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  • 1.
    Andersson, Y
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Sävman, K
    Bläckberg, L
    Hernell, O
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Pasteurization of mother's own milk reduces fat absorption and growth in preterm infants.2007In: Acta paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, Vol. 96, no 10, p. 1445-9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: A randomized study was conducted to evaluate whether pasteurized milk (Holder pasteurization 62.5 degrees C, 30 min) reduces fat absorption and growth in preterm infants. Methods: Preterm infants (825-1325 g) born with gestational age </=30 weeks were randomized into two groups, of which one started with pasteurized own mother's milk for 1 week and continued with raw milk the following week, and a second group was fed in reverse order. By using this design the infants served as their own controls. At the end of each week, a 72-h fat balance was performed and growth was monitored. Results: We found, on an average, 17% higher fat absorption with raw as compared to pasteurized milk. Infants gained more weight and linear growth assessed as knee-heel length was also greater during the week they were fed raw milk as compared to the week they were fed pasteurized milk. Conclusion: Feeding preterm infants pasteurized as compared to raw own mother's milk reduced fat absorption. When the infants were fed raw milk, they gained more in knee-heel length compared to when they were fed pasteurized milk.

  • 2.
    Andersson, Yvonne
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Hammarström, Marie-Louise
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Immunology/Immunchemistry.
    Lönnerdal, Bo
    Department of Nutrition, University of California, Davis, CA 95616.
    Graverholt, Gitte
    Arla Foods Ingredients, Aarhus, Denmark.
    Fält, Helen
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Hernell, Olle
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Formula feeding skews immune cell composition toward adaptive immunity compared to breastfeeding2009In: Journal of Immunology, ISSN 0022-1767, E-ISSN 1550-6606, Vol. 183, no 7, p. 4322-4328Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ontogeny of the immune system and the effect thereon by type of infant feeding is incompletely understood. We analyzed frequencies and composition of immune cells in blood of breastfed (BF) and formula-fed (FF) infants at 1.5, 4, and 6 mo of age. Three formulas with the same protein concentration but with varying levels of alpha-lactalbumin and caseinoglycomacropeptide were compared. Twenty-nine exclusively BF infants served as reference, and 17 infants in each formula group completed the study. Whole blood and PBMCs were analyzed by flow cytometry and immunoflow cytometry, respectively. Leukocyte count of BF infants increased with time due to increased frequency of neutrophils. Lymphocyte count was high at 1.5 mo and was unchanged over time, as were the relative proportions of CD4+ alphabetaT cells, CD8+ alphabetaT cells, B cells, NK cells, and gammadeltaT cells. Most CD45R0+CD3+ cells were HLA-DR- and hence memory cells. Compared with breastfeeding, formula feeding resulted in a significant decrease in proportion of NK cells, but a significant increase in naive CD4+ alphabetaT cells and an elevated CD4-to-CD8 ratio, that is, 3.3 in the combined FF groups compared with 2.6 in the BF group. No significant differences were found between the three groups of FF infants. In conclusion, blood cells of lymphoid lineage did not change significantly in frequencies or composition from 1.5 to 6 mo of age in BF infants. In contrast, FF infants displayed an ongoing maturation of adaptive immunity cells and a delayed recruitment of innate immunity cells as compared with BF infants.

  • 3.
    Andersson, Yvonne
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Lindquist, Susanne
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Bergström, S
    Hernell, Olle
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Three variants of parathyroid hormone-related protein messenger RNA are expressed in human mammary gland.1997In: Pediatric Research, ISSN 0031-3998, E-ISSN 1530-0447, Vol. 41, no 3, p. 380-3Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PTH-related protein (PTHrP) is found in a variety of tissues; particularly high levels are present in human milk. The structure of the human PTHrP gene is complex, and alternative splicing allows expression of three different variants PTHrP139, PTHrP173, and PTHrP141, respectively. To determine which of the variants are expressed in human mammary gland a reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) method was elaborated, distinguishing the three variants. mRNA isolated from human milk cells, human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) and human nonlactating mammary gland cells were analyzed. The RT-PCR experiments resulted in amplification of DNA fragments corresponding to all three variants for all three cell sources tested. The nucleotide sequences of the PCR fragments were determined and verified to be identical to the reported sequences. Hence, it is concluded that human mammary gland epithelial cells express three variants of PTHrP. Whether these have different physiologic effects in the mammary gland or in the breast fed infant remain to be explored.

