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  • 1.
    Baskar, Jayalakshmi
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Lindgren, Helena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Surie, Dipak
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Yan, Chunli
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Yekeh, Farahnaz
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Personalisation and user models for support in daily living2012In: The 27th annual workshop of the Swedish Artificial Intelligence Society (SAIS), 14–15 May 2012 / [ed] Lars Karlsson, Julien Bidot, 2012, p. 7-16Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, the interest in developing personalised applications for home environment has grown since it has a wide reach in helping people in their daily activities. However, for our purposes the concept activities of daily living also need to include work and leisure activities not necessarily performed in home environments. In this article, we describe an ongoing effort to develop a generic framework for assessing ability and tailoring of support applications in the health domain. We also give an overview of the approaches that have been adopted for personalisation and user modelling to various application areas. Suggestions of future development are provided.

  • 2.
    Baskar, Jayalakshmi
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Lindgren, Helena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Yan, Chunli
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    User's control of personalised intelligent environments supporting health2013In: Intelligent Environments (IE), 2013 9th International Conference on, IEEE Computer Society, 2013, p. 270-273Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This research project aims at supporting workers in the mining and construction industries and older adults at home, in monitoring the risks of their daily work or living situation. A goal is to create awareness in the individual about risks and how to decrease risks. Methods and knowledge-based applications are developed, which synthesise knowledge about the user, the user’s activities, the environment and generic domain knowledge for the purpose of providing tailored support and advice to individuals. This knowledge is also what the user can relate to, interact with and control through different methods. In this paper we investigate different approaches to user control of intelligent environments and propose a dialogue-based method for user control.

  • 3.
    Baskar, Jayalakshmi
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Yan, Chunli
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Lindgren, Helena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Instrument-Oriented Approach to Detecting and Representing Human Activity for Supporting Executive Functions and Learning2017In: Proceedings of the European Conference on Cognitive Ergonomics 2017, New York, NY, USA: ACM Digital Library, 2017, p. 105-112Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The goal of this study is to develop a computer-interpretable model for activity detection and representation, based on existing informal models of how humans perform activity. Appropriate detection of purposeful human activity is an essential functionality of active assistive technology aiming at providing tailored support to individuals for improving activity performance and completion. The main contribution is the design of a model for detection and representation of human activities based on three categories of instruments, which is implemented as two generic and supplementary terminology models: an event ontology and a core ontology. The core ontology is extended for each new knowledge domain into a domain ontology. The model builds the base for personalization of services generated by the cooperative reasoning performed by a human collaborating with an intelligent and social software agent. Ongoing and future work includes user studies in the different application domains.

  • 4.
    Lindgren, Helena
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Baskar, Jayalakshmi
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Guerrero, Esteban
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Nieves, Juan Carlos
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Nilsson, Ingeborg
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation.
    Yan, Chunli
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Computer-Supported Assessment for Tailoring Assistive Technology2016In: DH'16: PROCEEDINGS OF THE 2016 DIGITAL HEALTH CONFERENCE, New York: Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2016, p. 1-10Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The main purpose of assistive technology is to support an individual's daily activities, in order to increase ability, autonomy, relatedness and quality of life. The aim for the work presented in this article is to develop automated methods to tailor the behavior of the assistive technology for the purpose to provide just-in-time, adaptive interventions targeting multiple domains. This requires methods for representing and updating the user model, including goals, preferences, abilities, activity and its situation. We focus the assessment and intervention tasks typically performed by therapists and provide knowledge-based technology for supporting the process. A formative evaluation study was conducted as a part of a participatory action research process, involving two rehabilitation experts, two young individuals and one senior individual as end-user participants, in addition to knowledge engineers. The main contribution of this work is a theory-based method for assessing the individual's goals, preferences, abilities and motives, which is used for building a holistic user model. The user model is continuously updated and functions as the base for tailoring the system's assistive behavior during intervention and follow-up.

  • 5.
    Lindgren, Helena
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Lu, Ming-Hsin
    Hong, Yeji
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Yan, Chunli
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Applying the zone of proximal development when evaluating clinical decision support systems: a case study2018In: Building continents of knowledge in oceans of data: The future of co-created eHealth / [ed] Adrien Ugon, Daniel Karlsson, Gunnar O. Klein, Anne Moen, IOS Press, 2018, Vol. 247, p. 131-135Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The goal to facilitate a continuing medical education can be incorporated in the design of a clinical decision-support system. Developing a method for evaluating knowledge and skill development as part of evaluating the system is the aim for the research presented in this paper. The activity supported by the system was analyzed using Activity theory and structured into a protocol. Four clinicians were studied using the system for the first time, and their activity were assessed using the concept of Zone of Proximal Development. Initial results show how the system was used for clinician with different level of skills, and provide implications for further development of the methodology and the system.

