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  • 1.
    Areljung, Sofie
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap.
    Att rita i NO-undervisningen2020Övrigt (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    Skolverkets presentation av moduldelen: 

    Elever får ofta rita som en del i NO-undervisningen. Den här delen ställer frågan varför eleverna ska rita och på vilket sätt ritande kan användas som utgångspunkt för samtal och för att introducera eleverna till naturvetenskaplig praktiker som observationer och experiment. Målet är att väcka tankar om närhur och varför det kan vara värdefullt för eleverna att rita och hur det kan kombineras med skrivande.

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  • 2.
    Areljung, Sofie
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturvetenskapernas och matematikens didaktik.
    Att undersöka fysikaliska fenomen och kemiska processer utifrån vardagsverb2015Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Det är vanligt att naturvetenskapsteman har namn i form av substantiv, som Skogen, Vatten, Svampar och Kroppen. Här presenteras idén att istället utgå från vardagsverb – som rulla, snurra, balansera, blanda och fastna – i undersökandet av naturvetenskapliga fenomen. Idén att utgå från verb har utvecklats i samarbete med ett pedagogiskt utvecklingscentrum och en förskola och de praktiska exemplen kommer från förskolans arbete med ”rulla, snurra” (fysik) och ”blanda” (kemi). Under presentationen behandlas frågor som: Hur får man fatt i fysikaliska fenomen och kemiska processer i barns samspel med omvärlden? Vilka frågor kan man ställa som blir praktiskt undersökningsbara? Hur kan man arbeta undersökande med flera estetiska uttryckssätt?

  • 3. Areljung, Sofie
    Barns ”working theories” (provisoriska förklaringsmodeller) om naturen och den sociala världen – en riskabel terräng?2015Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Begreppet ”working theories” härstammar från Nya Zeelands läroplan och rör barns provisoriska förklaringsmodeller för olika företeelser i omvärlden – både i den sociala världen och i naturen. Det kan gälla allt från barns idéer om hjärtats roll i kroppen och varför saker låter olika när man knackar på dem, till idéer om hur det går till när man går på bio eller hur en bra vän ska bete sig. ”Working theories” är en kombination av barns kunskaper, erfarenheter och fantasi och de utvecklas allteftersom barnen gör sig fler erfarenheter och ställs inför ny information.

    Denna presentation utgår från exempel från både svenska och nyzeeländska förskolor. Här lyfts möjliga fördelar med att använda ”working theories” som ett begrepp i arbetet med naturvetenskap i förskoleverksamheten och även hur olika risker kan påverka hur och när förskolans personal hanterar barns ”working theories”. Exempel på fördelar är att inte behöva sätta etikett på barns förklaringar som ”rätt” eller ”fel” eller att se ”faktabaserade resonemang” som oförenligt med kreativt tänkande och fantasi. Exempel på risker är: att riskera relationer i barngruppen, att etablera feluppfattningar hos barnen eller att riskera sin roll som ”Vetande vuxen” eller ”Konfliktlösande”. 

  • 4.
    Areljung, Sofie
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturvetenskapernas och matematikens didaktik. UmSER.
    Capturing the world with verbs: preschool science education beyond nouns and objects2020Ingår i: Contemporary Issues in Early Childhood, ISSN 1463-9491, E-ISSN 1463-9491, Vol. 21, nr 1, s. 70-82Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This article seeks to contribute new perspectives to the ontology and epistemology of preschool science education by exploring the idea of using everyday verbs, rather than nouns, to discern possibilities for science learning in preschool. Herein, the author merges empirical examples from preschools with findings from research on children's noun and verb learning and posthumanist perspectives on matter and concepts. What comes out of the exploration is a radical way of viewing and knowing the world. The verbs trigger a shift from an object-oriented view of the world to seeing action and non-tangible processes and phenomena in one's surroundings. Further, the verbs highlight the potential science learning that emerges in action and in child–matter relations, opening up to preschool science pedagogies that go beyond subjective/objective and concrete/abstract binaries.

  • 5.
    Areljung, Sofie
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturvetenskapernas och matematikens didaktik. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå centrum för genusstudier (UCGS).
    Children and teachers exploring physical phenomena and chemical processes through everyday verbs2015Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Our aim with this project is to facilitate inquiry-based science learning in preschool (school form for children aged 1-5 years). The project is conducted in a design-based form, where researcher and practitioners share the problem formulation. Models for teaching are developed in close relation to practice, through several action research cycles. This study ties to Sikder and Fleer’s (2014) research on young children’s developing knowledge in science through everyday concepts. Further, it draws on Lenz Taguchi and Hultman’s (2010) emphasis on children’s powerful relations to places and things. Data is collected through recorded project meetings as well as photos, movies and accounts from practice, and group interviews with teachers. This is analysed in relation to the research question: ''what are the characteristics of a model for teaching that facilitates inquiry-based science learning in preschool?''. We have informed the caretakers about the project and they have given their written consent to our recording children’s activities. Our main finding is the vast range of exploring phenomena in science that teachers have come up with by working with everyday verbs. Starting from verbs appear to help teachers in recognising the scientific phenomena involved in children's interplay with the physical world. Further, the verbs help in formulating questions that can be answered by scientific inquiry, such as: ''what factors are important for how something melts/rolls/blends/glides/sticks?''. Due to these results we aim to further develop the model of verb-based inquiry for the benefit of preservice and in-service teachers.

  • 6.
    Areljung, Sofie
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturvetenskapernas och matematikens didaktik.
    Creating environments for science in preschool: Five preschool educators and a researcher working on a design-based project2014Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 7.
    Areljung, Sofie
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturvetenskapernas och matematikens didaktik.
    How does matter matter in preschool science?2019Ingår i: Material practice and materiality: too long ignored in science education / [ed] Catherine Milne, Kathryn Scantlebury, Springer, 2019, s. 101-114Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter examines science practices in Swedish preschools (school form for children aged 1–5 years) in relation to three central themes in Karen Barad's agential realism: "non-human bodies as active agents", "intra-action" and "phenomena before things". Drawing on empirical material from my work with four preschools and one pedagogical development centre, I discuss how evening out hierarchies between human and non-human bodies could affect our thoughts about, and organisation of, science education in preschool. One example in the chapter shows how Barad's idea of regarding phenomena as the smallest onto-epistemological entity relates to teachers' using everyday verbs to identify physical phenomena and chemical processes in children's interplay with the surrounding world. I argue that shifting perspectives from viewing science learning as learning about the material world to learning together with the material world has the potential to empower teachers since it means that science knowledge is not detached from them but is embodied and personal. Evening out hierarchies between the human and non-human does not necessarily change views on science education in one sense – the physical world still in the centre – but in another sense, it does, as teachers and children are entangled with the knowledges produced.

  • 8.
    Areljung, Sofie
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturvetenskapernas och matematikens didaktik. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå centrum för genusstudier (UCGS).
    How does matter matter in preschool science?Manuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter explores the implications, for science education, of acknowledging matter as an agentic factor in preschool (Swedish educational setting for children aged 1 to 5 years). Reading empirical data from preschool settings together with Karen Barad’s agential realism, five examples are brought forward to address different aspects of how matter matters to science learning and teaching. These examples include how the ground and time of year matter to the scope of science learning possibilities, how friction and balance emerges in intra-action of a wooden bridge and children, and how modes of expression other than verbal language can be used to extend children’s experiences of rolling. The implications for science teaching are discussed based on the assumption that teacher power matters to what parts of the material world that children have real access to, and what type of intra-actions that are meaningful in preschool settings.

