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  • 1.
    Andersson, N.
    et al.
    National Institute of Occupational Health, Umeå, Sweden.
    Sandström, Monica
    National Institute of Occupational Health, Umeå, Sweden.
    Berglund, André
    National Institute of Occupational Health, Umeå, Sweden.
    Hansson Mild, Kjell
    National Institute of Occupational Health, Umeå, Sweden.
    Amplitude modulation of light from various sources1994In: Lighting Research and Technology, ISSN 1477-1535, E-ISSN 1477-0938, Vol. 26, no 3, p. 157-160Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This work was done to obtain basic knowledge about various light sources and specially about light modulation, or flicker. The study showed that the modulation of light varied a lot between different ordinary light sources. In general the 100 Hz component in the flickering light dominated. For incandescent lights the modulation increased with decreasing power and was in the range 10-22%. Light from the tungsten-halogen lamps had 2-6% modulation. The most common light sources (single-colour fluorescent light) had a modulation of about 20%. Fluorescent tubes with better colour rendering (full-colour fluorescent and full-colour special fluorescent tubes) had a higher modulation, 30-40%, while light from high-frequency (HF) fluorescent tubes had a modulation of 0.9%. Light from conventional compact fluorescent tubes had a modulation degree of about 44%, and for HF compact fluorescent tubes it was 2-7%. Modulation of light from HF compact fluorescent tubes had a tendency to decrease with increasing tube size. The modulation of light from discharge lamps was in the range of 52% up to 100% and the curve form of the light from low pressure sodium vapour lamp (100% modulation) contained several high frequency components.

  • 2. Baste, Valborg
    et al.
    Hansson Mild, Kjell
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Radiation Physics.
    Moen, Bente E
    Radiofrequency exposure on fast patrol boats in the Royal Norwegian Navy-an approach to a dose assessment.2010In: Bioelectromagnetics, ISSN 0197-8462, E-ISSN 1521-186X, Vol. 31, no 5, p. 350-360Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Epidemiological studies related to radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic fields (EMF) have mainly used crude proxies for exposure, such as job titles, distance to, or use of different equipment emitting RF EMF. The Royal Norwegian Navy (RNoN) has measured RF field emitted from high-frequency antennas and radars on several spots where the crew would most likely be located aboard fast patrol boats (FPB). These boats are small, with short distance between the crew and the equipment emitting RF field. We have described the measured RF exposure aboard FPB and suggested different methods for calculations of total exposure and annual dose. Linear and spatial average in addition to percentage of ICNIRP and squared deviation of ICNIRP has been used. The methods will form the basis of a job exposure matrix where relative differences in exposure between groups of crew members can be used in further epidemiological studies of reproductive health. Bioelectromagnetics, 2010. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  • 3. Baste, Valborg
    et al.
    Moen, Bente E
    Oftedal, Gunnhild
    Strand, Leif Age
    Bjørge, Line
    Hansson Mild, Kjell
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Radiation Physics.
    Pregnancy outcomes after paternal radiofrequency field exposure aboard fast patrol boats2012In: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, ISSN 1076-2752, E-ISSN 1536-5948, Vol. 54, no 4, p. 431-438Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: To investigate adverse reproductive outcomes among male employees in the Royal Norwegian Navy exposed to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields aboard fast patrol boats.

    Methods: Cohort study of Royal Norwegian Navy servicemen linked to the Medical Birth Registry of Norway, including singleton offspring born between 1967 and 2008 (n = 37,920). Exposure during the last 3 months before conception (acute) and exposure more than 3 months before conception (nonacute) were analyzed.

    Results: Perinatal mortality and preeclampsia increased after service aboard fast patrol boats during an acute period and also after increased estimated radiofrequency exposure during an acute period, compared with service aboard other vessels. No associations were found between nonacute exposure and any of the reproductive outcomes.

    Conclusions: Paternal work aboard fast patrol boats during an acute period was associated with perinatal mortality and preeclampsia, but the cause is not clear.

  • 4. Baste, Valborg
    et al.
    Oftedal, Gunnhild
    Møllerløkken, Ole Jacob
    Hansson Mild, Kjell
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences.
    Moen, Bente E.
    Prospective study of pregnancy outcomes after parental cell phone exposure: the Norwegian mother and child cohort study2015In: Epidemiology, ISSN 1044-3983, Vol. 26, no 4, p. 613-621Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Research about prenatal exposure to electromagnetic fields from cell phones among expectant parents and reproductive outcome is limited. The aim of this article is to investigate the association between pregnancy outcome and parental cell phone exposure in a large prospective study. Methods: The study was based on the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study conducted during the decade 1999–2009. In that study, pregnant women were recruited before a routine ultrasound examination during gestational week 15; they answered a questionnaire at that time and again around gestational week 30. The expectant father was invited to answer a questionnaire during gestational week 15 (2001–2009). The forms contained questions regarding cell phone use. The response rate was 38.7% and the cohort comprised 100,730 singleton births. Pregnancy outcomes were obtained by linkage to the Medical Birth Registry of Norway. Results: The risk of preeclampsia was slightly lower among women with medium and high cell phone exposure compared with low exposure after adjusting for potential confounders. Fathers with testis exposure when using cell phones had a borderline increased risk of perinatal mortality among offspring and a slightly decreased risk of partner developing preeclampsia during pregnancy compared with no cell phone exposure of head or testis. None of the other pregnancy outcomes was associated with cell phone exposure. Conclusions: We found no association between maternal prenatal or paternal preconceptional cell phone exposure and any of the studied pregnancy outcomes. The only risk estimate suggesting a potential increased risk was not consistent with other findings.

  • 5. Carlberg, Michael
    et al.
    Soderqvist, Fredrik
    Hansson Mild, Kjell
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Radiation Physics.
    Hardell, Lennart
    Meningioma patients diagnosed 2007-2009 and the association with use of mobile and cordless phones: a case-control study2013In: Environmental health, ISSN 1476-069X, E-ISSN 1476-069X, Vol. 12, no 60Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: To study the association between use of wireless phones and meningioma. Methods: We performed a case-control study on brain tumour cases of both genders aged 18-75 years and diagnosed during 2007-2009. One population-based control matched on gender and age was used to each case. Here we report on meningioma cases including all available controls. Exposures were assessed by a questionnaire. Unconditional logistic regression analysis was performed. Results: In total 709 meningioma cases and 1,368 control subjects answered the questionnaire. Mobile phone use in total produced odds ratio (OR) = 1.0, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.7-1.4 and cordless phone use gave OR = 1.1, 95% CI = 0.8-1.5. The risk increased statistically significant per 100 h of cumulative use and highest OR was found in the fourth quartile (>2,376 hours) of cumulative use for all studied phone types. There was no statistically significant increased risk for ipsilateral mobile or cordless phone use, for meningioma in the temporal lobe or per year of latency. Tumour volume was not related to latency or cumulative use in hours of wireless phones. Conclusions: No conclusive evidence of an association between use of mobile and cordless phones and meningioma was found. An indication of increased risk was seen in the group with highest cumulative use but was not supported by statistically significant increasing risk with latency. Results for even longer latency periods of wireless phone use than in this study are desirable.

  • 6. de Vocht, Frank
    et al.
    Wilén, Jonna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Radiation Physics.
    Hansson Mild, Kjell
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Radiation Physics.
    van Nierop, Lotte E
    Slottje, Pauline
    Kromhout, Hans
    Health effects and safety of magnetic resonance imaging2012In: Journal of medical systems, ISSN 0148-5598, E-ISSN 1573-689X, Vol. 36, no 3, p. 1779-1780Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Frankel, Jennifer
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Radiation Physics.
    Hansson Mild, Kjell
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Radiation Physics.
    Olsrud, Johan
    Wilén, Jonna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Radiation Physics.
    EMF exposure variation among MRI sequences from pediatric examination protocols2019In: Bioelectromagnetics, ISSN 0197-8462, E-ISSN 1521-186X, Vol. 40, no 1, p. 3-15Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) exposure environment is unique due to the mixture and intensity of magnetic fields involved. Current safety regulations are based on well-known acute effects of heating and neuroexcitation while the scientific grounds for possible long-term effects from MRI exposure are lacking. Epidemiological research requires careful exposure characterization, and as a first step toward improved exposure assessment we set out to characterize the MRI-patient exposure environment. Seven MRI sequences were run on a 3-Tesla scanner while the radiofrequency and gradient magnetic fields were measured inside the scanner bore. The sequences were compared in terms of 14 different exposure parameters. To study within-sequence variability, we varied sequence settings such as flip angle and slice thickness one at a time, to determine if they had any impact on exposure endpoints. There were significant differences between two or more sequences for all fourteen exposure parameters. Within-sequence differences were up to 60% of the corresponding between-sequence differences, and a 5-8 fold exposure increase was caused by variations in flip angle, slice spacing, and field of view. MRI exposure is therefore not only sequence-specific but also patient- and examination occurrence-specific, a complexity that requires careful consideration for an MRI exposure assessment in epidemiological studies to be meaningful. 