  • 6.
    Lindgren, Helena
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Winnberg, Patrik J.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Yan, Chunli
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Collaborative development of knowledge-based support systems: a case study2012In: Quality of life through quality of information, 2012, Vol. 180, p. 1111-1113Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigate a user-driven collaborative knowledge engineering and interaction design process. The outcome is a knowledge-based support application tailored to physicians in the local dementia care community. The activity is organized as a part of a collaborative effort between different organizations to develop their local clinical practice. Six local practitioners used the generic decision-support prototype system DMSS-R developed for the dementia domain during a period and participated in evaluations and re-design. Additional two local domain experts and a domain expert external to the local community modeled the content and design of DMSS-R by using the modeling system ACKTUS. Obstacles and success factors occurring when enabling the end-users to design their own tools are detected and interpreted using a proposed framework for improving care through the use of clinical guidelines. The results are discussed.

  • 7.
    Lindgren, Helena
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Yan, Chunli
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    ACKTUS: A Platform for Developing Personalized Support Systems in the Health Domain2015In: Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Digital Health 2015, 2015, p. 135-142Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents ACKTUS, a semantic web platform for modeling and managing knowledge integrated in support systems for health care, and for designing the interaction with the end user applications. A key purpose is to allow the domain experts to collaboratively model the knowledge content and tailor interaction to users. Therefore, the development has been done in a process of participatory action research where domain experts have contributed to the design and re-design of ACKTUS while they have been modeling the content and behavior of end-user applications. The ontology that serves as the knowledge structure in the system integrates the user model, modality values, clinical practice guidelines and preferences, in the form of schemes and scheme-nodes (arguments) in an argumentation framework, partly by integrating the argument interchange format. User studies have shown that ACKTUS can be used for the intended purpose by domain professionals not familiar with knowledge engineering tasks. Moreover, the platform functions as a research infrastructure for health researchers in their development and evaluation of new ICT-based interventions targeting improved health.

  • 8.
    Lindgren, Helena
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Yan, Chunli
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Detecting Learning and Reasoning Patterns in a CDSS for Dementia Investigation2015In: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics, ISSN 0926-9630, E-ISSN 1879-8365, Vol. 210, p. 739-742Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Reasoning conducted in clinical practice is manifested through different and often combined reasoning and learning strategies, adjusted to the characteristics of the available information, the medical professional's experience and skills, and the available tools, such as clinical practice guidelines. This research outlines a design model for supporting the commonly used strategies. This design model was implemented into a clinical decision-support system (CDSS), in addition to a method for detecting reasoning strategies applied when using the CDSS. This method was applied in a case study, with preliminary results presented in this paper and will be further implemented in future studies.

  • 9.
    Lindgren, Helena
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Yekeh, Farahnaz
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Baskar, Jayalakshmi
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Yan, Chunli
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Agent-Supported Assessment for Personalized Ambient Assisted Living2012In: Proceedings of Agents Applied to Health Care (A2HC) 2012: Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Autonomous Agents and Multiagent Systems (AA- MAS 2012) , June, 4–8, 2012, Valencia, Spain / [ed] Conitzer, Winikoff, Padgham, and van der Hoek, International Foundation for Autonomous Agents and Multiagent Systems , 2012, p. 141-150Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Existing approaches to ambient assisted living (AAL) oftenfail to consider a human agent's needs from a holistic perspective. In particular the regular assessment of their changing abilities, skills and limitations are often treated asa separate matter in healthcare, thereby affecting the possibilities to provide support tailored to their current condition.Therefore, the objective of this work is to integrate assessments done by the healthcare professional into the frameworkof AAL. We use a case scenario in the collaborative development with domain experts to demonstrate and develop the interaction between software agents and with the older adult in assessment and adaptation for supporting him/herin a home environment. The scenario also serves as an outline for a requirements analysis of the formal agent-based dialogues to be implemented. The results include a partial implementation of the scenario done by domain experts intheir use of a semantic web-based knowledge and interaction modelling environment for domain professionals (ACKTUS). The resulting prototype applications are exemplified in a description of the scenario and an initial prototype implementation of selected agent-based diagnostic dialogues is presented.