  • 9.
    Areljung, Sofie
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturvetenskapernas och matematikens didaktik.
    Miljöer för naturvetenskap i förskolan2014Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 10.
    Areljung, Sofie
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap.
    Naturvetenskapsverb2020Övrigt (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    Skolverkets presentation av moduldelen:

    Substantiv som vatten och is är ofta utgångspunkt för undervisning i naturvetenskap. Den här delen handlar om hur man kan få syn på naturvetenskapliga processer och fenomen i vardagen genom att istället ha verb som smälta och stelna som startskott för praktiska undersökningar som både utvecklar elevernas kunskaper i naturvetenskap och deras språk. 

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  • 11.
    Areljung, Sofie
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturvetenskapernas och matematikens didaktik. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå centrum för genusstudier (UCGS).
    Relocalisations and renegotiations: framing a project about science in preschool2016Ingår i: Narratives of doctoral studies in science education: making the transition from educational practitioner to researcher / [ed] Shirley Simon, Christina Ottander, and Ilka Parchmann, Routledge, 2016, s. 19-30Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The chapter covers my first year of doctoral studies. I reflect on how my experience as a school science teacher comes into play when researching science practice in preschool (children aged 1-5 years). The chapter exposes how literature, a pilot study, and my participation in a larger research project and two graduate schools, have been woven into each other in the framing of my doctoral project. Further it shows why I have refined my research project in order to include the physical environment as an important aspect of science practice in preschool.

  • 12.
    Areljung, Sofie
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturvetenskapernas och matematikens didaktik.
    Science verbs as a tool for investigating scientific phenomena: a pedagogical idea emerging from practitioner-researcher collaboration2016Ingår i: NorDiNa: Nordic Studies in Science Education, ISSN 1504-4556, E-ISSN 1894-1257, Vol. 12, nr 2, s. 235-245Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper communicates the pedagogical idea of approaching scientific phenomena through verbs. The idea has sprung from a collaboration between preschool practitioners and a researcher, addressing science education in preschool (children aged 1-5 years). Drawing on a joint problem inventory, the project group aimed to create a teaching model that supports inquiry-oriented approaches to science, and teachers’ ability of distinguishing chemical processes and physics phenomena in everyday practice. The core idea of the teaching model turned out to be a list of everyday verbs, connected to scientific phenomena. Starting from verbs appear to help teachers to recognise the scientific phenomena in everyday practice. Further, the verbs guide the formulating of questions that can be answered by scientific inquiry, such as: ''what matters to how something melts/rolls/mixes?''.

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  • 13.
    Areljung, Sofie
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap.
    Science-Arts as Verbs: New Figurations in Early Childhood2019Ingår i: Why Science and Art Creativities Matter: (Re-)Configuring STEAM for Future-making Education / [ed] Pamela Burnard & Laura Colucci-Gray, Brill | Sense , 2019, s. 148-165Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter examines how STEAM education may transform education in the STEM subjects towards education for a sustainable future. Particularly, it examines the potential of combining science and arts in preschool practice (children aged 1–5 years) for the sake of fostering sustainable knowing and being in the world. Here, it pursues the idea that everyday science verbs (e.g., rolling, bouncing and sticking) may be referents for children–matter relations in which science learning and creativity emerge. The chapter includes two stories from a collaboration with preschool teachers who have implemented verb-based science-arts education in practice. In one story, the verbs “sprout and grow” were combined with painting and drama, and in the other story, the verb “shade” (to cast a shadow) was combined with music, dancing and painting. Grounded in Edvin Østergaard’s plea to make more room for aesthetic experience in science education, in Barbara McClintock’s scientific creativity and “feeling for the organism”, and in Karen Barad’s agential realism, the chapter portrays examples of science-arts education that allow children to be intensely involved in the world. It concludes that the arts may help children not only to communicate and explore science phenomena, but also to sympathise with nature’s goings on from within; from their own multifaceted experiences of what it is like to cast a shadow, sprout and grow.

  • 14.
    Areljung, Sofie
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturvetenskapernas och matematikens didaktik. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå centrum för genusstudier (UCGS).
    Toddlers exploring natural phenomena with teachers as co-researchers2015Ingår i: 25th conference of EECERA (European Early Childhood Education Research Association), Barcelona, Spain, 7th-11th September, 2015: abstract book, 2015, s. 329-Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to describe and examine the teachers' strategies when it comes to science education for the youngest children (aged 1-2 years).The study relates to Klaar’s and Öhman’s (2012) research on toddler’s physical, non-verbal, experiences of phenomena in science. Further the study draws on the concept “emergent science” that has been promoted by Siraj-Blatchford (2001) to frame a science education for the youngest that includes providing children with a range of experiences, with phenomena and material. Siraj-Blatchford argues that these experiences are essential to later understanding of scientific explanations. The analysis is based on observations of preschool practice, video recordings, field notes, individual interviews with teachers and a video-stimulated focus group interview with all teachers working in the preschool unit. We have informed the caretakers about the project and they have given their written consent to our recording children’s activities. The main finding of this study is the teachers’ “co-researching” strategies: their holding on to children’s discoveries, their helping children to draw attention to finite parts of the world (such as focusing on the sound of walking on snow), their making way for comparisons (such as the difference between blowing dry and wet autumn leaves away from the palm of your hand), and their ways of interpreting children’s non-oral actions in terms of reasoning and drawing conclusions about relationships in nature. Thereby, the results give important contributions to the field of science education for the youngest children and to what non-verbal science learning could be.

    Klaar, Susanne, & Öhman, Johan. (2012). Action with Friction: A Transactional Approach to Toddlers' Physical Meaning Making of Natural Phenomena and Processes in Preschool. European Early Childhood Education Research Journal, 20(3), 439-454. doi: 10.1080/1350293X.2012.704765

    Siraj-Blatchford, J. (2001). Emergent Science and Technology in the Early Years. Paper presented at the XXIII World Congress of OMEP, Santiago, Chile.

  • 15.
    Areljung, Sofie
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturvetenskapernas och matematikens didaktik. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå centrum för genusstudier (UCGS).
    Utanför experimentlådan: kunskapsproduktion, tid och materia i förskolans naturvetenskapsundervisning2017Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this thesis is to contribute knowledge on conditions for science teaching in preschool. While Swedish preschool practices commonly build on children’s subjective experiences, scientific knowledge production is often associated with objectivity and detachedness. Seen from that perspective, tensions may occur when the knowledge cultures of preschool and science meet, as when science teaching is implemented in preschool. This thesis seeks to explore issues that are crucial for teachers to negotiate when they implement science teaching in preschool.

    The thesis includes five articles that build on empirical data in the form of teachers’ talk (interviews, focus group discussion, project meetings) and observation data from preschool practice. The data analyses draw on various theoretical perspectives, including communities of practice and feminist critique of science as well as theoretical concepts connected to framing and agential realism.