  • 8.
    Frankel, Jennifer
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Radiation Physics.
    Wilén, Jonna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Radiation Physics.
    Hansson Mild, Kjell
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Radiation Physics.
    Assessing exposures to Magnetic resonance imaging's complex Mixture of Magnetic Fields for In Vivo, In Vitro, and epidemiologic studies of Health effects for staff and Patients2018In: Frontiers In Public Health, ISSN 2296-2565, Vol. 6, article id 66Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A complex mixture of electromagnetic fields is used in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI): static, low-frequency, and radio frequency magnetic fields. Commonly, the static magnetic field ranges from one to three Tesla. The low-frequency field can reach several millitesla and with a time derivative of the order of some Tesla per second. The radiofrequency (RF) field has a magnitude in the microtesla range giving rise to specific absorption rate values of a few Watts per kilogram. Very little attention has been paid to the case where there is a combined exposure to several different fields at the same time. Some studies have shown genotoxic effects in cells after exposure to an MRI scan while others have not demonstrated any effects. A typical MRI exam includes muliple imaging sequences of varying length and intensity, to produce different types of images. Each sequence is designed with a particular purpose in mind, so one sequence can, for example, be optimized for clearly showing fat water contrast, while another is optimized for high-resolution detail. It is of the utmost importance that future experimental studies give a thorough description of the exposure they are using, and not just a statement such as "An ordinary MRI sequence was used." Even if the sequence is specified, it can differ substantially between manufacturers on, e.g., RF pulse height, width, and duty cycle. In the latest SCENIHR opinion, it is stated that there is very little information regarding the health effects of occupational exposure to MRI fields, and long-term prospective or retrospective cohort studies on workers are recommended as a high priority. They also state that MRI is increasingly used in pediatric diagnostic imaging, and a cohort study into the effects of MRI exposure on children is recommended as a high priority. For the exposure assessment in epidemiological studies, there is a clear difference between patients and staff and further work is needed on this. Studies that explore the possible differences between MRI scan sequences and compare them in terms of exposure level are warranted.

  • 9.
    Hansson Mild, Kjell
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Radiation Physics.
    Biophysical aspects of permeation and diffusion of water in frog eggs1974Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Hansson Mild, Kjell
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Radiation Physics.
    Alanko, Tommi
    Finnish Institute of Occupational Health (FIOH), Helsinki, Finland.
    Decat, Gilbert
    Flemish Institute of Technological Research (VITO), Mol, Belgium.
    Falsaperla, Rosaria
    National Institute of Occupational Safety and Prevention (ISPESL), Rome, Italy.
    Gryz, Krzysztof
    Central Institute for Labour Protection – National Research Institute (CIOP-PIB), Poland.
    Hietanen, Maila
    Finnish Institute of Occupational Health (FIOH), Helsinki, Finland.
    Karpowicz, Jolanta
    Central Institute for Labour Protection – National Research Institute (CIOP-PIB), Poland.
    Rossi, Paolo
    National Institute of Occupational Safety and Prevention (ISPESL), Rome, Italy.
    Sandström, Monica
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Exposure of workers to electromagnetic fields. A review of open questions on exposure assessment techniques2009In: International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, ISSN 1080-3548, E-ISSN 2376-9130, Vol. 15, no 1, p. 3-33Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    European Directive 2004/40/EC on occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMF), based on the guidelines of the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection, was to be implemented in the Member States of the European Union by 2008. Because of some unexpected problems the deadline was postponed until 2012. This paper reviews some of the problems identified and presents some suggestions for possible solutions based on the authors' experience in assessing occupational exposure to EMF. Among the topics discussed are movement in static magnetic fields, ways to time average extreme low frequency signals, the difference between emission and exposure standards, and ways of dealing with those issues.

  • 11.
    Hansson Mild, Kjell
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Radiation Physics.
    Bach Andersen, Jørgen
    Section on Antennas, Propagation and Radio Networking, Department of Electronic Systems, Faculty of Engineering and Science, Aalborg University , Denmark.
    Frølund Pedersen, Gert
    Section on Antennas, Propagation and Radio Networking, Department of Electronic Systems, Faculty of Engineering and Science, Aalborg University , Denmark.
    Is there any exposure from a mobile phone in stand-by mode?2012In: Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine, ISSN 1536-8378, E-ISSN 1536-8386, Vol. 31, no 1, p. 52-56Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Several studies have been using a GSM mobile phone in stand-by mode as the source for exposure, and they claimed that this caused effects on for instance sleep and testicular function. In stand-by mode the phone is only active in periodic location updates, and this occurs with a frequency set by the net operator. Typical updates occur with 2-5 h in between, and between these updates the phone is to be considered as a passive radio receiver with no microwave emission. Thus, the exposure in stand-by mode can be considered negligible.

  • 12.
    Hansson Mild, Kjell
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Radiation Physics.
    Hand, Jeff
    Hietanen, Maila
    Gowland, Penny
    Karpowicz, Jolanta
    Keevil, Stephen
    Lagroye, Isabelle
    van Rongen, Eric
    Scarfi, Maria Rosaria
    Wilén, Jonna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Radiation Physics.
    Exposure classification of MRI workers in epidemiological studies2013In: Bioelectromagnetics, ISSN 0197-8462, E-ISSN 1521-186X, Vol. 34, no 1, p. 81-84Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We estimate that there are about 100,000 workers from different disciplines, such as radiographers, nurses, anesthetists, technicians, engineers, etc., who can be exposed to substantial electromagnetic fields (compared to normal background levels) around magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanners. There is a need for well-designed epidemiological studies of MRI workers but since the exposure from MRI equipment is a very complex mixture of static magnetic fields, switched gradient magnetic fields, and radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF EMF), it is necessary to discuss how to assess the exposure in epidemiological studies. As an alternative to the use of job title as a proxy of exposure, we propose an exposure categorization for the different professions working with MRI equipment. Specifically, we propose defining exposure in three categories, depending on whether people are exposed to only the static field, to the static plus switched gradient fields or to the static plus switched gradient plus RF fields, as a basis for exposure assessment in epidemiological studies.

  • 13.
    Hansson Mild, Kjell
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences.
    Lundström, Ronnie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences.
    Wilén, Jonna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences.
    Non-Ionizing Radiation in Swedish Health CareExposure and Safety Aspects2019In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 16, no 7, article id 1186Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The main aim of the study was to identify and describe methods using non-ionizing radiation (NIR) such as electromagnetic fields (EMF) and optical radiation in Swedish health care. By examining anticipated exposure levels and by identifying possible health hazards we also aimed to recognize knowledge gaps in the field. NIR is mainly used in health care for diagnosis and therapy. Three applications were identified where acute effects cannot be ruled out: magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and electrosurgery. When using optical radiation, such as class 3 and 4 lasers for therapy or surgical procedures and ultra-violet light for therapy, acute effects such as unintentional burns, photo reactions, erythema and effects on the eyes need to be avoided. There is a need for more knowledge regarding long-term effects of MRI as well as on the combination of different NIR exposures. Based on literature and after consulting staff we conclude that the health care professionals' knowledge about the risks and safety measures should be improved and that there is a need for clear, evidence-based information from reliable sources, and it should be obvious to the user which source to address.