  • 10.
    Yan, Chunli
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Developing digital support for learning and diagnostic reasoning in clinical practice2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The two main purposes of clinical decision-support systems (CDSSs) are to provide healthcare professionals decision-making support based on evidence-based medical knowledge, and a continuing medical education. This thesis focuses on both purposes and shows how fundamental theory in the field of artificial intelligence can be developed, adapted and implemented in a CDSS for supporting learning and diagnostic reasoning in clinical practice. The main research problems addressed in this thesis are how to represent and manage uncertain, incomplete, inconsistent and distributed knowledge in automated reasoning and decision-making with the clinicians in the loop, how to facilitate the knowledge engineering and maintenance process, and how to detect and support learning and skill development in CDSS users.

    Research contributions include theories, methods, and algorithms based on possibilistic logic and formal argumentation for representing and managing uncertain, incomplete, inconsistent and distributed medical knowledge, and for supporting reasoning and decision-making when using a CDSS. The clinician is provided potentially conflicting arguments and their strength based on different diagnostic criteria and the available patient information in order to make an informed decision. The theoretical results were implemented in the Dementia Diagnosis and Management Support System - Web version (DMSS-W), in a multi-agent hypothesis-driven inquiry dialogue system, and in an inference engine serving as a module of ACKTUS.

    CDSS maintenance is challenging since new knowledge about diseases and treatments are continuously developed. Typically, knowledge and software engineers are needed to bridge medical experts and CDSSs, leading to time-consuming system development. ACKTUS (Activity-Centered Knowledge and Interaction Tailored to Users) was, as part of this research, further developed as a generic web-based platform for knowledge management and end-user development of CDSSs. It includes the inference engine and a content management system that the medical expert can use to manage knowledge, design and evaluate CDSSs. A graphical user interface generator synchronizes the interface to the ontology serving as the knowledge base. ACKTUS was used for developing DMSS-W, and facilitated the system development and maintenance.

    To offer person-tailored support for the clinician's learning, reasoning and decision-making, the CDSS design was based on theories of how novices and experts reason and make decisions. Pilot case studies involving physicians with different levels of expertise who applied DMSS-W in patient cases were conducted in clinical practice to explore methods for detecting skill levels and whether learning is taking place. The results indicated that the skill levels can be detected using the method. The novice was seen to develop reasoning strategies similar to an expert's, indicating that learning was taking place. In future work, tailored educational support will be developed, and evaluated using the methods.

  • 11.
    Yan, Chunli
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Lindgren, Helena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    A Generic Approach for Data Management and End-User Development of Clinical Decision Support Systems2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The main purposes of clinical decision-support systems (CDSS) are disseminating evidence-based medical knowledge (EBM), supporting a continued medical education, and improving clinical decision making and care. These purposes are traditionally achieved by using solutions that are relatively transparent and explainable to the end user. However, the development and maintenance of such solutions is resource demanding. Currently, there are four challenges existing in CDSSs when adapting to new circumstances. That is, when facing new knowledge, new diseases, different organizations and users with different skills, usually one needs to update the existing CDSS or develop a new CDSS, which requires lots of time and efforts. Hence, this paper aims for reusing an existing CDSS code by virtue of inputs from authorized medical domain expert users, and with minimal requirement of knowledge and software engineers. To facilitate knowledge elicitation and end-user development, an ACKTUS-based architecture for CDSS development and management is presented that contains: I) A knowledge base and a content management system built on Semantic Web technology to achieve modularity, reusability, customisation, and the possibility to allow medical experts to model the medical knowledge and to structure the information that builds up the design of the user interface; II) A user interface and an graphical user interface generator that automatically generates the user interface whenever the user logs in, so that the interface is synchronised with updates of the knowledge base; III) An inference engine that utilizes patient-specific data and applies various rules in the knowledge base to conduct the reasoning and decision making. These modules can be reused when adapting to new situations. A CDSS for dementia diagnosis is developed and used as an example in the presentation of the generic architecture. A pilot study of the CDSS is presented involving four medical professionals with different levels of expertise. The results show how the generic approach allows for easy knowledge representation and management of EBM, supports a continued medical education and may improve clinical decision making and care provision.