    The main result is that it is crucial, to teachers’ implementation of science teaching in preschool, that science content is open to children’s contributions. Further, the results show that teachers integrate several different forms of knowledge production when working with science content in practice. For example, observations and systematic investigations are combined with imagination and children’s bodily experiences. This goes against the presumed tensions between the knowledge cultures of preschool and science. However, tensions between the knowledge cultures are indicated by teachers’ unwillingness to interfere with children’s investigative processes or ideas about science content by relating children’s ideas to scientific explanatory models. Seen from a teacher’s perspective, it appears to be unproblematic to leave children’s ideas about science content unresolved, compared to leaving children’s ideas about social relations and other content unresolved.

    Drawing on the results, I discuss teaching beyond the limited material and temporal dimensions of the science box, which emerges as a metaphor when teachers describe a way of teaching that they are not comfortable with. Further, I suggest that the concept working theories, which addresses children’s tentative ideas about relations in their surrounding world, be introduced in preschool science teaching, to ease the perceived conflict between children’s ideas about science and scientific explanatory models.

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  • 16.
    Areljung, Sofie
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturvetenskapernas och matematikens didaktik. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå centrum för genusstudier (UCGS).
    Why do teachers adopt or resist a pedagogical idea for teaching science in preschool?2019Ingår i: International Journal of Early Years Education, ISSN 0966-9760, E-ISSN 1469-8463, Vol. 27, nr 3, s. 238-253Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Numerous initiatives are carried out across the world to support science teaching in early childhood education. However, professional development research shows that in order for teaching interventions to bring about successful changes in practice, it is key that teacher’s beliefs, confidence and knowledge change. As a complement to studies showing how teachers change, this article examines why teachers adopt a pedagogical idea for teaching science in preschool. Drawing on Clarke and Hollingsworth’s model for teacher professional growth, the article analyses interviews with teachers that have implemented and developed a pedagogical idea for teaching science in preschool. The results indicate that teachers adopt the pedagogical idea because it helps them to discern and build on science content in everyday practice, which they prefer to their previous way of teaching science through occasional experiments. Further the results show that teachers balance several external influences on what is good preschool pedagogy. The particular pedagogical idea eases that balancing act since it aligns with, and helps teachers to make meaning of, many of these influences.

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  • 17.
    Areljung, Sofie
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturvetenskapernas och matematikens didaktik. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå centrum för genusstudier (UCGS). Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap. UmSER.
    Due, Karin
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturvetenskapernas och matematikens didaktik.
    Ottander, Christina
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturvetenskapernas och matematikens didaktik.
    Skoog, Marianne
    Örebro universitet.
    Sundberg, Bodil
    Örebro universitet.
    The role of children’s drawings in science teaching: A comparison across preschool, preschool class and early primary school2018Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Particularly since many children in early childhood education (ECE) (education for children from birth to 8 years) do not yet write, teachers and researchers tend to use children’s drawings to assess their developing science learning. Previous studies show that children’s choices on what to include in their drawings are affected by local cultures of what constitutes a good representation. However, there is a lack of studies that focus on the teacher perspective, in terms of why and how they include drawing activities in their science teaching. Further, there are currently no studies that compare the role of drawings in science teaching across ECE sectors. The study is part of a larger study which aims to to advance our understanding of how to bridge science teaching across ECE sectors (preschool, preschool class, early primary school). Here, our specific aim is to examine how educational cultures of different ECE sectors interact with teacher’s objectives for using children’s drawings in science activities. We use Activity Theory to analyse field data (notes, photos, videos) from science activities that include children’s drawings, as well as recordings from group discussions with teachers. First, we focus on the relation between the purpose of the activity, the tools used, the local educational culture, and the outcome of each activity. Second, we compare our results across ECE sectors. Our preliminary results indicate that the purpose of drawing activities vary across sectors. In preschool, children’s drawings may serve to tell stories, while in early primary school, drawings may serve as a part of observation practice or to display children’s understandings of science concepts. The results are discussed in relation to children’s transitions between educational cultures, and whether teachers should explicitly scaffold scientific drawing in ECE.

  • 18.
    Areljung, Sofie
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturvetenskapernas och matematikens didaktik. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå centrum för genusstudier (UCGS).
    Kelly-Ware, Janette
    Faculty of Education, Te Oranga School of Human Development and Movement Studies, University of Waikato, New Zealand.
    Navigating the risky terrain of children's working theories2017Ingår i: Early years, ISSN 0957-5146, E-ISSN 1472-4421, Vol. 37, nr 4, s. 370-385Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    'Working theories' encompass children's theorising about the social and material worlds. This article looks explicitly at power relations involved in pedagogy around children's working theories by focusing on the teacher's control of what and whose working theories get unpacked and extended. From an analysis of four cases from early childhood education (ECE) settings, it is concluded that teaching strategies are related to possible risks of unpacking and extending children's working theories. From a teacher's perspective such risks include: undermining the ECE setting's rules; exposing one's own lack of knowledge or skills; or risking the relations and atmosphere in the group or setting. These risks affect how working theories are dealt with in terms of time – right away, later or never – and voicing, as teachers regulate children's ideas for example through making concrete, reconstructing or silencing them.

  • 19.
    Areljung, Sofie
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap.
    Kelly-Ware, Janette P.
    The Risks of Reification: Using 'Professional Risk' to Understand Why and How Teachers Choose to Document (Some of) Children’s Ideas and Actions2020Ingår i: Documentation in Institutional Contexts of Early Childhood: Normalisation, Participation and Professionalism / [ed] Maarit Alasuutari, Helga Kelle, Helen Knauf, Wiesbaden: Springer, 2020, s. 187-204Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter sets out to make a practical contribution to the discussion on power relations involved in documentation in early childhood education [ECE]. We suggest ‘professional risk’ as a key concept to understand why and how teachers materialise some of children’s actions and comments in various forms of documentation. The chapter builds on stories of two ECE settings—one Swedish preschool where a science project was documented as a public wall display, and one New Zealand kindergarten where a project about fairness and inclusion was documented in a variety of Learnings Stories in individual children’s portfolios. Our results indicate that the ideals of the ECE setting are likely to govern what teachers choose to document as examples of learning and behaviour. The two cases also highlight that topic matters. It may be riskier for teachers to document children’s ideas about socially sensitive topics like inclusion, compared to documenting children’s ideas about science. Furthermore, the cases indicate that form matters. For example, the narrative credit-based assessment form of a Learning Story seems to steer teachers to await a positive situation, where children’s actions fit with the notion of what is acceptable behaviour in the ECE setting, before they document children’s learning.

  • 20.
    Areljung, Sofie
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturvetenskapernas och matematikens didaktik. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå centrum för genusstudier (UCGS).
    Ottander, Christina
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturvetenskapernas och matematikens didaktik.
    Due, Karin
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturvetenskapernas och matematikens didaktik.
    "Drawing the leaves anyway": teachers embracing children's different ways of knowing in preschool science practice2017Ingår i: Research in science education, ISSN 0157-244X, E-ISSN 1573-1898, Vol. 47, nr 6, s. 1173-1192Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores if and how teachers combine practices of science and of preschool (children 1–5 years old) into preschool science practice. Views of knowing may differ between science practices, traditionally associated with masculinity and rationality, and preschool practices, traditionally associated with femininity and caring. Recognising this, wehave chosen to focus on how teachers’ talk constructs and relates to possible ways of gaining knowledge and reaching explanations of phenomena in preschool science. The analysis buildson two concept pairs often associated with gender as well as knowing: objective-subjective and logical-intuitive. The analysed material consists of 11 group interviews where preschool teachers talk about activities concerning science content. Our results show that several ways of knowing are possible in work with science content in preschool. These include ways of knowing more associated with subjectivity, such as ‘individual liking’ and ‘whole-body perception’, as well as more associated with objectivity, such as ‘noticing differences and similarities’. Furthermore, the results show that the teachers’ talk moves readily between possibilities associated with femininity (subjective and intuitive) and masculinity (objective and logical). This indicates that the teachers in this study have found ways to handle science in preschool that goes against presumed tensions between science and preschool practices. The results contribute to more nuanced ways of describing and thinking about science in preschool and pave the way for further development of science education in early childhood education.