  • 14.
    Hansson Mild, Kjell
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Radiation Physics.
    Mattsson, Mats-Olof
    Dose and exposure in bioelectromagnetics2017In: Dosimetry in bioelectromagnetics / [ed] Marko Markov, Boca Raton: CRC Press , 2017, p. 101-117Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Hansson Mild, Kjell
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Radiation Physics.
    Mattsson, Mats-Olof
    Örebro University, Sweden; Seibersdorf, Austria.
    ELF noise fields: a review2010In: Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine, ISSN 1536-8378, E-ISSN 1536-8386, Vol. 29, no 3, p. 72-97Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The debate as to whether low-level electromagnetic fields can affect biological systems and in the long term cause health effects has been going on for a long time. Yet the interaction of weak electromagnetic fields (EMF) with living cells, undoubtedly a most important phenomenon, is still not well understood. The exact mechanisms by which the effects are produced have not been identified. Furthermore, it is not possible to clearly define which aspects of an EMF exposure that constitute the "dose." One of the groups that contributed to solving this problem is the Bioelectromagnetics group at Catholic University of America (CUA), Washington, D. C. Their work has been devoted to investigating the physical parameters that are needed to obtain an effect of EMF exposure on biological systems, and also how to inhibit the effect. This is a review of their work on bioeffects caused by low-level EMF, their dependence on coherence time, constancy, spatial averaging, and also how the effects can be modified by an applied ELF noise magnetic field. The group has been using early chick embryos, and L929 and Daudi cells as their main experimental systems. The review also covers the work of other groups on low-level effects and the inhibition of the effects with an applied noise field. The group at CUA has shown that biological effects can be found after exposure to low-level ELF and RF electromagnetic fields, and when effects are observed, applying an ELF magnetic noise field inhibits the effects. Also, other research groups have tried to replicate the studies from the CUA group, or to apply EMF noise to suppress EMF-induced effects. Replications of the CUA effects have not always been successful. However, in all cases where the noise field has been applied to prevent an observed effect, it has been successful in eliminating the effect.

  • 16.
    Hansson Mild, Kjell
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Radiation Physics.
    Møllerløkken, Ole Jacob
    Occupational Exposure to Magnetic Field inTranscranial Magnetic Stimulation Treatment2018In: Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation in Neuropsychiatry / [ed] Ustohal, Libor, IntechOpen , 2018, p. 143-149Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is used both as a diagnostic instrument and for therapy, available only at some psychiatric clinics for treatment of depression and at clinical neurophysiology where TMS is used for diagnosis of nerve damage. The Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare issued a referral edition about the use of repetitive TMS as an alternative treatment for depression. This may lead to a major increase in the application of TMS to treat depression. TMS is based on induction of an electric (E) field inside the brain by application of an external magnetic field with rapid rise and fall time. The E field in the brain has been calculated when different coils were used for the treatment. The reported E fields are of the order of tens to hundreds of volts per meter and the induced current density is estimated at tens of A/m2. This field can depolarize neurons or modulate cortical excitability by selecting the appropriate parameters for stimulation and the duration of the treatment session. The mechanisms of action of neurostimulation still remain incompletely understood.

  • 17.
    Hansson Mild, Kjell
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Radiation Physics.
    Wilén, Jonna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Radiation Physics.
    Occupational exposure in wireless communication2009In: Advances in electromagnetic fields in living systems: Vol 5, Health effects of cell phone radiation / [ed] James C Lin, Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag New York, 2009, p. 199-219Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Today we are exposed to electromagnetic fields from the use of wireless communication devices almost everywhere. However, occupational exposure where there is a possibility to exceed the international guidelines occurs only in work very near mobile phone base stations, and this exposure can easily be dealt with in practice in the form of instructions and administrative measures. All other devices produce exposure well below present guidelines. This low-level exposure has been discussed from a health perspective, and in this paper the exposure from sources such as mobile phones, cordless phones, WiMax, WLAN and base station antennas is discussed. The problem of exposure assessment for epidemiological studies is also dealt with in a general manner.

  • 18.
    Hansson Mild, Kjell
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Radiation Sciences, Radiation Physics.
    Wilén, Jonna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Radiation Sciences, Radiation Physics.
    Mattsson, Mats-Olof
    Simko, Myrtill
    Background ELF magnetic fields in incubators: A factor of importance in cell culture work.2009In: Cell biology international, ISSN 1095-8355, Vol. 33, p. 755-757Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Extremely low frequency (ELF) magnetic fields in cell culture incubators have been measured. Values of the order of tens of muT were found which is in sharp contrast to the values found in our normal environment (0.05-0.1muT). There are numerous examples of biological effects found after exposure to MF at these levels, such as changes in gene expression, blocked cell differentiation, inhibition of the effect of tamoxifen, effects on chick embryo development, etc. We therefore recommend that people working with cell culture incubators check for the background magnetic field and take this into account in performing their experiments, since this could be an unrecognised factor of importance contributing to the variability in the results from work with cell cultures.

  • 19. Hardell, Lennart
    et al.
    Carlberg, Michael
    Hansson Mild, Kjell
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Radiation Sciences, Radiation Physics.
    Epidemiological evidence for an association between use of wireless phones and tumor diseases.2009In: Pathophysiology : the official journal of the International Society for Pathophysiology / ISP, ISSN 0928-4680, Vol. 16, no 2-3, p. 113-22Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During recent years there has been increasing public concern on potential cancer risks from microwave emissions from wireless phones. We evaluated the scientific evidence for long-term mobile phone use and the association with certain tumors in case-control studies, mostly from the Hardell group in Sweden and the Interphone study group. Regarding brain tumors the meta-analysis yielded for glioma odds ratio (OR)=1.0, 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.9-1.1. OR increased to 1.3, 95% CI=1.1-1.6 with 10 year latency period, with highest risk for ipsilateral exposure (same side as the tumor localisation), OR=1.9, 95% CI=1.4-2.4, lower for contralateral exposure (opposite side) OR=1.2, 95% CI=0.9-1.7. Regarding acoustic neuroma OR=1.0, 95% CI=0.8-1.1 was calculated increasing to OR=1.3, 95% CI=0.97-1.9 with 10 year latency period. For ipsilateral exposure OR=1.6, 95% CI=1.1-2.4, and for contralateral exposure OR=1.2, 95% CI=0.8-1.9 were found. Regarding meningioma no consistent pattern of an increased risk was found. Concerning age, highest risk was found in the age group <20 years at time of first use of wireless phones in the studies from the Hardell group. For salivary gland tumors, non-Hodgkin lymphoma and testicular cancer no consistent pattern of an association with use of wireless phones was found. One study on uveal melanoma yielded for probable/certain mobile phone use OR=4.2, 95% CI=1.2-14.5. One study on intratemporal facial nerve tumor was not possible to evaluate due to methodological shortcomings. In summary our review yielded a consistent pattern of an increased risk for glioma and acoustic neuroma after >10 year mobile phone use. We conclude that current standard for exposure to microwaves during mobile phone use is not safe for long-term exposure and needs to be revised.

  • 20. Hardell, Lennart
    et al.
    Carlberg, Michael
    Hansson Mild, Kjell
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Radiation Physics.
    Methodological aspects of epidemiological studies on the use of mobile phones and their association with brain tumors2008In: The Open Environmental Journal, ISSN 1874-2335, Vol. 2, p. 54-61Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Our case-control studies were the first to report an association between the use of mobile or cordless phonesand brain tumors; glioma and acoustic neuroma. Criticism of these results has been based partly on results from the Interphonestudies conducted under the auspice of the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). Here, we comparestudy design and epidemiological methods used in our studies and the Interphone studies. We conclude that while ourresults appear sound and reliable, several of the Interphone findings display differential misclassification of exposure dueto observational and recall bias, for example, following low participation rates in both cases and controls and bed-sidecomputer guided interviews of cases rather than blinded interviews of cases and controls. However, as we have presentedelsewhere, there seems to be a consistent pattern of an association between mobile phone use and ipsilateral glioma andacoustic neuroma using > 10 years latency period.

  • 21.
    Hardell, Lennart
    et al.
    Department of Oncology, University Hospital, Örebro.
    Carlberg, Michael
    Department of Oncology, University Hospital, Örebro.
    Hansson Mild, Kjell
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Radiation Physics.
    Mobile phone use and the risk for malignant brain tumors: A case-control study on deceased cases and controls2010In: Neuroepidemiology, ISSN 0251-5350, E-ISSN 1423-0208, Vol. 35, no 2, p. 109-114Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigated the use of mobile or cordless phones and the risk for malignant brain tumors in a group of deceased cases. Most previous studies have either left out deceased cases of brain tumors or matched them to living controls and therefore a study matching deceased cases to deceased controls is warranted. Recall error is one issue since it has been claimed that increased risks reported in some studies could be due to cases blaming mobile phones as a cause of the disease. This should be of less importance for deceased cases and if cancer controls are used. In this study brain tumor cases aged 20-80 years diagnosed during 1997-2003 that had died before inclusion in our previous studies on the same topic were included. Two control groups were used: one with controls that had died from another type of cancer than brain tumor and one with controls that had died from other diseases. Exposure was assessed by a questionnaire sent to the next-of-kin for both cases and controls. Replies were obtained for 346 (75%) cases, 343 (74%) cancer controls and 276 (60%) controls with other diseases. Use of mobile phones gave an increased risk, highest in the >10 years' latency group yielding odds ratio (OR) = 2.4, and 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.4-4.1. The risk increased with cumulative number of lifetime hours for use, and was highest in the >2,000 h group (OR = 3.4, 95% CI = 1.6-7.1). No clear association was found for use of cordless phones, although OR = 1.7, 95% CI = 0.8-3.4 was found in the group with >2,000 h of cumulative use. This investigation confirmed our previous results of an association between mobile phone use and malignant brain tumors.

