Digitala Vetenskapliga Arkivet

Ändra sökning
Avgränsa sökresultatet
1 - 30 av 30
RefereraExporteraLänk till träfflistan
Permanent länk
Referera
Referensformat
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Annat format
Fler format
Språk
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Annat språk
Fler språk
Utmatningsformat
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Träffar per sida
  • 5
  • 10
  • 20
  • 50
  • 100
  • 250
Sortering
  • Standard (Relevans)
  • Författare A-Ö
  • Författare Ö-A
  • Titel A-Ö
  • Titel Ö-A
  • Publikationstyp A-Ö
  • Publikationstyp Ö-A
  • Äldst först
  • Nyast först
  • Skapad (Äldst först)
  • Skapad (Nyast först)
  • Senast uppdaterad (Äldst först)
  • Senast uppdaterad (Nyast först)
  • Disputationsdatum (tidigaste först)
  • Disputationsdatum (senaste först)
  • Standard (Relevans)
  • Författare A-Ö
  • Författare Ö-A
  • Titel A-Ö
  • Titel Ö-A
  • Publikationstyp A-Ö
  • Publikationstyp Ö-A
  • Äldst först
  • Nyast först
  • Skapad (Äldst först)
  • Skapad (Nyast först)
  • Senast uppdaterad (Äldst först)
  • Senast uppdaterad (Nyast först)
  • Disputationsdatum (tidigaste först)
  • Disputationsdatum (senaste först)
Markera
Maxantalet träffar du kan exportera från sökgränssnittet är 250. Vid större uttag använd dig av utsökningar.
  • 1.
    Andersson, Christer
    Umeå universitet, Medicinsk fakultet, Folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Allmänmedicin.
    Svår akut intermittent porfyri kan behandlas framgångsrikt med levertansplantaoin.2004Ingår i: Läkartidningen, Vol. 101, s. 1887-Artikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 2.
    Andersson, Christer
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Allmänmedicin.
    Bjersing, Lars
    Lithner, Folke
    Hepatocellular carcinoma in patients from northern Sweden with acute intermittent porphyria: Morphology and mutations1996Ingår i: Cancer Epidemiology, ISSN 1877-7821, E-ISSN 1877-783X, Vol. 5, s. 393-397Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 3.
    Andersson, Christer
    et al.
    Primary Health Care Centre, Arjeplog.
    Bjersing, Lars
    Lithner, Folke
    The epideimiology of hepatocellular carcinoma in patients with acute intermittent porphyria1996Ingår i: Journal of Internal Medicine, ISSN 0954-6820, E-ISSN 1365-2796, Vol. 240, nr 4, s. 195-201Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract

    Objective. To describe the epidemiology, pathogenesis and clinical features of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in patients with acute intermittent porphyria (AIP).

    Design. A retrospective population-based mortality study.

    Subjects. All inhabitants who died between 1978–1990 (2122) including 33 with AIP, in two municipalities in northern Sweden with a high prevalence of AIP.

    Interventions. Death certificates and hospital records were examined. Histological re-examination of paraffin-embedded specimens from patients with HCC was performed and hepatitis B virus content analysed.

    Results. HCC was found in 27% of patients with AIP versus 0.2% of the deceased non-AIP subjects, P< 0.0001. HCC was more common in women (men:women 1:2) and in manifest AIP (manifest: latent 2:1). Liver cirrhosis was more common in AIP patients (12%), especially in women, compared with controls (0.5%), P<0.0001.

    Conclusions. AIP patients seem to have an increased risk of developing HCC. This tumour is more common in patients with manifest AIP and in women, a reversal of the usually reported gender ratio for HCC. No cause for developing HCC other than AIP was found. The pathogenesis may be explained by abnormalities in porphyrin metabolism and by intrinsic production of mutagenic substances, resulting in a condition of systemic overload of oxidative stress, enhancing mutation rate and liver cell injury. Liver cirrhosis appears to be more common in AIP patients and may be a preliminary stage to HCC. All AIP gene carriers aged 55 should be screened for HCC.