  • 21.
    Areljung, Sofie
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturvetenskapernas och matematikens didaktik.
    Ottander, Christina
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturvetenskapernas och matematikens didaktik.
    Due, Karin
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturvetenskapernas och matematikens didaktik.
    “Traditional” Science Renegotiated?: Examining Teachers’ Understandings of Science for Preschool Practice2014Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 22.
    Areljung, Sofie
    et al.
    UmSER.
    Sundberg, Bodil
    Örebro universitet.
    Potential for multi-dimensional teaching for 'emergent scientific literacy' in pre-school practice2018Ingår i: Journal of Emergent Science, ISSN 2046-4754, E-ISSN 2046-4754, Vol. 15, s. 20-27Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    How can pre-school teachers form science teaching in a landscape of increasing focus on academically oriented learning outcomes, without losing the unique character of pre-school pedagogies? Seeking to contribute to the discussion of what pre-school science can be, we have analysed data from activities in fourteen Swedish pre-schools (for children aged 1-5 years), to examine if and how multi-dimensional teaching may be combined with teaching for scientific literacy.The overall picture is that elements of ‘emergent scientific literacy' can be combined with a wide range of teaching dimensions, such as empathy, fantasy and storytelling.These results contribute important perspectives to what pre-school science can be and how it can be researched in a way that is suitable for the preschool’s conditions.We suggest our analytical questions, and the dimensions displayed in our results, as a tool for teachers who plan or evaluate science teaching in the early years.

  • 23.
    Areljung, Sofie
    et al.
    Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Sundberg, Bodil
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Potential for multi-dimensional teaching for 'emergent scientific literacy' in pre-school practice2018Ingår i: Journal of Emergent Science, ISSN 2046-4754, E-ISSN 2046-4754, Vol. 15, s. 20-27Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    How can pre-school teachers form science teaching in a landscape of increasing focus on academically oriented learning outcomes, without losing the unique character of pre-school pedagogies? Seeking to contribute to the discussion of what pre-school science can be, we have analysed data from activities in fourteen Swedish pre-schools (for children aged 1-5 years), to examine if and how multi-dimensional teaching may be combined with teaching for scientific literacy. The overall picture is that elements of ‘emergent scientific literacy' can be combined with a wide range of teaching dimensions, such as empathy, fantasy and storytelling. These results contribute important perspectives to what pre-school science can be and how it can be researched in a way that is suitable for the preschool’s conditions. We suggest our analytical questions, and the dimensions displayed in our results, as a tool for teachers who plan or evaluate science teaching in the early years.

  • 24.
    Colucci-Gray, Laura
    et al.
    University of Aberdeen.
    Ostergaard, Edvin
    Norwegian University of Life Science.
    Erik, Fooladi
    Volda University College.
    Areljung, Sofie
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturvetenskapernas och matematikens didaktik. UmSER; Örebro universitet.
    Hetherington, Lindsey
    University of Exeter.
    Chappell, Kerry
    University of Exeter.
    Ruck-Keene, Hermione
    University of Exeter.
    Wren, Heather
    University of Exeter.
    STEAM (STEM+Arts): A collective inquiry into potential and limitations of ‘A’ as aesthetics and art-forms in science and technology education vis-à-vis a sustainable future.2018Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    ‘STEAM education’, also known as the addition of 'arts' to STEM subjects, is a newly emerging concept in science education. While responding to the economic drivers which characterise STEM, engaging the Arts may serve to broaden science learning through inter and trans- disciplinary relationships, across a range of contexts and modes of inquiry (Colucci-Gray et al., 2017). Such approach is in line with the growing body of literature in sustainability science, seeking to expand participation in a shared, and unfolding future by encouraging cross-fertilisation between different domains of knowledge, languages, and experiences of the world, which are fundamentally embodied. To this aim, specific attention here is paid to aesthetics and art forms as modes of knowing engaging sensorial and affective dimensions, as they may be deployed across the sciences, arts, and crafts. In this view, complementary approaches to knowing the world may be brought together; for example, to promote deeper understanding of scientific concepts and practices in science, but also to overcome the limitations of cognitivist approaches, by re-appraising the multiplicity of the body’s intra-actions with the material context. Through such dialogue, a variety of epistemological positions may be explored. One which follows the linear trajectory of knowledge accumulation presupposes a reality ‘out there’, amenable to discovery and prediction. Another conception examines verbal and non-verbal language in giving visibility to our actions and perception of the world. Knowledge is relational and agentic, arising in continuity with tools, mind, and body (Barad, 2007). Finally, recognition of complexity of socio-environmental conditions and our inextricable dependence upon the Earth, calls for awareness of oneself in continuous, affective relationship with an ever-changing context (Kagan, 2011). Drawing on such multiplicity, this symposium will explore the potential and limitations of STEAM for a science education vis-à-vis a sustainable future.

  • 25.
    Due, Karin
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturvetenskapernas och matematikens didaktik.
    Tellgren, Britt
    Örebro universitet.
    Areljung, Sofie
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturvetenskapernas och matematikens didaktik.
    Analysing preschool teachers' talk about science activities: focusing perceptions of science for preschool from two different analytical perspectives2014Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 26.
    Due, Karin
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturvetenskapernas och matematikens didaktik.
    Tellgren, Britt
    örebro universitet.
    Areljung, Sofie
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturvetenskapernas och matematikens didaktik. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap.
    Ottander, Christina
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturvetenskapernas och matematikens didaktik.
    Sundberg, Bodil
    Örebro univ, NT-akademin.
    Inte som i skolan - pedagoger positionerar naturvetenskap i förskolan: Preschool teachers talk about science – Positioning themselves and positioning science2018Ingår i: NorDiNa: Nordic Studies in Science Education, ISSN 1504-4556, E-ISSN 1894-1257, Vol. 14, nr 4, s. 411-426Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This article discusses how preschool teachers, who include a scientific content in their practice, describe their practice and their view of science in preschool. The study is based on 20 interviews in 9 Swedish preschools. The theoretical and analytical framework combine "communities of practice"(Lave & Wenger) and "positioning theory" (Harré & Langehove). The stories reveal a strong position for the pre-school curriculum and traditions. A prominent storyline is that Science in preschool is something different from science in school. This includes an anti-authoritarian view with a focus on "the competent child". The preschool teachers affirm fantasy, creativity and intuition as a part of science and they position science as easy to access. They also position themselves as pedagogues competent to manage science in preschool. One of the dilemmas is about letting children’s interests and initiatives drive the activities while educators curriculum- based goals have certain intentions to fulfill.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 27.
    Ottander, Christina
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturvetenskapernas och matematikens didaktik.
    Due, Karin
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturvetenskapernas och matematikens didaktik.
    Areljung, Sofie
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturvetenskapernas och matematikens didaktik.
    Sundberg, Bodil
    Örebro univ, NT-akademin.
    Tellgren, Britt
    örebro universitet.
    Understanding Preschool Emergent Science in a Cultural Historical Context through Activity Theory2014Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to explore how cultural factors interact with preschool teachers’ shaping of activities with science content, and also how Activity Theory (AT) as a theoretical framework can be useful for examining interrelations within preschool systems. Qualitative data was collected from nine different preschools in the form of interviews with preschool teachers, observations of activities and stimulated recall discussions based on the recorded practices. Activity Theory (AT) was used as the theoretical framework for the analysis. The preschools displayed diverse approaches for experiencing and learning science, some with great creativity. In all preschools learning was integrated with care, upbringing and play. To support children’s interest and confidence was central. How science activities were shaped mainly depended on how children's interests were allowed to govern practice. The use of AT as an analytical tool was proven to be effective in identifying the elements, relationships and tensions crucial for understanding the framing of science activities.