  • 22. Hardell, Lennart
    et al.
    Carlberg, Michael
    Hansson Mild, Kjell
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Radiation Physics.
    Pooled analysis of case-control studies on malignant brain tumours and the use of mobile and cordless phones including living and deceased subjects2011In: International Journal of Oncology, ISSN 1019-6439, Vol. 38, no 5, p. 1465-1474Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We studied the association between use of mobile and cordless phones and malignant brain tumours. Pooled analysis was performed of two case-control studies on patients with malignant brain tumours diagnosed during 1997-2003 and matched controls alive at the time of study inclusion and one case-control study on deceased patients and controls diagnosed during the same time period. Cases and controls or relatives to deceased subjects were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. Replies were obtained for 1,251 (85%) cases and 2,438 (84%) controls. The risk increased with latency period and cumulative use in hours for both mobile and cordless phones. Highest risk was found for the most common type of glioma, astrocytoma, yielding in the >10 year latency group for mobile phone use odds ratio (OR) = 2.7, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.9-3.7 and cordless phone use OR = 1.8, 95% CI = 1.2-2.9. In a separate analysis, these phone types were independent risk factors for glioma. The risk for astrocytoma was highest in the group with first use of a wireless phone before the age of 20; mobile phone use OR = 4.9, 95% CI = 2.2-11, cordless phone use OR = 3.9, 95% CI = 1.7-8.7. In conclusion, an increased risk was found for glioma and use of mobile or cordless phone. The risk increased with latency time and cumulative use in hours and was highest in subjects with first use before the age of 20.

  • 23. Hardell, Lennart
    et al.
    Carlberg, Michael
    Hansson Mild, Kjell
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Radiation Physics.
    Re-analysis of risk for glioma in relation to mobile telephone use: comparison with the results of the Interphone international case-control study2011In: International Journal of Epidemiology, ISSN 0300-5771, E-ISSN 1464-3685, Vol. 40, no 4, p. 1126-1128Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 24. Hardell, Lennart
    et al.
    Carlberg, Michael
    Hansson Mild, Kjell
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences.
    Use of mobile phones and cordless phones is associated with increased risk for glioma and acoustic neuroma2013In: Pathophysiology : the official journal of the International Society for Pathophysiology / ISP, ISSN 0928-4680, Vol. 20, no 2, p. 85-110Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) at WHO evaluation of the carcinogenic effect of RF-EMF on humans took place during a 24-31 May 2011 meeting at Lyon in France. The Working Group consisted of 30 scientists and categorised the radiofrequency electromagnetic fields from mobile phones, and from other devices that emit similar non-ionising electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF), as Group 2B, i.e., a 'possible', human carcinogen. The decision on mobile phones was based mainly on the Hardell group of studies from Sweden and the IARC Interphone study. We give an overview of current epidemiological evidence for an increased risk for brain tumours including a meta-analysis of the Hardell group and Interphone results for mobile phone use. Results for cordless phones are lacking in Interphone. The meta-analysis gave for glioma in the most exposed part of the brain, the temporal lobe, odds ratio (OR)=1.71, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.04-2.81 in the ≥10 years (>10 years in the Hardell group) latency group. Ipsilateral mobile phone use ≥1640h in total gave OR=2.29, 95% CI=1.56-3.37. The results for meningioma were OR=1.25, 95% CI=0.31-4.98 and OR=1.35, 95% CI=0.81-2.23, respectively. Regarding acoustic neuroma ipsilateral mobile phone use in the latency group ≥10 years gave OR=1.81, 95% CI=0.73-4.45. For ipsilateral cumulative use ≥1640h OR=2.55, 95% CI=1.50-4.40 was obtained. Also use of cordless phones increased the risk for glioma and acoustic neuroma in the Hardell group studies. Survival of patients with glioma was analysed in the Hardell group studies yielding in the >10 years latency period hazard ratio (HR)=1.2, 95% CI=1.002-1.5 for use of wireless phones. This increased HR was based on results for astrocytoma WHO grade IV (glioblastoma multiforme). Decreased HR was found for low-grade astrocytoma, WHO grades I-II, which might be caused by RF-EMF exposure leading to tumour-associated symptoms and earlier detection and surgery with better prognosis. Some studies show increasing incidence of brain tumours whereas other studies do not. It is concluded that one should be careful using incidence data to dismiss results in analytical epidemiology. The IARC carcinogenic classification does not seem to have had any significant impact on governments' perceptions of their responsibilities to protect public health from this widespread source of radiation.

  • 25. Hardell, Lennart
    et al.
    Carlberg, Michael
    Hansson Mild, Kjell
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Radiation Physics.
    Eriksson, Mikael
    Case-control study on the use of mobile and cordless phones and the risk for malignant melanoma in the head and neck region2011In: Pathophysiology : the official journal of the International Society for Pathophysiology / ISP, ISSN 0928-4680, Vol. 18, no 4, p. 325-333Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The incidence of cutaneous malignant melanoma has increased during the last decades in Sweden as in many other countries. Besides of ultraviolet radiation and constitutional factors such as light-sensitive skin and poor ability to tan few risk factors are established. Some studies indicate that electromagnetic fields might be of concern. In this case-control study we assessed use of mobile and cordless phones in 347 cases with melanoma in the head and neck region and 1184 controls. These subjects constituted 82% and 80%, respectively, that answered the questionnaire. Overall no increased risk was found. However, in the most exposed area; temporal, cheek and ear, cumulative use >365h of mobile phone yielded in the >1-5-year latency group odds ratio (OR)=2.1, 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.7-6.1 and cordless phone use gave OR=2.1, 95% CI=1.1-3.8. Highest OR was calculated for first use of mobile or cordless phone before the age of 20 years regardless of anatomical localisation in the head and neck region. No interaction was found with established risk factors such as red, medium blond or fair hair colour, blue eyes, skin type I or II (never or sometimes tanned), severe sunburns as teenager or heredity. The results must be interpreted with caution due to low numbers and potential methodological shortcomings in a case-control study. However, the findings might be consistent with a late carcinogenic effect from microwaves, i.e. tumour promotion, but need to be confirmed.

  • 26. Hardell, Lennart
    et al.
    Carlberg, Michael
    Soderqvist, Fredrik
    Hansson Mild, Kjell
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Radiation Physics.
    Case-control study of the association between malignant brain tumours diagnosed between 2007 and 2009 and mobile and cordless phone use2013In: International Journal of Oncology, ISSN 1019-6439, Vol. 43, no 6, p. 1833-1845Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous studies have shown a consistent association between long-term use of mobile and cordless phones and glioma and acoustic neuroma, but not for meningioma. When used these phones emit radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMFs) and the brain is the main target organ for the hand-held phone. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) classified in May, 2011 RF-EMF as a group 2B, i.e. a possible' human carcinogen. The aim of this study was to further explore the relationship between especially long-term (>10 years) use of wireless phones and the development of malignant brain tumours. We conducted a new case-control study of brain tumour cases of both genders aged 18-75 years and diagnosed during 2007-2009. One population-based control matched on gender and age (within 5 years) was used to each case. Here, we report on malignant cases including all available controls. Exposures on e.g. use of mobile phones and cordless phones were assessed by a self-administered questionnaire. Unconditional logistic regression analysis was performed, adjusting for age, gender, year of diagnosis and socio-economic index using the whole control sample. Of the cases with a malignant brain tumour, 87% (n=593) participated, and 85% (n=1,368) of controls in the whole study answered the questionnaire. The odds ratio (OR) for mobile phone use of the analogue type was 1.8, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.04-3.3, increasing with >25 years of latency (time since first exposure) to an OR=3.3, 95% CI=1.6-6.9. Digital 2G mobile phone use rendered an OR=1.6, 95% CI=0.996-2.7, increasing with latency >15-20 years to an OR=2.1, 95% CI=1.2-3.6. The results for cordless phone use were OR=1.7, 95% CI=1.1-2.9, and, for latency of 15-20 years, the OR=2.1, 95% CI=1.2-3.8. Few participants had used a cordless phone for >20-25 years. Digital type of wireless phones (2G and 3G mobile phones, cordless phones) gave increased risk with latency >1-5 years, then a lower risk in the following latency groups, but again increasing risk with latency >15-20 years. Ipsilateral use resulted in a higher risk than contralateral mobile and cordless phone use. Higher ORs were calculated for tumours in the temporal and overlapping lobes. Using the meningioma cases in the same study as reference entity gave somewhat higher ORs indicating that the results were unlikely to be explained by recall or observational bias. This study confirmed previous results of an association between mobile and cordless phone use and malignant brain tumours. These findings provide support for the hypothesis that RF-EMFs play a role both in the initiation and promotion stages of carcinogenesis.