  • 4.
    Andersson, Christer
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Allmänmedicin.
    Blom, Helena
    Olofsson, Bengt-Olof
    Bjerle, P
    Wiklund, Urban
    Lithner, Folke
    Assessment of autonomic nerve funktion in acute intermittent porphyria; A study based on spectral analysisi of heart rate variability1996Ingår i: J Internal Medicine, Vol. 240, s. 73-79Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 5.
    Andersson, Christer
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Allmänmedicin.
    Bylesjö, Ingemar
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin.
    Lithner, Folke
    Effects of diabetes mellitus on patients with acute intermittent porphyria1999Ingår i: Journal of internal medicine, Vol. 245, nr 2, s. 193-7Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 6.
    Andersson, Christer
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin.
    Floderus, Y
    Wikberg, Agneta
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för omvårdnad.
    Lithner, Folke
    The W198X and R173W mutations in the porphobilinogen deaminase gene in acute intermittent porphyria have higher clinical penetrance than R167: a populations-based study2000Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation, ISSN 0036-5513, E-ISSN 1502-7686, Vol. 60, nr 7, s. 643-648Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The biosynthesis of porphyrins is one of the most conserved parthways known, about the same sequence of reactions taking place in all species. By associating different metals, porphyrins give rise to the “pigments of life”: chlorophyll, haem and cobalamin. The unique tetrapyrrolic structure enables it to function in an array of reactions as a single electron carrier and as a catalyst for redox reactions. In this capacity, it constitutes the prosthetic group of enzymes participating in cellular respiration, in conversion reactions involving steroids and lipophilic xenobiotics, in protective mechanisms directed against oxidative stress and in pathways providing central messenger molecules. The formation of haem is accomplished by a sequence of eight dedicated enzymes encoded by different genes, some being active in ubiquitous as well as in erythroid isoforms. Large differences between the participating enzymes with regard to catalytic power, with low capacity steps positioned early in the catalytic chain, constitute a bar against substrate overloading of enzymes processing porphyrins, thus preventing accumulation in the body of these phototoxic compounds under physiological conditions. Most of the haem in the body is produced by the liver and bone marrow, but the mechanisms applied for the control of the synthesis differ between the two organs. The extremely potent hemeprotein enzymes formed in the liver are rapidly turned over in response to current metabolic needs. They have half-lives in the order of minutes or hours and are restored by fast-acting mechanisms for the de novo synthesis, when needed. Uninterrupted and instant availability of the compound is secured by acute deinhibition of the initial enzyme of the synthetic chain, ubiquitous 5-aminolevulinate synthase (ALAS-1), in response to drain of the free cellular haem pool caused by prevailing demands for hemeproteins or by increased catabolism of the compound. In contrast, in the erythroid progenitor cell the haem synthetic machinery is designed for uninterrupted production of huge amounts of haem for combination with globin chains to form hemoglobin at a steady rate. In the erythron the synthesis of the enzymes participating in the formation of haem is under control of erythropoietin, formed under hypoxic conditions. In the absence of iron, to be incorporated in the porphyrin formed in the last step of the synthesis, the mRNA of erythroid 5-aminolevulinate synthase (ALAS-2) is blocked by attachment of an iron-responsive element (IRE) binding cytosolic protein, and transcription of this key enzyme is inhibited. In humans, the genes for each of the haem synthetic enzymes may become the target of mutations that give rise to impaired cellular enzyme activity. Seven of the enzyme deficiencies are associated with accumulation of toxic intermediaries and with disease entities termed porphyrias. The acute porphyrias are characterized by attacks of neuropsychiatric symptoms, which may be due to a toxic surplus of the porphyrin presursor 5-aminolevulinic acid, or a consequence of a deficit of vital hemeproteins resulting from impaired synthesis of haem. In the cutaneous porphyrias, impairment of enzymatic steps where porphyrins are processed gives rise to solar hypersensitivity due to accumulation of phototoxic porphyrins in the skin. Early diagnosis, information to the patient regarding the nature of the illness and counselling aimed at avoidance of triggering factors are cornerstones in the handling of the porphyric diseases. Gene analysis is of incomparable diagnostic reliability in carrier detection, but biochemical methods must be applied in the important task of monitoring porphyric disease activity. In most forms of porphyria the gene carriers run the risk of development of associated diseases in liver or kidneys, a circumstance that prompts application of well-structured surveillance programs.