  • 28.
    Silfver, Eva
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturvetenskapernas och matematikens didaktik.
    Areljung, Sofie
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturvetenskapernas och matematikens didaktik.
    Hentschel, Linn
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för estetiska ämnen i lärarutbildningen.
    Rantala, Anna
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap.
    Björk, Åsa
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap.
    Rummets makt: om normer i skolpraktikens olika rum2014Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 29.
    Sundberg, Bodil
    et al.
    School of Science and Technology, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Areljung, Sofie
    UmSER; School of Science and Technology, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Due, Karin
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturvetenskapernas och matematikens didaktik. UmSER.
    Ekström, Kenneth
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap.
    Ottander, Christina
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturvetenskapernas och matematikens didaktik. UmSER.
    Tellgren, Britt
    School of Science and Technology, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Opportunities for and obstacles to science in preschools: views from a community perspective2018Ingår i: International Journal of Science Education, ISSN 0950-0693, E-ISSN 1464-5289, Vol. 40, nr 17, s. 2061-2077Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, Activity Theory (AT) is used to analyse general patterns for how cultural and historical factors interact with the shaping of science activities in preschools. Data was produced from field notes, video observations, video stimulated recall group discussions and individual interviews with preschool teachers at fourteen preschool units, where science activities were described as a common feature of the practice. Two factors were found to be particularly important for how and whether science learning opportunities were afforded the children: the structure of the preschool community and the type of educational culture within it. In communities characterised by weak mutual commitment and without joint understanding of the purpose of the activities, the science learning objects of the activity often became fragmented and thereby elusive. This was also true for strong communities, with a shared approach and a joint understanding of the purpose of the science activities, but with educational cultures where science learning was not actively supported. In contrast, a strong community combined with an educational culture that allowed teachers to lead and intentionally frame the science content, offered child-centred science activities with clear science learning objects.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 30.
    Sundberg, Bodil
    et al.
    Örebro universitet.
    Areljung, Sofie
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturvetenskapernas och matematikens didaktik.
    Due, Karin
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturvetenskapernas och matematikens didaktik.
    Ekström, Kenneth
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap.
    Ottander, Christina
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturvetenskapernas och matematikens didaktik.
    Tellgren, Britt
    Örebro universitet.
    Understanding preschool emergent science in a cultural historical context through Activity Theory2016Ingår i: European Early Childhood Education Research Journal, ISSN 1350-293X, E-ISSN 1752-1807, Vol. 24, nr 4, s. 567-580Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to explore how cultural factors interact with preschool teachers’ shaping of activities with science content, and also how Activity Theory (AT) as a theoretical framework can be useful for examining interrelations within preschool systems. Qualitative data was collected from three preschools in the form of guided group discussions with preschool teachers, observations and video recordings of activities, and stimulated recall discussions based on the recorded practices. The preschools displayed diverse approaches for experiencing and learning science, some with great creativity. In all preschools learning was integrated with care, upbringing and play. To support children’s interest and confidence was central. How science activities were shaped mainly depended on how children’s interests were allowed to govern practice. The use of AT as an analytical tool was proven to be effective in identifying the elements, relationships and tensions crucial for understanding the framing of science activities. 

  • 31.
    Sundberg, Bodil
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Areljung, Sofie
    Department of Applied Educational Science, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Due, Karin
    Department of Science and Mathematics Education, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Ottander, Christina
    Department of Science and Mathematics Education, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Skoog, Marianne
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för humaniora, utbildnings- och samhällsvetenskap.
    Exploring science teaching continuity across ECE sectors: How do the teachers in different school forms deal with the same content?2019Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In our project we seek to contribute with new knowledge about pedagogical (dis-)continuities in early childhood science. In this presentation we explore how the same science content is carried out in different ECE school forms, and how different local early childhood educational cultures may give opportunities or become obstacles for science teaching continuities. Our data was collected in three Swedish school units, each comprising at least one preschool, one preschool class and one class from the first three grades of primary school. Classroom observations of science activities were performed at 44 occasions. Activity Theory was used to describe how the teachers in different school forms deal with the same content and how their teaching is affected by local educational cultures.

    Across the school forms there was a gradual shift from science learning through nature encounters and ‘doing’ towards an emphasis on concepts, facts, processes and inquiry. Tools for communicating about the subject also gradually shifted, from verbal communication and creative activities towards subject-focused drawing, writing, and reading. Subject continuity was above all ensured by the teacher’s sensitivity to the children’s former experiences, taking it into account when planning the science activities. The overall picture is one of gradual changes of science teaching across early year’s school forms. The bridge for continuity in a specific subject area is however fragile, since it is the children, rather than the teachers or the organization, who become the primary carriers of continuity. This calls for considering how to construct meeting opportunities for teachers, in order to better communicate and adapt their science teaching to what children have or will experience.

    INTRODUCTION

    Internationally, the growing attention towards the benefits of an early start for children has resulted in an increased public spending on early childhood education (ECE) (OECD 2017). The growing attention is also reflected in a rapid expansion of the research field of early year’s science (defined as science activities for children between 0 and 8 years of age). To our knowledge there are however no studies of pedagogical continuities in early childhood science. In our project we seek to contribute with new knowledge within this particular field.

    Pedagogical (dis) -continuities across educational cultures

    A growing number of ECE research suggests that the benefits of increasing public spending on ECE may disappear during the first years of primary school due to pedagogical discontinuities (OECD 2017). One potential reason for pedagogical discontinuity are the substantial historically and culturally formed differences between prior-to-school and compulsory school settings, differences that shape discrete educational cultures. For example, the school forms are governed by separate curricula that harbor divergent views of the child, learning, teaching and knowledge (Huser, Dockett & Perry, 2016). Many researchers have described this as a gap that somehow needs to be bridged. Others have emphasized the importance of distinguishable borders between different school forms (Ackesjö 2014).

    In Sweden, where this project is conducted, 83 percent of all children in ages between 1-5 years are enrolled in preschool. The year children turn six they will transfer to the compulsory preschool class and the succeeding year they will start year 1 at primary school. The preschool class was specifically introduced into the educational system to enable a smooth transition between prior-to-school education and school by intertwining their divergent pedagogies. However, in accordance with the international studies compiled by the OECD, pedagogical discontinuities are still reported, describing missed opportunities to use children's subject learning experiences from preschool and preschool class in the first year of primary school (Skoog 2012, Ackesjö 2014).

