the result had consequences, a fair number of pupils found national tests in the science subject unnecessary. Pupils taking the chemistry test were a bit more skeptical than pupils taking the physics test or the biology test but overall, the differences between the subjects were small.

  • 21.
    Åström, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Educational Measurement.
    Grelsson, Gunnel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Educational Measurement.
    Setting performance standards based on curriculum with predetermined assessment criteria2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 22.
    Åström, Maria
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet.Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier.
    Karlsson, Karl-Göran
    Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics, Mid Sweden University.
    Integrated and subject-specific science education: teachers’ and students’ viewsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study concerns the views of teachers’ and students’ regarding Science education. The teachers and students are all from four schools in the same small town in Sweden. The teachers’ views of Science lessons focused on how to plan lessons and organise content. The students’ views focused on three questions concerning the integration of science. The study is based on several data collections: interviews with and observations of teachers, a school survey and student questionnaires. The teacher interviews were analysed with regard to integrated and subject-specific Science education and the students’ questionnaires were analysed with statistical methods. The four schools in this study may be categorised as two integrated schools, one subject-specific and one mixed school. The students’ views of subjectspecific and integrated Science did not completely coincide with the teachers’ views. Teachers and students agreed on that they did integrated education in only one out of the four schools.

  • 23.
    Åström, Maria
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för teknik, fysik och matematik, Härnösand.
    Karlsson, Karl-Göran
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för teknik, fysik och matematik, Härnösand.
    Using hierarchical linear models to test differences in Swedish results from OECD's PISA 2003: integrated and subject-specific science education2007In: NorDiNa: Nordic Studies in Science Education, ISSN 1504-4556, E-ISSN 1894-1257, no 2, p. 121-131Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The possible effects of different organisations of the science curriculum in schools participating in PISA 2003 are tested with a hierarchical linear model (HLM) of two levels. The analysis is based on science results. Swedish schools are free to choose how they organise the science curriculum. They may choose to work subject-specifically (with Biology, Chemistry and Physics), integrated (with Science) or to mix these two. In this study, all three ways of organising science classes in compulsory school are present to some degree. None of the different ways of organising science education displayed statistically significant better student results in scientific literacy as measured in PISA 2003. The HLM model used variables of gender, country of birth, home language, preschool attendance, an economic, social and cultural index as well as the teaching organisation.

  • 24.
    Åström, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Departement of Educational Measurement.
    Nyström, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Departement of Educational Measurement.
    Ämnesproven i biologi, fysik och kemi i årskurs 9: En redovisning av utprövningsomgången 20092010Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
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