  • 27. Hardell, Lennart
    et al.
    Carlberg, Michael
    Soderqvist, Fredrik
    Hansson Mild, Kjell
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Radiation Physics.
    Mobile Phones and Cancer Next Steps2014In: Epidemiology, ISSN 1044-3983, E-ISSN 1531-5487, Vol. 25, no 4, p. 617-618Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 28. Hardell, Lennart
    et al.
    Carlberg, Michael
    Söderqvist, Fredrik
    Hansson Mild, Kjell
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Radiation Physics.
    Meta-analysis of long-term mobile phone use and the association with brain tumours.2008In: Int J Oncol, ISSN 1019-6439, Vol. 32, no 5, p. 1097-1103Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We evaluated long-term use of mobile phones and the risk for brain tumours in case-control studies published so far on this issue. We identified ten studies on glioma and meta-analysis yielded OR = 0.9, 95% CI = 0.8-1.1. Latency period of > or =10-years gave OR = 1.2, 95% CI = 0.8-1.9 based on six studies, for ipsilateral use (same side as tumour) OR = 2.0, 95% CI = 1.2-3.4 (four studies), but contralateral use did not increase the risk significantly, OR = 1.1, 95% CI = 0.6-2.0. Meta-analysis of nine studies on acoustic neuroma gave OR = 0.9, 95% CI = 0.7-1.1 increasing to OR = 1.3, 95% CI = 0.6-2.8 using > or =10-years latency period (four studies). Ipsilateral use gave OR = 2.4, 95% CI = 1.1-5.3 and contra-lateral OR = 1.2, 95% CI = 0.7-2.2 in the > or =10-years latency period group (three studies). Seven studies gave results for meningioma yielding overall OR = 0.8, 95% CI = 0.7-0.99. Using > or =10-years latency period OR = 1.3, 95% CI = 0.9-1.8 was calculated (four studies) increasing to OR = 1.7, 95% CI = 0.99-3.1 for ipsilateral use and OR = 1.0, 95% CI = 0.3-3.1 for contralateral use (two studies). We conclude that this meta-analysis gave a consistent pattern of an association between mobile phone use and ipsilateral glioma and acoustic neuroma using > or =10-years latency period.

  • 29.
    Hardell, Lennart
    et al.
    Department of Oncology, University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Carlberg, Michael
    Department of Oncology, University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Söderqvist, Fredrik
    Department of Oncology, University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Hansson Mild, Kjell
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Radiation Physics.
    Pooled analysis of case-control studies on acoustic neuroma diagnosed 1997-2003 and 2007-2009 and use of mobile and cordless phones2013In: International Journal of Oncology, ISSN 1019-6439, Vol. 43, no 4, p. 1036-1044Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We previously conducted a case-control study of acoustic neuroma. Subjects of both genders aged 20-80 years, diagnosed during 1997-2003 in parts of Sweden, were included, and the results were published. We have since made a further study for the time period 2007-2009 including both men and women aged 18-75 years selected from throughout the country. These new results for acoustic neuroma have not been published to date. Similar methods were used for both study periods. In each, one population-based control, matched on gender and age (within five years), was identified from the Swedish Population Registry. Exposures were assessed by a self-administered questionnaire supplemented by a phone interview. Since the number of acoustic neuroma cases in the new study was low we now present pooled results from both study periods based on 316 participating cases and 3,530 controls. Unconditional logistic regression analysis was performed, adjusting for age, gender, year of diagnosis and socio-economic index (SEI). Use of mobile phones of the analogue type gave odds ratio (OR) = 2.9, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 2.0-4.3, increasing with >20 years latency (time since first exposure) to OR = 7.7, 95% CI = 2.8-21. Digital 20 mobile phone use gave OR = 1.5, 95% CI = 1.1-2.1, increasing with latency >15 years to an OR = 1.8, 95% CI = 0.8-4.2. The results for cordless phone use were OR = 1.5, 95% CI = 1.1-2.1, and, for latency of >20 years, OR = 6.5, 95% CI = 1.7-26. Digital type wireless phones (20 and 3G mobile phones and cordless phones) gave OR = 1.5, 95% CI = 1.1-2.0 increasing to OR = 8.1,95% CI = 2.0-32 with latency >20 years. For total wireless phone use, the highest risk was calculated for the longest latency time >20 years: OR = 4.4, 95% CI = 2.2-9.0. Several of the calculations in the long latency category were based on low numbers of exposed cases. Ipsilateral use resulted in a higher risk than contralateral for both mobile and cordless phones. OR increased per 100 h cumulative use and per year of latency for mobile phones and cordless phones, though the increase was not statistically significant for cordless phones. The percentage tumour volume increased per year of latency and per 100 h of cumulative use, statistically significant for analogue phones. This study confirmed previous results demonstrating an association between mobile and cordless phone use and acoustic neuroma.

  • 30. Hardell, Lennart
    et al.
    Carlberg, Michael
    Söderqvist, Fredrik
    Hansson Mild, Kjell
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Radiation Physics.
    Re: time trends in brain tumor incidence rates in Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden, 1974-20032010In: Journal of the National Cancer Institute, ISSN 0027-8874, E-ISSN 1460-2105, Vol. 102, no 10, p. 740-742Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 31. Hardell, Lennart
    et al.
    Carlberg, Michael
    Söderqvist, Fredrik
    Hansson Mild, Kjell
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Radiation Sciences, Radiation Physics.
    Morgan, L Lloyd
    Long-term use of cellular phones and brain tumours: increased risk associated with use for > 10 years.2007In: Occup Environ Med, Vol. 64, p. 626-632Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 32.
    Hardell, Lennart
    et al.
    Department of Oncology, University Hospital, SE-701 85 Örebro.
    Söderqvist, Fredrik
    Department of Oncology, University Hospital, SE-701 85 Örebro.
    Carlberg, Michael
    Department of Oncology, University Hospital, SE-701 85 Örebro.
    Zetterberg, Henrik
    Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Department of Psychiatry and Neurochemistry, the Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska University Hospital/Mölndal, SE-431 80 Mölndal.
    Hansson Mild, Kjell
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Radiation Physics.
    Exposure to wireless phone emissions and serum beta-trace protein2010In: International Journal of Molecular Medicine, ISSN 1107-3756, E-ISSN 1791-244X, Vol. 26, no 2, p. 301-306Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The lipocalin type of prostaglandin D synthase or β-trace protein is synthesized in the choroid plexus, leptomeninges and oligodendrocytes of the central nervous system and is secreted into the cerebrospinal fluid. β-trace protein is the key enzyme in the synthesis of prostaglandin D2, an endogenous sleep-promoting neurohormone in the brain. Electromagnetic fields (EMF) in the radiofrequency (RF) range have in some studies been associated with disturbed sleep. We studied the concentration of β-trace protein in blood in relation to emissions from wireless phones. This study included 62 persons aged 18-30 years. The concentration of β-trace protein decreased with increasing number of years of use of a wireless phone yielding a negative β coefficient = -0.32, 95% confidence interval -0.60 to -0.04. Also cumulative use in hours gave a negative β coefficient, although not statistically significant. Of the 62 persons, 40 participated in an experimental study with 30 min exposure to an 890-MHz GSM signal. No statistically significant change of β-trace protein was found. In a similar study of the remaining 22 participants with no exposure, β-trace protein increased significantly over time, probably due to a relaxed situation. EMF emissions may down-regulate the synthesis of β-trace protein. This mechanism might be involved in sleep disturbances reported in persons exposed to RF fields. The results must be interpreted with caution since use of mobile and cordless phones were self-reported. Awareness of exposure condition in the experimental study may have influence β-trace protein concentrations.