    Objectives and research questions

    The results presented here are part of a larger project where the main objective is to explore if, and how, educational cultures may affect continuity in science teaching across early childhood school forms. In educational settings the concept continuity may be described as in Dewey's "principles of continuity" thus, that experiences in the present always are colored by previous experiences, and that the challenge for teachers is to provide learners with quality experiences that both rely on their previous experiences and will result in growth and creativity in subsequent experiences (Dewey 1938/1997). Continuity across school forms are often put forward as desirable, but the concept is seldom further elaborated as to what it is, how it can be accomplished, and for whom it is desirable (Ackesjö 2016). Ackesjö (2016) mentions several different aspects of continuity advocated in research, such as communicative (referring to communication between teachers in different school forms), social, curricular, organizational, cultural, and teaching continuity.

    In this presentation, we focus on a subsample of our empirical data: science activities that deal with the same content occurring in at least two different school forms. Our aim is to explore how the same science content is carried out in three different ECE school forms. We seek to answer the following questions: 1) What characterizes science teaching of a given content, in the different school forms? 2) What opportunities for, and obstacles to, teaching continuity, in relation to a given science content, can be identified across school forms?

    METHOD

    Our data was collected in three Swedish school units, each comprising at least one preschool, one preschool class and one class from the first three grades of primary school. Together the three units comprise 4 preschools, 4 preschool classes and 4 grade 1-3 classes. Classroom observations of science activities were performed at 44 occasions (preschools (18), preschool classes (8), primary school (18)).

    To characterize and compare the science teaching across the school forms, we draw on Activity Theory (Engeström 1987) and thus constructed triangle models for all the activities. These models include a description of seven elements; the subject (the teacher), object (the purpose), tools, rules, community/educational culture, division of labour and outcome of the activities. The descriptions of the elements of activities with recurring content across school forms were compared to a) identify how teachers in different school forms deal with the same content and b) how culturally formed differences (rules, community/educational culture, division of labour and outcome) may affect their teaching.

    RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

    We identified seven recurring contents across the school forms. These were: Water, Plant growth, Fungi, Friction, Insulation, Seasons and Animal tracks. Among these, ‘water’ was the only content that occurred across all three school forms.

    Four aspects of shifts in how science teaching is carried out across the school forms were identified. Firstly, in all school forms the children’s former experiences, interests and curiosity were integral aspects of the science teaching. We however identified a shift from using children’s interests as a starting point for science education in preschool towards integrating children's views into teaching of mandatory science curriculum in primary school (subject and educational culture). Second, the teaching approaches shift from focus on verbal communication and creative activities towards subject-focused drawing, writing, and reading (tools). Third, there is a shift from nature encounters and ‘doing’ towards an emphasis on concepts, facts, processes and inquiry (objects). These three shifts are all gradual across the school forms. There is also an example of a more abrupt shift in teaching across school forms; from voluntariness (in preschool) towards mandatory participation (in school) (rules). In the presentation we will describe these trends in more details exemplifying it by how teachers handle the content ‘water’ and ‘fungi’ across school forms.

    CONCLUSION

    We see a potential for science teaching continuity across early childhood school forms. The subject specific continuity however, is grounded in a sensitivity among the teachers for what the children have experienced in previous school forms. This teaching continuity thus relies altogether on the information that the children choose to share. Hence, this bridge for science teaching between school forms is fragile, since it is the children, rather than the teachers or the organization, who become the primary carriers of continuity. This calls for considering how to strengthen the communicative continuity, that is to construct meeting opportunities for teachers across ECE school forms, in order to better adapt their teaching to what children have or will experience.

    REFERENCES

    Ackesjö, H. (2014) Barns övergångar till och från förskoleklass: Gränser, identiteter och (dis) kontinuiteter. Doctoral Thesis Växjö, Linnaeus University Press 148.

    Ackesjö, H. (2016). Övergångar mellan skolformer – kontinuitet och progression från förskola till skola. Stockholm: Liber AB

    Dewey, J. (1938/1997). Experience and Education. New York: Simon and Schuster.

    Engeström, Y. (1987). Learning by expanding: an activity-theoretical approach to developmental research. Helsinki: Orienta-konsultit.

    Huser, C. Dockett, S. & Perry, B. (2016) Transition to school: revisiting the bridge metaphor. European Early Childhood Education Research Journal, 24 (3) 439-449

    OECD (2017) Starting Strong 2017: Key OECD Indicators on Early Childhood Education and Care, Starting Strong, OECD Publishing, Paris, https://doi.org/10.1787/9789264276116-en

    Skoog, M. (2012) Skriftspråkande i förskoleklass och årskurs 1. Örebro Studies in Education 33.

  • 32.
    Sundberg, Bodil
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Areljung, Sofie
    Department of Applied Educational Science, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Due, Karin
    Department of Science and Mathematics Education, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Ottander, Christina
    Department of Science and Mathematics Education, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Skoog, Marianne
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för humaniora, utbildnings- och samhällsvetenskap.
    Handling frame factors, educational cultures and teacher experience when using third generation activity theory: Analyzing transition challenges across preschool, preschool class and primary school for early years science teaching2019Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Topic/idea and arguments for the topic’s importance

    In our project, we seek to understand transition challenges for early years science teaching. We have combined third generation models of Activity Theory (Engeström, 2001) and formative interventions (Penuel 2014) to describe obstacles and opportunities that surface when teachers from different school forms strive to construct a shared object: pedagogical continuity in science education.

    In our analytical work, we have first constructed triangle models to describe activities and activity systems for preschools, preschool classes and primary school classes. The activity systems have then been compared across school forms. When comparing activity systems across school forms, we realised that some of the critical factors for continuity are not included in conventional triangle models. Consequently, we would like to share and discuss three methodological issues:

    1. There is no room for frame factors such as policy agendas, class sizes, time schedules, and access to premises/personnel in conventional triangle models. Yet, in our analyses we discovered that teachers drew on frame factors in their boundary work (cf. Gieryn 1983) towards other school forms.
    2. In many AT studies, the community node consists of a description of various stakeholders within the activity system. In our previous work, we have instead used the community node to describe the educational culture of the community (e.g., Sundberg et al. 2018). There, the educational culture includes overarching views of how children learn, what counts as good or desirable learning and the role of the teacher for children’s learning (cf. Biesta 2011). Since our studies show that the educational culture is crucial to how and whether science is afforded the children (Sundberg et al. 2018), we would like to discuss the place for educational cultures within AT models.
    3. When comparing the activity systems, the role of each teacher’s professional experience and science confidence has emerged as a critical factor for pedagogical continuity in science education. For example, teachers with strong science competence as well as confidence or teachers with work experience from both preschool and primary school seem less occupied with boundary work towards other school forms. In our current work, we have tentatively described teacher experience and competence within the subject node. This, in turn, has lead to our grappling with the relation between the subject node and the community node, with regards to the educational culture.

    All or some of these issues may be discussed depending on the interest of the participants in the reflection space.