  • 4.
    Andersson, Yvonne
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Lindquist, Susanne
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Lagerqvist, Carina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Hernell, Olle
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Lactoferrin is responsible for the fungistatic effect of human milk.2000In: Early Human Development, ISSN 0378-3782, E-ISSN 1872-6232, Vol. 59, no 2, p. 95-105Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Human milk has recognized anti-microbial effects and it has been repeatedly shown that breast-fed infants have fewer and less severe infections than formula-fed infants. While most studies have focused on anti-bacterial and anti-viral activities few have focused on the anti-fungal effect of human milk. Dermal and other infections caused by fungi are common in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants. Using a liquid culturing method and Candida albicans and Rhodotorula rubra as representative fungi, we studied the anti-fungal effect of human milk and certain human milk proteins. In vitro, human milk showed potent inhibitory effect on fungal growth. Most, if not all of this effect was caused by lactoferrin via its iron-binding capacity; increasing the iron content of the incubation medium abolished the inhibitory effect. In contrast, other human milk proteins with known or suggested anti-microbial effects rather increased fungal growth. Viability test and electron microscopy revealed that the growth inhibitory effect of human milk, i.e. mediated by lactoferrin, is fungistatic rather than fungicidal.

  • 5. Blind, Per-Jonas
    et al.
    Büchler, M
    Bläckberg, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Physiological chemistry.
    Andersson, Yvonne
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Uhl, W
    Beger, H G
    Hernell, Olle
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Carboxylic ester hydrolase. A sensitive serum marker and indicator of severity of acute pancreatitis.1991In: International journal of Pancreatology, ISSN 0169-4197, Vol. 8, no 1, p. 65-73Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When using clinical criteria, both falsely positive and falsely negative diagnoses of acute pancreatitis (AP) are often made. Based on a clinical study, elevated serum levels of the pancreatic lipolytic enzyme carboxylic ester hydrolase (CEH) was recently suggested to be a highly specific marker of acute pancreatitis. To determine the sensitivity of the test for AP, a study on patients with the diagnosis set objectively was necessary. In the present study, AP was diagnosed by contrast-enhanced computed tomography in 64 patients, and histopathological examination of tissue removed at laparotomy in 18 of them. By these criteria, 42 patients suffered from acute interstitial pancreatitis (AIP), and 22 patients from necrotizing pancreatitis (NP). Based on the CEH concentrations in the first serum sample obtained in each patient, the sensitivity of CEH for pancreatitis was 98%. From the second day after admission, CEH levels in patients with NP were significantly higher than in patients with AIP. Furthermore, in patients with NP, CEH values remained at a raised level for the following 10 d, whereas a significant decrease of CEH values was noted in patients with AIP. In contrast, total serum amylase activities were higher in patients suffering of AIP than in patients suffering of NP during the observation period. We conclude, that the sensitivity of the CEH test is very high for AP. CEH concentrations remaining at a high level are suggestive of NP, whereas diminishing CEH levels are suggestive of AIP.

  • 6. de Chateau, Peter
    et al.
    Andersson, Yvonne
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Left-side preference for holding and carrying newborn infants. II:Doll holding and carrying from 2 to 16 years.1976In: Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology, ISSN 0012-1622, E-ISSN 1469-8749, Vol. 18, p. 738-44Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 7. Holm, S
    et al.
    Andersson, Yvonne
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Gothefors, Leif
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Lindberg, T
    Increased protein absorption after acute gastroenteritis in children.1992In: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 81, no 8, p. 585-8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigated the intestinal absorption of the macromolecule human alpha-lactalbumin during and after an episode of acute gastroenteritis in children. Twenty children were studied in the acute phase and 17 excreted rotavirus. Eleven children were studied again 5-8 weeks later (convalescent phase). Human alpha-lactalbumin serum concentrations in the acute phase were similar but in the convalescent phase they were significantly (p less than 0.001) higher than those in the reference children. The serum concentrations were also higher in the convalescent than in the acute phase (p = 0.021). This study suggests that there is an increased absorption of proteins from the gut into the circulation 5-8 weeks after rotavirus gastroenteritis.

  • 8.
    Karlsson Videhult, Frida
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Andersson, Yvonne
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Öhlund, Inger
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Stenlund, Hans
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Hernell, Olle
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    West, Christina E
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Impact of probiotics during weaning on the metabolic and inflammatory profile: follow-up at school age2015In: International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition, ISSN 0963-7486, E-ISSN 1465-3478, Vol. 66, no 6, p. 686-691Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We hypothesised that feeding the probiotic Lactobacillus paracasei ssp. paracasei F19 (LF19) (dep. nr LMG P-17806) during weaning would program the metabolic and inflammatory profile and studied its association with previously assessed body composition. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 179 infants were randomised to daily feeding of cereals with or without LF19 10 8 CFU from 4 to 13 months of age. At age 8-9 years, 120 children were reassessed. Using high-sensitivity multiplex immunoassay technology and ELISA, we found that overweight/obese children had increased plasma C-peptide, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, leptin and serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) after overnight fasting compared with normal weight children, independently of LF19. After excluding the obese, leptin and hsCRP were still increased, revealing an aberrant metabolic and inflammatory state already in overweight, pre-pubertal children. Higher body mass index z-score, sagittal abdominal diameter, truncal and total body fat % were associated with an aberrant metabolic and inflammatory profile, emphasising the need for early prevention strategies although no programming effect of LF19 was observed.