  • 33. Hocking, Bruce
    et al.
    Hansson Mild, Kjell
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Radiation Physics.
    Guidance note: Risk management of workers with medical electronic devices and metallic implants in electromagnetic fields.2008In: International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, ISSN 1080-3548, E-ISSN 2376-9130, Vol. 14, no 2, p. 217-222Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Medical electronic devices and metallic implants are found in an increasing number of workers. Industrialapplications requiring intense electromagnetic fields (EMF) are growing and the potential risk of injuriousinteractions arising from EMF affecting devices or implants needs to be managed. Potential interactionsinclude electromagnetic interference, displacement, and electrostimulation or heating of adjacent tissue,depending on the device or implant and the frequency of the fields. A guidance note, which uses a riskmanagement framework, has been developed to give generic advice in (a) risk identification—implementingprocedures to identify workers with implants and to characterise EMF exposure within a workplace; (b) riskassessment—integrating the characteristics of devices, the anatomical localisation of implants, occupationalhygiene data, and application of basic physics principles; and (c) risk control—advising the worker andemployer regarding safety and any necessary changes to work practices, while observing privacy.

  • 34. Lowden, Arne
    et al.
    Nagai, Roberta
    Akerstedt, Torbjorn
    Hansson Mild, Kjell
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Radiation Physics.
    Hillert, Lena
    Effects of evening exposure to electromagnetic fields emitted by 3G mobile phones on health and night sleep EEG architecture2019In: Journal of Sleep Research, ISSN 0962-1105, E-ISSN 1365-2869, Vol. 28, no 4, article id UNSP e12813Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Studies on sleep after exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields have shown mixed results. We investigated the effects of double-blind radiofrequency exposure to 1,930-1,990 MHz, UMTS 3G signalling standard, time-averaged 10 g specific absorption rate of 1.6 W kg(-1) on self-evaluated sleepiness and objective electroencephalogram architecture during sleep. Eighteen subjects aged 18-19 years underwent 3.0 hr of controlled exposure on two consecutive days 19:45-23:00 hours (including 15-min break); active or sham prior to sleep, followed by full-night 7.5 hr polysomnographic recordings in a sleep laboratory. In a cross-over design, the procedure was repeated a week later with the second condition. The results for sleep electroencephalogram architecture showed no change after radiofrequency exposure in sleep stages compared with sham, but power spectrum analyses showed a reduction of activity within the slow spindle range (11.0-12.75 Hz). No differences were found for self-evaluated health symptoms, performance on the Stroop colour word test during exposure or for sleep quality. These results confirm previous findings that radiofrequency post-exposure in the evening has very little influence on electroencephalogram architecture but possible on spindle range activity.

  • 35. Mannerling, Ann-Christine
    et al.
    Hansson Mild, Kjell
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Radiation Sciences, Radiation Physics.
    Mattsson, Mats-Olof
    Extremely low-frequency magnetic field exposure and protection against UV-induced death in chicken embryos.2007In: Electromagn Biol Med, ISSN 1536-8378, Vol. 26, no 2, p. 73-81Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 36.
    Mannerling, Ann-Christine
    et al.
    Life Science Center, Academy of Natural Sciences and Technology, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Simkó, Myrtill
    Division of Environmental Physiology, Institute for Cell Biology and Biosystems Technology, University of Rostock, Albert-Einstein-Str. 3, 18059 Rostock, Germany.
    Hansson Mild, Kjell
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Radiation Physics.
    Mattsson, Mats-Olof
    Life Science Center, Academy of Natural Sciences and Technology, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Effects of 50-Hz magnetic field exposure on superoxide radical anion formation and HSP70 induction in human K562 cells2010In: Radiation and Environmental Biophysics, ISSN 0301-634X, E-ISSN 1432-2099, Vol. 49, no 4, p. 731-741Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Epidemiological studies suggest a correlation between exposure to low-level extremely low-frequency (ELF) magnetic fields (MF) and certain cancers and neurodegenerative diseases. Experimental studies have not provided any mechanism for such effects, although at flux density levels significantly higher than the ones encountered in epidemiological studies, radical homoeostasis and levels of stress response proteins can be affected. Here, we report on the influence of MF exposure (50-Hz sine wave; 1 h; 0.025-0.10 mT; vertical or horizontal MF exposure direction) on different cellular parameters (proliferation, cell cycle distribution, superoxide radical anion, and HSP70 protein levels) in the human leukaemia cell line K562. The positive control heat treatment (42°C, 1 h) did not affect either cell proliferation or superoxide radical anion production but caused accumulation of cells in the G2 phase and increased the stress protein HSP70. MF exposure (0.10 mT, 1 h) did not affect either cell cycle kinetics or proliferation. Both vertical and horizontal MF exposures for 1 h caused significantly and transiently increased HSP70 levels (>twofold), at several flux densities, compared to sham controls and also compared to heat treatment. This exposure also increased (30-40%) the levels of the superoxide radical anion, comparable to the positive control PMA. Addition of free radical scavengers (melatonin or 1,10-phenantroline) inhibited the MF-induced increase in HSP70. In conclusion, an early response to ELF MF in K562 cells seems to be an increased amount of oxygen radicals, leading to HSP70 induction. Furthermore, the results suggest that there is a flux density threshold where 50-Hz MF exerts its effects on K562 cells, at or below 0.025 mT, and also that it is the MF, and not the induced electric field, which is the active parameter.

  • 37.
    Mild, Kjell Hansson
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences.
    Friberg, Stefan
    Frankel, Jennifer
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences.
    Wilen, Jonna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences.
    Exposure to the magnetic field from an induction loop pad for a hearing aid system2017In: International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, ISSN 1080-3548, E-ISSN 2376-9130, Vol. 23, no 1, p. 143-145Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As a case study we have measured the magnetic field from an induction loop pad designed for hearing aid assistance. The magnitude of the field was high, although well below international guidelines. We recorded values up to 70% of the recommended standard in some instances. However, in view of the many reports indicating health effects of low-level exposure, we recommend that the precautionary principle is applied when such pads are given to people who might be especially vulnerable, such as children, pregnant women and women on breast cancer medication.

  • 38. Moen, Bente E.
    et al.
    Møllerløkken, Ole Jacob
    Bull, Nils
    Oftedal, Gunnhild
    Hansson Mild, Kjell
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Radiation Physics.
    Accidental exposure to electtromagnetic fields from the radar of a naval ship: a descriptive study2013In: International Maritime Health, ISSN 1641-9251, E-ISSN 2081-3252, Vol. 64, no 4, p. 177-182Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Part of a crew on a Norwegian naval ship was exposed to the radar waves for approximately 7 min from an American destroyer during an incident at sea in August 2012. Information about the exposure was not given by the navy. This is a description of what happened with the crew on board after this event. 14 persons had been on the ship bridge or outside on the deck during the exposure and the rest of the crew had been inside the ship. 27 persons were examined at a hospital 6–8 months after the event, as they had developed a large number of symptoms from different organ systems. They were very worried about all types of possible adverse health effects due to the incident. All were examined by an occupational physician and an ophthalmologist, by an interview, clinical examinations and blood tests at the hospital. The interview of the personnel revealed that they had not experienced any major heating during the episode. Their symptoms developed days or weeks after the radar exposure. They had no objective signs of adverse health effects at the examination related to the incident. Long-term health effect from the exposure is highly unlikely. The development of different symptoms after the incident was probably due to the fear of possible health consequences. Better routines for such incidents at sea should be developed to avoid this type of anxiety.

  • 39. Mollerlokken, Ole Jacob
    et al.
    Stavang, Helen
    Hansson Mild, Kjell
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences.
    Staff exposure to pulsed magnetic fields during depression treatment with transcranial magnetic stimulation2017In: International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, ISSN 1080-3548, E-ISSN 2376-9130, Vol. 23, no 1, p. 139-142Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction. Transcranial magnetic stimulation or repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS/rTMS) are currently used in research and treatments of diseases of the central nervous system, such as recurring depression. Strong electric pulses are used to produce strong pulsed magnetic fields that are directed to the patient's cerebral cortex where the fields induce electric pulses. The pulses may be causing unnecessary exposure of the staff. Method. The MagVenture TMS/rTMS system was investigated, without patient presence, through measurements of magnetic field pulses at varying distances from the emitting coil and different power settings (94-127A/s). Results. Fourteen measurements were done which displayed exposures exceeding the given guidelines up until a distance of 40 cm from the transmitting coil. Discussion. The study shows that the exposure of staff in this type of treatment may exceed the given guidelines for occupational exposure, thus confirming previous findings. This necessitates good routines in information and treatment procedures to avoid this exposure.