    Information about empirical data in our current project

    Our data was collected in three Swedish school units, each comprising at least one preschool, one preschool class and one class from the first three grades of primary school. Together the three units comprise 4 preschools, 4 preschool classes and 4 grade 1-3 classes. We conducted focus group discussions (10) with teachers across the school forms within each unit, classroom observations of implementations (49) and individual interviews with 21 teachers, before and after the project (35 in total).

     

  • 33.
    Sundberg, Bodil
    et al.
    Örebro universitet.
    Areljung, Sofie
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturvetenskapernas och matematikens didaktik. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå centrum för genusstudier (UCGS).
    Due, Karin
    Ottander, Christina
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturvetenskapernas och matematikens didaktik.
    Skoog, Marianne
    Örebro universitet.
    Using third generation activity theory to understand teachers’ boundary work across early childhood school forms: an example focusing science teaching (dis)continuities2019Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 34.
    Sundberg, Bodil
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Areljung, Sofie
    Department of Applied Educational Science, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Due, Karin
    Department of Science and Mathematics Education, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Ottander, Christina
    Department of Science and Mathematics Education, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Skoog, Marianne
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för humaniora, utbildnings- och samhällsvetenskap.
    Using third generation activity theory to understand teachers' boundary work across early childhood school forms: an example focusing science teaching (dis)continuities2019Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    General description on research questions, objectives and theoretical framework

    Transitions across educational cultures

    Internationally public spending on early childhood education has increased due to growing attention towards the benefits of an early start for children’s learning. At the same time a growing number of research suggests that the benefits of these spendings may disappear during the first years of primary school due to pedagogical discontinuities (OECD 2017). One potential reason for pedagogical discontinuity are a range of substantial historically and culturally formed differences between prior-to-school and compulsory school settings. The teachers attend different teacher educations and the school forms are governed by separate curricula that harbour divergent views of the child, learning, teaching and knowledge, thus shaping discrete educational cultures (Huser, Docket & Perry, 2016). Many researchers have described this as a gap that somehow needs to be bridged. Others have emphasized the importance of continuity as well as discontinuity to mark borders between different school forms (Ackesjö 2014).

    In Sweden, where this project is conducted, 83 percent of all children in ages between 1-5 years are enrolled in preschool. The year children turn six they will transfer to the compulsory preschool class and the succeeding year they will start year 1 at primary school. The preschool class was specifically introduced into the educational system to enable a smooth transition between prior-to-school education and school by intertwining their divergent pedagogies. However, in accordance with the international studies reported by the OESD, pedagogical discontinuities  are still reported, describing missed opportunities to use children's subject learning experiences from preschool and preschool class in the first year of primary school (Skoog 2012, Ackesjö 2014). 

    Science teaching across early childhood school forms

    The growing attention towards the benefit of an early start for children’s learning is also reflected in a growing research field around early childhood learning, and the field of early years science (defined as science activities for children between 0 and 8 years of age) is no exception (ESERA e-proceedings 2018). The rapidly expanding research field now encompasses theoretical and ideological discussions about what early years science in preschool can or should be. Also, studies focusing on children’s learning of particular science subject areas as well as broader concepts such as learning and teaching Nature of Science (NOS) and different aspects of teacher student’s and in-service teacher’s pedagogical content knowledge. To our knowledge there are however no studies of pedagogical (dis)continuities in early childhood science across the school forms. In our project we seek to contribute with new knowledge within this particular field.

    Objectives and research questions

    The aim of this project is twofold: first, we want to report observed obstacles to and opportunities for pedagogical continuity in science education across preschool, preschool class and grades 1-3 .

    Second, we want to study the potentials of formative interventions as a tool for bringing together teachers across school forms to analyse and develop pedagogical continuity in their own practice.

    We hope to provide knowledge about science learning continuity across early years school forms, and about the mechanisms behind (dis)continuities. Our approach is based on a collaborative research between practitioner and researcher to ensure results with relevance to educational research, authorities, practice and teacher education.

    In this presentation we will focus on the boundary work of teachers across early childhood education, based on data from interviews and focus groups.

    Our research questions are:

    1. What views do teachers in preschool, preschool class and years 1-3 express concerning science teaching in their own and in adjacent sectors?

    2. In what ways do teachers across these school forms define discretion and autonomy but also negotiate boundaries, when brought together in focus groups?

    Methods/methodology

    This project is guided by expansive learning, third generation models of Activity Theory (Engeström, 2001) and formative interventions (Penuel 2014). The combination of these theoretical and methodological frameworks enables us to describe obstacles to and opportunities as revealed when  teachers of discrete local educational cultures meet to jointly construct a shared object: pedagogical continuity in science education.

    Our data was collected in three Swedish school units (unit Y, O and Ö), each comprising at least one preschool, one preschool class and one class from grade 1-3 of primary school. Together the three units comprise 4 preschools, 4 preschool classes and 4 grade 1-3 classes. We conducted focus group discussions (10) with teachers across the school forms within each unit, classroom observations of implementations (49) and individual interviews with 21 teachers, before and after the project (35 in total).

    The “driving force” of the project was a cyclical intervention process, where teachers across school forms met with us researchers in groups to discuss a focal problem: pedagogical (dis)continuity in science teaching. The whole process begun with a workshop where all participating teachers of one unit were brought together to discuss the science related goals of preschool, preschool class and grade 1-3. To start up a conversation about similarities, differences and perhaps inconsistencies between the curricula (i.e. National Agency for Education, 2016 and 2018) all science goals from each of the three curricula were cut out and mixed together. The teachers were then asked to sort them into themes of their own choice. Based on their results, the teachers were then asked to identify possible areas of continuities, and ways to promote continuity across the three school forms. The next step was to develop and implement a “design for support of continuity” in their practice.

    In this presentation we focus on the teachers’ boundary work across the school forms as revealed in group discussions and individual interviews. Boundary work “takes place as teachers create, maintain, tear down, and transform boundaries, for example by separating “us” and “them”, and evaluate certain practices” (Mausethagen 2013, p. 135). Our research questions are guiding us when analyzing transcripts from interviews and focus group meetings. To investigate how boundaries are drawn and redrawn we also seek for critical incidents such as statements or parts of dialogues that either reveals tensions or contradicting views within and across school forms or moments of insights across school forms.

    Preliminary results and implications

    Teachers views of science teaching in their own and in adjacent school form?

    All teachers, regardless of what school form they represent, view children’s interests and curiosity as integral aspects of science teaching. Also, scientific concepts and basic science facts are considered as most important learning objects. The major difference is that voluntary attendance is described as important in the lower ages but as the children grow older mandatory attendance becomes more important.

    Preschool teachers generally has an understanding of compulsory school science teaching as teacher-led transfer of facts, with little integration of creative activities and outdoor activities. This is often contrasted to their own practice, described as a combination of many different creative forms of learning, outdoor experiences and focused on children's own curiosity and joy. Teachers in preschool class and grade 1-3 only have vague views of what preschool science might be, and tend to refer to a broader picture of preschool practice as a place for social schooling, play and practical activities where science learning is not central. In contrast, they have a more articulated view of science teaching in forthcoming stages.

    In what ways do teachers across these school forms define discretion and autonomy but also negotiate boundaries, when brought together in focus groups?

    Boundary work became visible especially during some focus group discussions when the teachers compared how much children’s interests and curiosity was allowed to guide science teaching in different school forms. Here, boundaries were created by comparing frame factors to justify differences perceived as less desirable.