  • 9. Lönnerdal, Bo
    et al.
    Bergström, S
    Andersson, Yvonne
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Hjalmarsson, K
    Sundqvist, A K
    Hernell, Olle
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Cloning and sequencing of a cDNA encoding human milk beta-casein.1990In: FEBS Letters, ISSN 0014-5793, E-ISSN 1873-3468, Vol. 269, no 1, p. 153-6Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A cDNA of 1065 bp encoding the human milk beta-casein was cloned and sequenced using a synthetic oligodeoxyribonucleotide probe and a human mammary gland library. The nucleotide (nt) sequence contained an open reading frame sufficient to encode the entire amino-acid (aa) sequence of a beta-casein precursor protein consisting of 210 aa and a signal peptide of 15 aa. The nt sequence shows 45-62% homology to those of bovine, ovine, rat, and mouse beta-caseins. The highly phosphorylated site, which is responsible for the calcium-binding capacity of beta-casein, the signal peptide, and a sequence encoding for an inhibitor to the angiotensin-converting enzyme seem highly conserved among the beta-caseins with known sequences.

  • 10. Slupsky, Carolyn M.
    et al.
    He, Xuan
    Hernell, Olle
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Andersson, Yvonne
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Rudolph, Colin
    Lönnerdal, Bo
    West, Christina E.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Postprandial metabolic response of breast-fed infants and infants fed lactose-free vs regular infant formula: a randomized controlled trial2017In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 7, article id 3640Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Lactose intolerance is a major concern driving the growth of lactose-free foods including lactose-free infant formula. It is unknown what the metabolic consequence is of consumption of a formula where lactose has been replaced with corn syrup solids (CSS). Here, a randomized double-blinded intervention study was conducted where exclusively formula-fed infants were fed formula containing either lactose or CSS-based infant formula and compared with an equal number of exclusively breast-fed infants. Plasma metabolites and insulin were measured at baseline, 15, 30, 60, 90 and 120 min after feeding. Differences in plasma metabolite profiles for formula-fed infants included a rapid increase in circulating amino acids, creatinine and urea compared with breast-fed infants. At 120 min post-feeding, insulin was significantly elevated in formula-fed compared with breast-fed infants. Infants fed lactose-based formula had the highest levels of glucose at 120 min, and leucine, isoleucine, valine and proline at 90 and 120 min, whereas infants fed CSS-based formula had the lowest levels of non-esterified fatty acids at all time points, and glucose at 120 min. Overall, these differences highlight that changes in infant formula composition impact infant metabolism, and show that metabolomics is a powerful tool to help with development of improved infant formulas.

  • 11.
    West, Christina E
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Hernell, Olle
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Andersson, Yvonne
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Sjöstedt, M
    Hammarström, Marie-Louise
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Immunology/Immunchemistry.
    Probiotic effects on T-cell maturation in infants during weaning.2012In: Clinical and Experimental Allergy, ISSN 0954-7894, E-ISSN 1365-2222, Vol. 42, no 4, p. 540-549Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: We previously reported that feeding the probiotic Lactobacillus paracasei ssp. paracasei F19 (LF19) during weaning reduced the cumulative incidence of eczema.

    Objective: To investigate the impact of feeding LF19 on T-cell maturation.

    Methods: One hundred and seventy-nine healthy, term infants with no prior allergic manifestations were randomized to daily intake of cereals with (n = 89) or without (n = 90) the addition of LF19 10colony forming units per serving from 4 to 13 months of age. Venous blood was drawn at 5.5 and 13 months of age. We used the cytokine response to polyclonal T-cell stimulation by anti-CD3 plus anti-CD28 monoclonal antibodies, and in vitro stimulation with the vaccine tetanus toxoid (TT) as measures of global adaptive immunity and capacity to raise a specific T-cell response, respectively. Expression levels of IL-2, IFN-γ, IL-4, IL-17A and IL-10 messenger RNAs (mRNAs) were used as proxies for general T-cell stimulation and naive Th0 cells, Th1-, Th2-, Th17- and T regulatory lineages.

    Results: There was no difference between the two groups at 5.5 months of age. At 13 months, the polyclonal IL-2 response was higher in the placebo group (P < 0.05), whereas the IFN-γ/IL-2 (P < 0.01) and IL-17A/IL-2 (P < 0.05) ratios after polyclonal stimulation were higher in the probiotic group, as was the TT-specific IL17-A response (P < 0.001). In both groups, the IFN-γ and IL-4 responses increased from 5.5 to 13 months upon both polyclonal and specific stimulation (P < 0.01), whereas the IL-10 response remained low (P > 0.05).

    Conclusion and Clinical Relevance: Our findings suggest modest effects by probiotics on T-cell maturation following 9 months of probiotic intake. Future studies should address if specific probiotics may drive immune development with possible preventive effects on the development of allergic disease.

  • 12.
    West, Christina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Hernell, Olle
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Andersson, Yvonne
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Sjöstedt, Marianne
    Maturation of T cell function in the human infant and effects thereon of probiotic feeding during weaningManuscript (Other academic)
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