  • 40. Møllerløkken, Ole J
    et al.
    Moen, Bente E
    Baste, Valborg
    Magerøy, Nils
    Oftedal, Gunnhild
    Neto, Emanuel
    Ersland, Lars
    Bjørge, Line
    Torjesen, Peter A
    Hansson Mild, Kjell
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Radiation Physics.
    No effects of MRI scan on male reproduction hormones2012In: Reproductive Toxicology, ISSN 0890-6238, E-ISSN 1873-1708, Vol. 34, no 1, p. 133-139Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is increasing around the world and the possible adverse effects on reproductive health of electromagnetic fields (EMFs) in MRI are not previously studied. A prospective randomized balanced cross-over study using a head scan in real MRI with whole-body transmitting coil and sham MRI among 24 healthy male volunteers was conducted. Serum-blood samples of inhibin B, testosterone, prolactine, thyreotropine, luteinizing hormone, follicle stimulating hormone, sex-hormone binding globuline and estradiol were taken before and after the different scans. Neither immediately after, nor after 11 days were there seen any differences in the hormone levels comparing real and sham MRI. The lack of effects of EMF on male reproductive hormones should be reassuring to the public and especially for men examined in MRI. Adverse effects on other endpoints than male reproduction or possible chronic effect of multiple MRI scans have not been investigated in this study.

  • 41.
    Sandström, Monica
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. National Institute for Working Life, Umeå, Sweden.
    Hansson Mild, Kjell
    National Institute for Working Life, Umeå, Sweden.
    Lyskova, Eugene
    National Institute for Working Life, Umeå, Sweden and Institute of the Human Brain, St Petersburg, Russia.
    Wilén, Jonna
    National Institute for Working Life, Umeå, Sweden.
    Power frequency magnetic fields and computer monitor instability1998In: Displays (Guildford), ISSN 0141-9382, E-ISSN 1872-7387, Vol. 19, no 2, p. 85-90Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Owing to the increased use of electronic loads, the harmonic content of the magnetic field in buildings has increased and it is therefore of interest to study how the harmonics (i.e. 150 Hz magnetic fields) will affect the stability of the picture on the monitor screen. Another frequency of interest to study is 16.7 Hz, the frequency used by the Swedish railway. Ten volunteers were asked to judge the occurrence of jitter on a 15-in. color monitor screen, refresh rate 72.2 Hz, at different amplitudes and frequencies of the vertical applied magnetic field. The tested screen had a highest sensitivity to 150 Hz external magnetic field, followed by 60, 16.7 and 50 Hz. In a static magnetic field the screen had a sensitivity (displacement) of 0.031±0.006 mm per applied microtesla.

  • 42.
    Sandström, Monica
    et al.
    National Institute of Occuaptional Health, Umeå, Sweden.
    Hansson Mild, Kjell
    National Institute of Occupational Health, Umeå, Sweden.
    Sandström, Mattias
    National Institute of Occuaptional Health, Umeå, Sweden.
    Berglund, André
    National Institute of Occuaptional Health, Umeå, Sweden.
    External power frequency magnetic field-induced jitter on computer monitors1993In: Behaviour & Information Technology, ISSN 0144-929X, Vol. 12, no 6, p. 359-363Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Power frequency magnetic fields with flux densities greater than 0.5 μT are not uncommon in offices. This level has been shown to induce jitter on VDT monitors. In the present project, these magnetic field-induced disturbances have been studied in the laboratory in order to establish a firm technical basis for future studies of the disturbance's influence on eye strain in VDT workers. Eight volunteers judged the occurrence of distortion when an applied external magnetic field was varied both in amplitude and frequency for 8 investigated VDT screens. The level of the external 50 Hz magnetic field when the distortion was detectable ranged from 0.6 to 1.1 μT. If the screen was viewed through a stereomicroscope (25 × magnification), the corresponding level was in the order of 0.2 μT. If the frequency difference between the external magnetic field and the refresh rate of the screen is only ±1-2 Hz, the disturbance is noticeable at even lower flux densities.

  • 43.
    Sandström, Monica
    et al.
    National institute of Occupational Health, Department of Occupational Medicine.
    Hansson Mild, Kjell
    National institute of Occupational Health, Department of Occupational Medicine.
    Stenberg, Berndt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Public Health Sciences. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Dermatology and Venerology.
    Wall, Stig
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Public Health Sciences.
    A survey of electric and magnetic-fields among VDT operators in offices1993In: IEEE transactions on electromagnetic compatibility (Print), ISSN 0018-9375, E-ISSN 1558-187X, Vol. 35, no 3, p. 394-397Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, the ambient electric and magnetic fields as well as the electromagnetic fields associated with VDT's at 150 offices are measured. The aim of the study is to find out the general level of the various electromagnetic parameters in offices and establish a technical base for a case referent study of skin symptoms among VDT workers. The median value of the 50-Hz background field in the 150 offices is 0.07 muT. Seven of the offices have background levels higher than 0.5 muT, which is high enough to cause distortion of the picture on the screen. The dominating source for electric fields in the ELF range is electric equipment in the office, not the VDT's. The median value of the electric field in the VLF range is 1.5 V/m. The equivalent surface potential is less than 0.5 kV for 63% of the measured VDT's. The computer monitor is a major source for magnetic fields in the offices. The median value of the magnetic field in the ELF range in front of the VDT is 0.21 muT, and in the VLF range 0.03 muT.

  • 44.
    Sandström, Monica
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Environmental Medicine. National Institute for Occupational Health, Umeå, Sweden.
    Hansson Mild, Kjell
    National Institute of Occupational Health, Umeå, Sweden.
    Stenberg, Berndt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Public Health Sciences. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Dermatology and Venerology.
    Wall, Stig
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Public Health Sciences.
    Skin symptoms among VDT workers and electromagnetic-fields: a case-referent study1995In: Indoor Air, ISSN 0905-6947, E-ISSN 1600-0668, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 29-37Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Th is case referent study is a part of the Office illness Project in Northern Sweden. From a questionnaire study among 5986 office workers, 75 VDT workers with self-reported facial skin symptoms and the same number of referents were selected for this study. The environmental electric and magnetic fields in the office as well as electromagnetic fields associated with the VDT at the workplace were measured, The aim of this part of the project was to explore the role of the measured electromagnetic parameters in relation to skin symptoms. For most of the measured parameters there was no difference between cases and referents. However, more cases than referents were found in the highest exposure group for two of the measured parameters. Fm the background electric field in the mom the relative risk in terms of crude odds ratio (OR) was 3.0 (95% CI: 1.2-7.2) for the high exposed group (greater than or equal to 31 V/m) compared with the lowest group (less than or equal to 10 V/m). The same comparison for the magnetic field in the ELF-range (greater than or equal to 0.30 mu T vs less than or equal to 0.145 mu T) in front of the VDT gave an OR of 2.7(95% CI: 1.0-6.9).

  • 45.
    Sandström, Monica
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Johansson, Amanda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Wilén, Jonna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences.
    Hansson Mild, Kjell
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences.
    Karlsson, Berndt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Arbetare med medicinska implantat: vägledning vid återgång i arbete i miljöer som innebär exponering för elektromagnetiska fält2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Allt fler personer bär idag någon form av medicinska implantat. Det kan varaaktiva implantat som pacemakers eller passiva som exempelvis knä eller höftprotes.Återgång till arbetsliv är normalt inget problem, men i vissa yrken kandet kompliceras av den miljö som arbetaren vistas i. Exponering för elektromagnetiskafält, från statiska fält upp till och med mikrovågsområdet, kan påverkasåväl aktiva som passiva implantat. Felfunktion hos implantatet, elektrostimuleringav närliggande nerver och muskler och upphettning av närliggande vävnadär exempel på sådan oönskad påverkan.

    Det ställs idag höga krav på störtålighet hos implanterbar medicinteknisk utrustning.Trots detta finns det en rad situationer där oönskad påverkan kan ske.Individfaktorer, arbetssätt och inte minst att varje utrustning kan sägas varaunik, bidrar till svårigheten att ge generella råd.