    Furthermore, the focus group meetings provided opportunities for a broadened understanding of prerequisites of other school forms, thus laying a foundation for collaborative learning and joint ideas about how to form continuity for science education between school forms.

    References

    Ackesjö, H. (2014) Barns övergångar till och från förskoleklass: Gränser, identiteter och (dis-) kontinuiteter. [Children’s transitions to and from preschool class.  Borders, identities and (dis-) continuities] Doctoral Thesis Växjö, Linnaeus University Press 148.

    Engeström, Y. (2001) Expansive Learning at Work: toward an activity theoretical reconceptualization. Journal of Education and Work, 14 (1) 133-156

    Finlayson, O.E., McLoughlin, E., Erduran, S., & Childs, P. (Eds.) (2018).  Electronic Proceedings of the ESERA 2017 Conference. Research, Practice and Collaboration in Science Education. Dublin, Ireland: Dublin City University. ISBN 978-1-873769-84-3

    Huser, C. Docket, S. & Perry, B. (2016) Transition to school: revisiting the bridge metaphor. European Early Childhood Education Research Journal, 24 (3) 439-449

    Mausethagen Solvi (2013) Talking about the test. Boundary work in primary school teachers’ interactions around national testing of student performance. Teaching and Teacher Education 36 132-142

    National Agency for Education, (2016). Curriculum for the Preschool Lpfö 98. Revised 2016 Lpfö 98/2016. Stockholm: Skolverket.

    National Agency for Education (2018). Curriculum for compulsory school, preschool class and school-age aducare. Lgr 11. Revised 2018 Stockholm: Skolverket.

    OECD (2017) Starting Strong 2017: Key OECD Indicators on Early Childhood Education and Care, Starting Strong, OECD Publishing, Paris, https://doi.org/10.1787/9789264276116-en.

    Penuel, W. R. (2014). Emerging Forms of Formative Intervention Research in Education. Mind, Culture, and Activity, 21(2), 97-117. doi:10.1080/10749039.2014.884137

    Skoog, M (2012) Skriftspråkande i förskoleklass och årskurs 1. Örebro Studies in Education 33.

     

     

  • 35.
    Sundberg, Bodil
    et al.
    Örebro universitet.
    Areljung, Sofie
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturvetenskapernas och matematikens didaktik.
    Due, Karin
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturvetenskapernas och matematikens didaktik.
    Ottander, Christina
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturvetenskapernas och matematikens didaktik.
    Tellgren, Britt
    Örebro universitet.
    Förskolans naturvetenskap i praktiken2016 (uppl. 1)Bok (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    Enligt förskolans läroplan ska varje barn ges möjlighet att utveckla förståelse för naturvetenskap. Barnen ska stimuleras att aktivt undersöka sin omvärld och tänka själva kring naturvetenskap. De ska också ges möjlighet att dela sina tankar och uttrycka dem på ett kreativt sätt. Men hur gör man det i praktiken? Hur kan man som pedagog stötta ett barn så att det utvecklas i sin förmåga att ställa frågor och undersöka? Hur stöttar man barns reflektioner kring de erfarenheter de får via undersökande verksamhet? Och hur gör man det på ett sätt som stämmer med förskolans värdegrund och övriga uppdrag?

    I den här boken ger författarna en mängd konkreta och inspirerande exempel på hur några förskolor har valt att arbeta med naturvetenskap. Den forskning som boken bygger på visar att pedagogernas förhållningssätt till naturvetenskap, snarare än valet av innehåll, är avgörande för om barnen verkligen erbjuds en möjlighet att utveckla förståelse för naturvetenskap. Bokens exempel utgår därför från olika förhållningssätt som man kan ha i samband med naturvetenskapliga aktiviteter. Till varje kapitel hör en eller flera faktarutor där det naturvetenskapliga innehållet förklaras och knyts till generella bärande idéer inom naturvetenskapen.

    Boken spänner över stora delar av det naturvetenskapliga fältet, och visar att det finns många olika sätt att låta barn möta naturvetenskap på. Exemplen i boken vidgar gränserna för hur man kan arbeta med naturvetenskap i förskolan och öppnar för möjligheter till många lustfyllda, engagerande och lärande stunder med barnen.

  • 36.
    Sundberg, Bodil
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Areljung, Sofie
    Department of Science and Mathematics Education, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Due, Karin
    Department of Science and Mathematics Education, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Ottander, Christina
    Department of Science and Mathematics Education, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Tellgren, Britt
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för humaniora, utbildnings- och samhällsvetenskap.
    Förskolans naturvetenskap i praktiken2016 (uppl. 1)Bok (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    Enligt förskolans läroplan ska varje barn ges möjlighet att utveckla förståelse för naturvetenskap. Barnen ska stimuleras att aktivt undersöka sin omvärld och tänka själva kring naturvetenskap. De ska också ges möjlighet att dela sina tankar och uttrycka dem på ett kreativt sätt. Men hur gör man det i praktiken? Hur kan man som pedagog stötta ett barn så att det utvecklas i sin förmåga att ställa frågor och undersöka? Hur stöttar man barns reflektioner kring de erfarenheter de får via undersökande verksamhet? Och hur gör man det på ett sätt som stämmer med förskolans värdegrund och övriga uppdrag?

    I den här boken ger författarna en mängd konkreta och inspirerande exempel på hur några förskolor har valt att arbeta med naturvetenskap. Den forskning som boken bygger på visar att pedagogernas förhållningssätt till naturvetenskap, snarare än valet av innehåll, är avgörande för om barnen verkligen erbjuds en möjlighet att utveckla förståelse för naturvetenskap. Bokens exempel utgår därför från olika förhållningssätt som man kan ha i samband med naturvetenskapliga aktiviteter. Till varje kapitel hör en eller flera faktarutor där det naturvetenskapliga innehållet förklaras och knyts till generella bärande idéer inom naturvetenskapen.

    Boken spänner över stora delar av det naturvetenskapliga fältet, och visar att det finns många olika sätt att låta barn möta naturvetenskap på. Exemplen i boken vidgar gränserna för hur man kan arbeta med naturvetenskap i förskolan och öppnar för möjligheter till många lustfyllda, engagerande och lärande stunder med barnen.

  • 37.
    Sundberg, Bodil
    et al.
    Örebro univ, NT-akademin.
    Areljung, Sofie
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap.
    Ottander, Christina
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturvetenskapernas och matematikens didaktik.
    Opportunities for Education for Sustainability through multidimensional preschool science2019Ingår i: NorDiNa: Nordic Studies in Science Education, ISSN 1504-4556, E-ISSN 1894-1257, Vol. 15, nr 4, s. 358-369Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, we exemplify and discuss how preschool science education may contribute to Education for Sustainability (EfS). We draw on data from science activities in fourteen Swedish preschools, in which we have previously identified examples of ‘multidimensional science teaching’, hence, teaching that intertwines children’s science learning with multiple dimensions of children’s lives, such as emotions, fantasy, play and aesthetic modes of expressions. By re-analysing these activities through an EfS lense, we show several examples of how multidimensional science teaching provide opportunities for children to develop agency and empowerment as well as connectedness with the environment, and some examples of creative problem solving. Yet, we advocate that teachers’ active participation is crucial for realising multidimensional science teaching in a way that contributes to EfS.

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