  • 7.
    Andersson, Christer
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Allmänmedicin.
    Hultdin, Johan
    Schmauch, Annelie
    Dahlquist, Gisela
    Acute intermittent porphyria in childhood - a population-based study2003Ingår i: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 92, s. 562-568Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 8.
    Andersson, Christer
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Allmänmedicin.
    Innala, Eva
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Obstetrik och gynekologi.
    Bäckström, Torbjörn
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Obstetrik och gynekologi.
    Acute intermittent porphyria in women: clinical expression, use and experience of exogenous sex hormones. A population-based study in northern Sweden2003Ingår i: Journal of Internal Medicine, ISSN 0954-6820, E-ISSN 1365-2796, Vol. 254, nr 2, s. 176-183Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinical expression of acute intermittent porphyria (AIP) in women, their use of exogenous sex hormones, and the effects on AIP. DESIGN: A retrospective population-based study. SUBJECTS: All women aged > or =18 years (n = 190) with DNA-diagnosed AIP in northern Sweden. RESULTS: A total of 166 women (87%) participated; 91 (55%) had manifest AIP. Severe attacks were reported by 82%; 39% reported recurrent premenstrual AIP attacks and 22% reported chronic AIP symptoms. Oral hormonal contraceptives had been used by 58% of all these women and by 50 with manifest AIP (57%). Twelve women (24%) associated oral contraceptives as precipitating AIP attacks; in nine cases their first attack. One woman experienced relief from AIP symptoms. On commencing their treatment, 72% of the women with manifest AIP had not yet suffered their first attack. Twenty-two women (25%) aged > or =45 years had used hormonal replacement therapy (HRT) at menopause to remedy climacteric symptoms (the percutaneous route was most frequently used); no AIP attack was precipitated. HRT to remedy vaginal dryness was used by 26 women (28%) aged > or =45 years without triggering an AIP attack. Miscarriages were more frequent in women with manifest AIP (50%) than in the latent group (30%, P = 0.014). CONCLUSIONS: About half of the women with AIP had used oral hormonal contraceptives. As 25% of women with manifest AIP reported attacks associated with such drugs, caution must still be recommended. Menopausal HRT only rarely affected the disorder. Miscarriage was more common amongst women with manifest AIP.

  • 9.
    Andersson, Christer
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Allmänmedicin.
    Lithner, F.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Hypertension and renal impairment in patients with acute intermittent porphyria: a populaition-based study1994Ingår i: Journal of Internal Medicine, ISSN 0954-6820, E-ISSN 1365-2796, Vol. 236, nr 2, s. 169-175Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: To assess the association between acute intermittent porphyria (AIP), hypertension and renal disease.

    Design: A population-based matched case-control study (1:4) in 50 AIP patients (manifest/latent 25/25), a retrospective study of all individuals who died between the years 1978 and 1990 (2122 including 33 with AIP) and a group of eight patients with severe AIP.

    Results: Hypertension was found in 56% of patients with manifest AIP, 33% of their controls (P = 0.041) and 16% of patients with latent AIP (P = 0.004). Renal disease was not more common in patients with AIP than in their controls. Three of the eight patients with severe recurrent AIP had impaired renal function, caused in one by systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) nephritis. In the other two, no cause other than AIP could be found. In the mortality study, hypertension was registered in 68% of patients with manifest AIP compared to 21% of those with latent AIP (P = 0.008) but death from myocardial infarction and stroke was not more common. Uraemia was cited as the cause of death in 9.1% of AIP patients and 1.0% of those without AIP (P = 0.006).

    Conclusions: Hypertension is more common in patients with manifest AIP than in those with latent AIP or control subjects. Renal disease may be due to hypertension, to AIP or to SLE. AIP may predispose to other renal diseases.