    I den riskbedömning som arbetsgivaren är ålagd att utföra enligt arbetsmiljölagenska hänsyn tas till personer med speciella behov, exempelvis personermed olika typer av implantat.

    Vilka som är involverade i riskbedömningen och hur omfattande den bör varaberor på vilken typ av implantat och vilken typ av arbete det gäller. Väsentligtär att såväl medicinsk som teknisk kompetens bör delta i riskbedömningen. Vadgäller störtåligheten för ett specifikt implantat så är tillverkarna av implantatende som bäst kan bistå med information. Riskbedömningen bör inkludera följandemoment:

    Typ av implantat och dess känslighet för yttre påverkan samt medicinskakonsekvenser av felfunktion;Identifiera möjliga källor för påverkan på arbetsplatsen;Sammanställning och analys av insamlad data;Slutsatser och råd om hur arbetet lämpligast ska utformas och utföras;Uppföljande kontroll, speciellt viktigt vid ändrade arbetsuppgifter ellerinförande av nya moment.

  • 46.
    Sandström, Monica
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. National Institute for Working Life, Umeå, Sweden.
    Lyskov, Eugene
    Institute of the Human Brain, St Petersburg, Russia.
    Berglund, André
    National Institute for Working Life, Umeå, Sweden.
    Medvedev, Sviatoslav
    Institute of the Human Brain, St Petersburg, Russia.
    Hansson Mild, Kjell
    National Institute for Working Life, Umeå, Sweden.
    Neurophysiological effects of flickering light in patients with perceived electrical hypersensitivity1997In: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, ISSN 1076-2752, E-ISSN 1536-5948, Vol. 39, no 1, p. 15-22Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An increasing number of people in Sweden are claiming that they are hypersensitive to electricity, These patients suffer from shin as well as neurological symptoms when they are near computer monitors, fluorescent tubes, or other electrical appliances, Provocation studies with electromagnetic fields emitted from these appliances have, with only one exception, all been negative, indicating that there are other factors in the office environment that can effect the autonomic and/or central nervous system resulting in the symptoms reported, Flickering light is one such factor and was therefore chosen as the exposure parameter in this study, Ten patients complaining of electrical hypersensitivity and the same number of healthy voluntary control subjects were exposed to amplitude-modulated light, The sensitivity of the brain to this type of visual stimulation was tested by means of objective electrophysiological methods such as electroretinography and visual evoked potential, A higher amplitude of brain cortical responses at all frequencies of stimulation was found when comparing patients with the control subjects, whereas no differences in retinal responses were revealed.

  • 47.
    Sundström, Henrik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences.
    Hansson Mild, Kjell
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences.
    Wilen, Jonna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences.
    Measurements of the Ripple Effect and Geometric Distribution of Switched Gradient Fields Inside a Magnetic Resonance Scanner2015In: Bioelectromagnetics, ISSN 0197-8462, E-ISSN 1521-186X, Vol. 36, no 2, p. 162-168Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Knowledge of patient exposure during magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) procedures is limited, and the need for such knowledge has been demonstrated in recent in vitro and in vivo studies of the genotoxic effects of MRI. This study focuses on the dB/dt of the switched gradient field (SGF) and its geometric distribution. These values were characterized by measuring the peak dB/dt generated by a programmed gradient current of alternating triangles inside a 1.5T MR scanner. The maximum dB/dt exposure to the gradient field was 6-14T/s, and this occurred at the edges of the field of view (FOV) 20-25cm from the isocenter in the longitudinal direction. The dB/dt exposure dropped off to roughly half the maximum (3-7T/s) at the edge of the bore. It was found that the dB/dt of the SGF was distorted by a 200kHz ripple arising from the amplifier. The ripple is small in terms of B-field, but the high frequency content contributes to a peak dB/dt up to 18 times larger than that predicted by the slew rate (4T/sm) and the distance from the isocenter. Measurements on a 3T MRI scanner, however, revealed a much smaller filtered ripple of 100kHz in dB/dt. These findings suggest that the gradient current to each coil together with information on the geometrical distribution of the gradient field and ripple effects could be used to assess the SGF exposure within an MRI bore.

  • 48.
    Söderqvist, Fredrik
    et al.
    Department of Oncology, University Hospital, SE-701 82 Örebro, Sweden.
    Carlberg, Michael
    Department of Oncology, University Hospital, SE-701 82 Örebro, Sweden.
    Hansson Mild, Kjell
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Radiation Physics.
    Hardell, Lennart
    Department of Oncology, University Hospital, SE-701 82 Örebro, Sweden.
    Childhood brain tumour risk and its association with wireless phones: a commentary2011In: Environmental health, ISSN 1476-069X, E-ISSN 1476-069X, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 106-119Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Case-control studies on adults point to an increased risk of brain tumours (glioma and acoustic neuroma) associated with the long-term use of mobile phones. Recently, the first study on mobile phone use and the risk of brain tumours in children and adolescents, CEFALO, was published. It has been claimed that this relatively small study yielded reassuring results of no increased risk. We do not agree. We consider that the data contain several indications of increased risk, despite low exposure, short latency period, and limitations in the study design, analyses and interpretation. The information certainly cannot be used as reassuring evidence against an association, for reasons that we discuss in this commentary.

  • 49. Söderqvist, Fredrik
    et al.
    Carlberg, Michael
    Hansson Mild, Kjell
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Radiation Sciences, Radiation Physics.
    Hardell, Lennart
    Exposure to an 890-MHz mobile phone-like signal and serum levels of S100B and transthyretin in volunteers.2009In: Toxicology Letters, ISSN 0378-4274, E-ISSN 1879-3169, Vol. 189, no 1, p. 63-6Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Whether low-intensity non-thermal microwave radiation alters the integrity of the blood-brain barrier has been debated since the late 1970s, yet no experimental study has been carried out on humans. The aim of this study was to test, using peripheral markers, whether exposure to a mobile phone-like signal alters the integrity of the human blood-brain and blood-cerebrospinal fluid barriers. A provocation study was carried out that exposed 41 volunteers to a 30 min GSM 890 MHz signal with an average specific energy absorption rate distribution of 1.0 W/kg in the temporal area of the head as measured over any 1g of contiguous tissue. The outcome was assessed by changes in serum concentrations of two putative markers of brain barrier integrity, S100B and transthyretin. Repeated blood sampling before and after the provocation showed no statistically significant increase in the serum levels of S100B, while for transthyretin a statistically significant increase was seen in the final blood sample 60 min after the end of the provocation as compared to the prior sample taken immediately after provocation (p=0.02). The clinical significance of this finding, if any, is unknown. Further randomized studies with use of additional more brain specific markers are needed.

  • 50. Söderqvist, Fredrik
    et al.
    Hardell, Lennart
    Carlberg, Michael
    Hansson Mild, Kjell
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Radiation Physics.
    Radiofrequency fields, transthyretin, and Alzheimer's disease2010In: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease, ISSN 1387-2877, E-ISSN 1875-8908, ISSN Online 1875-8908, Vol. 20, no 2, p. 599-606Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Radiofrequency field (RF) exposure provided cognitive benefits in an animal study. In Alzheimer's disease (AD) mice, exposure reduced brain amyloid-beta (Abeta) deposition through decreased aggregation of Abeta and increase in soluble Abeta levels. Based on our studies on humans on RF from wireless phones, we propose that transthyretin (TTR) might explain the findings. In a cross-sectional study on 313 subjects, we used serum TTR as a marker of cerebrospinal fluid TTR. We found a statistically significantly positive beta coefficient for TTR for time since first use of mobile phones and desktop cordless phones combined (P=0.03). The electromagnetic field parameters were similar for the phone types. In a provocation study on 41 persons exposed for 30 min to an 890-MHz GSM signal with specific absorption rate of 1.0 Watt/kg to the temporal area of the brain, we found statistically significantly increased serum TTR 60 min after exposure. In our cross-sectional study, use of oral snuff also yielded statistically significantly increased serum TTR concentrations and nicotine has been associated with decreased risk for AD and to upregulate the TTR gene in choroid plexus but not in the liver, another source of serum TTR. TTR sequesters Abeta, thereby preventing the formation of Abeta plaques in the brain. Studies have shown that patients with AD have lowered TTR concentrations in the cerebrospinal fluid and have attributed the onset of AD to insufficient sequestering of Abeta by TTR. We propose that TTR might be involved in the findings of RF exposure benefit in AD mice.

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