  • 12.
    Yan, Chunli
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Lindgren, Helena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Diagnostic Reasoning Guided by a Decision-Support System: a Case Study2017In: Proceedings of the European Conference on Cognitive Ergonomics 2017: Transforming the everyday, New York, NY, USA: ACM Digital Library, 2017, p. 25-30Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A clinical decision-support system for dementia investigation was used in clinical practice. User information was collected based on interactions with the application. The aim of this study is to identify features in logged data that can be used for detecting learning and reasoning patterns in the user. A case of a physician who is novice to both the application and the dementia domain was studied and compared to the case of an expert physician using the system. Diferences between them were found, and a clear pattern that indicates that learning takes place, both how to use the system and about dementia, was observed in the novice user. Further studies need to be conducted, focusing on whether patterns become stable over time, and with complementary methods that can detect reasons for observed behaviors. Software for automatic detection will be developed based on the results of this study.

  • 13.
    Yan, Chunli
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Lindgren, Helena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Hypothesis-Driven Agent Dialogues for Dementia Assessment2013In: VIII Workshop on Agents Applied in Health Care (A2HC), 2013, p. 13-24Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 14.
    Yan, Chunli
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Lindgren, Helena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Nieves, Juan Carlos
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    A Dialogue-Based Approach for Dealing with Uncertain and Conflicting Information in Medical Diagnosis2018In: Autonomous Agents and Multi-Agent Systems, ISSN 1387-2532, E-ISSN 1573-7454, Vol. 32, no 6, p. 861-885Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we propose a multi-agent framework to deal with situations involving uncertain or inconsistent information located in a distributed environment which cannot be combined into a single knowledge base. To this end, we introduce an inquiry dialogue approach based on a combination of possibilistic logic and a formal argumentation-based theory, where possibilistic logic is used to capture uncertain information, and the argumentation-based approach is used to deal with inconsistent knowledge in a distributed environment. We also modify the framework of earlier work, so that the system is not only easier to implement but also more suitable for educational purposes. The suggested approach is implemented in a clinical decision-support system in the domain of dementia diagnosis. The approach allows the physician to suggest a hypothetical diagnosis in a patient case, which is verified through the dialogue if sufficient patient information is present. If not, the user is informed about the missing information and potential inconsistencies in the information as a way to provide support for continuing medical education. The approach is presented, discussed, and applied to one scenario. The results contribute to the theory and application of inquiry dialogues in situations where the data are uncertain and inconsistent.

  • 15.
    Yan, Chunli
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Nieves, Juan Carlos
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Lindgren, Helena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    A Multi-agent System for Nested Inquiry Dialogues2014In: Advances in Practical Applications of Heterogeneous Multi-Agent Systems: The PAAMS Collection : 12th International Conference, PAAMS 2014, Salamanca, Spain, June 4-6, 2014. Proceedings / [ed] Demazeau, Yves; Zambonelli, Franco; Corchado, JuanM.; Bajo, Javier, Springer, 2014, Vol. 8473, p. 303-314Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Generating and evaluating arguments are two important aspects in argumentation-based dialogue systems. In current research, however, generating and evaluating arguments are normally treated separately. Also, there are rarely implementations of the approaches in real applications. In this paper, we generate inquiry dialogues and evaluate arguments during the dialogue procedure simultaneously. Furthermore, we have implemented this approach in a real medical domain and demonstrated a practical example extracted from this application.

  • 16. Zhang, Guobin
    et al.
    Zhao, Miao
    Yan, Chunli
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Sun, Bing
    Wu, Zonggang
    Chang, Hudong
    Jin, Zhi
    Sun, Jie
    Liu, Honggang
    Thermal Analysis of AlGaN/GaN High-Electron-Mobility Transistors with Graphene2018In: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, ISSN 1533-4880, E-ISSN 1533-4899, Vol. 18, no 11, p. 7578-7583Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A thermal analysis of AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) with Graphene is investigated using Silvaco and Finite Element Method. Two thermal management solutions are adopted; first of all, graphene is used as dissipation material between SiC substrate and GaN buffer layer to reduce thermal boundary resistance of the device. At the same time, graphene is also used as a thermal spread material on the top of the source contacts to reduce thermal resistance of the device. The thermal analysis results show that the temperature rise of device adopting graphene decreases by 46.5% in transistors operating at 13.86 W/mm. Meanwhile, the thermal resistance of GaN HEMTs with graphene is 6.8 K/W, which is much lower than the device without graphene, which is 18.5 K/W. The thermal management solutions are useful for integration of large-scale graphene into practical devices for effective heat spreading in AlGaN/GaN HEMT.

1 - 16 of 16
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