  • 10.
    Andersson, Christer
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Lithner, Folke
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Allmänmedicin.
    Diagnosis of avute intermittent porphyria in northern Sweden. An evaluation of mutations analysis and biochemical methods1995Ingår i: J Internal Medicine, Vol. 237, s. 301-308Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 11.
    Andersson, Christer
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Lithner, Folke
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Allmänmedicin.
    Hypertension and renal disease in patients with acute intermitent porphyria1994Ingår i: Journal of Internal Medicine, ISSN 0954-6820, E-ISSN 1365-2796, Vol. 236, s. 169-175Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 12.
    Andersson, Christer
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Allmänmedicin.
    Nilsson, T.
    From the Primary Health Care Centre, Arvidsjaur, Sweden, .
    Bäckström, Torbjörn
    Atypical attack of acute intermittent porphyria: paresis but not abdominal pain2002Ingår i: Journal of Internal Medicine, ISSN 0954-6820, E-ISSN 1365-2796, Vol. 252, nr 3, s. 265-270Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We report a case of acute intermittent porphyria (AIP) in a 45-year-old woman. Her first attack occurred at the age of 38. Because of escalating cyclical premenstrual attacks, the following 2 years, depletion of the endogenous sex hormone was considered as haeme arginate treatment proved insufficient. Gonadotropin releasing hormone agonist treatment with low-dose oestradiol add back was quite successful initially but was abandoned after 18 months when progesterone add back precipitated a severe attack. Following hysterectomy and oophorectomy at age 42 and oestradiol add back, a remarkable monthly regularity of attacks ensured periodically but with milder symptoms. Two years after surgery, preceded by six attack-free months, a puzzling symptom-shift occurred, from abdominal pain, back and thigh pain during the attacks, to solely severe distal extensor paresis in the arms. Haeme arginate treatment interrupted the progress of the paresis almost immediately and motor function improved considerably up to the 9-month follow-up. Electrophysiological examination revealed only motor neuropathy, consistent with axonal degeneration. Subsequently the symptoms changed yet again, to sensory disturbances with numbness and dysesthesia as the primary expression followed by rather mild abdominal pain. However, cyclical attacks occurred, despite absence of endogenous ovarial hormone production, possibly attributable to impaired oestrogen metabolism in the liver, or adrenal oestrogen production. Treatment comprising oophorectomy, low-dose oestradiol add back and haeme arginate infusion for 2 days on the appearance of early AIP symptoms is now quite successful affording improvement in life quality.

  • 13.
    Andersson, Christer
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Allmänmedicin.
    Norberg, Margareta
    Eriksson, Jan W
    Rolandsson, Olof
    Stenlund, Hans
    Weinehall, Lars
    Combination of HbA1c, Fasting Glucose, and BMI is effective in Screening for Individuals at Risk of Future Type 2 Diabetes - OGTT is not needed2006Ingår i: J Internal Medicine, Vol. 260, s. 263-271Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 14.
    Andersson, Christer
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Wikberg, Agneta
    Lithner, Folke
    Signs of neuropathy in lower legs and feet of patients with acute intermittent porphyria2000Ingår i: Journal of Internal Medicine, ISSN 0954-6820, E-ISSN 1365-2796, Vol. 248, s. 27-32Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 15.
    Andersson, Christer
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Allmänmedicin.
    Wikberg, Agneta
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för omvårdnad.
    Stegmayr, Bernd
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Medicin.
    Lithner, Folke
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Medicin.
    Renal symtomatology in patients with acute intermitent porphyria2000Ingår i: Journal of Internal Medicine, ISSN 0954-6820, E-ISSN 1365-2796, Vol. 248, s. 319-325Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: Can renal insufficiency in subjects with acute intermittent porphyria (AIP) be due solely to AIP?

    Design: A population-based study.

    Subjects: Subjects with AIP ≥ 18 years of age (n = 386) in the four most northerly counties of Sweden.

    Interventions: Screening with creatinine clearance at 24 h. Patients below the lower reference level underwent a repeat clearance test and, if still low, also chromEDTA clearance.

    Results: 286 (74%) subjects performed the creatinine clearance test and in 57 clearance was low; the second clearance proved normal in 23 who were then excluded. Eighteen subjects with other possible medical reasons for renal insufficiency, ethical reasons or refusing further examinations were also excluded. The 16 remaining subjects with no explanation for their renal insufficiency other than AIP were then studied in detail. All 14 women, mean age 52 years, and two uraemic men, 58 and 67 years, had manifest AIP. Twelve patients had hypertension (HT) and four were normotensive in spite of renal insufficiency. Histological findings of renal biopsies revealed diffuse glomerulosclerotic and interstitial changes with additional ischaemic lesions.

    Conclusion: Protracted vasospasm in attacks of AIP may be a cause of renal lesions. This is discussed.

  • 16.
    Bylesjö, Ingemar
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Allmänmedicin.
    Wikberg, Agneta
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för omvårdnad.
    Andersson, Christer
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Allmänmedicin.
    Clinical aspects of acute intermittent porphyria in northern Sweden: A population-based study.2009Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation, ISSN 0036-5513, E-ISSN 1502-7686, Vol. 69, nr 5, s. 612-618Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this study was to update the clinical issues of acute intermittent porphyria (AIP), as they have not been in focus for years, and to be aware of potentially associated disorders and social consequences. A total of 356 gene carriers of AIP from northern Sweden participated in this retrospective population-based study. Eight mutations were found with a predominance of W198X (89%). Clinical manifestations of AIP (manifest AIP) were identified in 42%, 65% were women. Women were more severely stricken by AIP attacks concerning number and duration, hospital admission and early onset. Men reporting most attacks were > 40 years of age. In addition to traditional symptoms during attacks, fatigue was commonly described. Chronic AIP symptoms and disability pension due to AIP were reported in about 20% of subjects. Precipitating factors were reported with evident sex differences. Half of the gene carriers who were on medications used drugs considered not safe (in 1999), mainly antihypertensive drugs. Smoking was associated with high AIP attack frequency. Elevated levels of ALT, bile acids, creatinine, U-ALA and U-PBG and decreased levels of creatinine clearance were associated with manifest AIP. The same was true for hypertension and myalgia in the legs. Hepatoma was strikingly overrepresented. The high prevalence of manifest AIP in this study could be explained by a mutation-dependent penetrance. Our results emphasize the importance of early diagnosis, counselling and treatment of attacks, screening and treatment of associated disorders.

  • 17.
    Granlund, Lena E.
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Allmänmedicin.
    Ramnemark, Anna
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Geriatrik.
    Andersson, Christer
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Allmänmedicin.
    Lindkvist, Marie
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Statistik. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Norberg, Margareta
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Fhärm, Eva
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Allmänmedicin.
    Vitamin D status was not associated with anxiety, depression, or health-related quality of life in Middle Eastern and African-born immigrants in Sweden2020Ingår i: Nutrition Research, ISSN 0271-5317, E-ISSN 1879-0739, Vol. 75, s. 109-118Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Active vitamin D is a neurosteroid that may modulate brain function. Associations between vitamin D deficiency and depression and anxiety have been demonstrated. We hypothesized that there was an association between anxiety, depression, and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and vitamin D status. To test this hypothesis, we examined the association between anxiety, depression, and HRQOL and 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) concentrations in the Middle Eastern and African-born immigrant population. All immigrants aged 25-65 years, born in 9 African or Middle Eastern countries, and living in 3 districts in Umea (n = 1306) were invited, with 195 English- or Swedish-speaking immigrants (104 men and 91 women) participated. Anxiety and depression were measured using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale. HRQOL was measured using EuroQoL-5 Dimension 3 Level Questionnaire and EuroQoL Visual Analogue Scale. Serum 25(OH)D was measured using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Associations were determined using logistic and linear regression. Analyses were adjusted for sex, age, origin, socioeconomic factors, lifestyle, chronic diseases, and obesity. In total, 71% had 25(OH)D less than 50 nmol/ L and 11% had 25(OH)D less than 25 nmol/L. Anxiety, depression, and HRQOL were not associated with 25(OH)D in the immigrant population. Anxiety was common in female immigrants from the Middle East (32.7%); and after adjustment, lower 25(OH)D concentrations were associated with higher risk of anxiety (25[OH]D <= 49 nmol/L vs 25[OH] D >= 50 nmol/L: odds ratio 23.2 [95% confidence interval 1.97 - 271.9] P = .012) in this subgroup only; however, reverse causality could not be excluded. In conclusion, the study showed no association between depression, anxiety, or HRQOL and vitamin D status in the immigrant population.

  • 18.
    Granlund, Lena
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Allmänmedicin.
    Norberg, Margareta
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Ramnemark, Anna
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Geriatrik.
    Andersson, Christer
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Allmänmedicin.
    Lindkvist, Marie
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Statistik.
    Fhärm, Eva
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Allmänmedicin.
    Vitamin D is associated with lower limb muscle strength and grip strength in Middle Eastern- and African-born immigrants in Sweden2018Ingår i: Nutrition Research, ISSN 0271-5317, E-ISSN 1879-0739, Vol. 59, s. 29-35Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    There is increasing evidence that vitamin D status is associated with muscle function. Vitamin D deficiency is common in immigrants. We hypothesized that there was a positive association between vitamin D status and muscle strength in immigrants. The aim of this study was to examine associations between vitamin D status and muscle strength in an immigrant population in Sweden. All immigrants aged 25-65 years, born in 9 African or Middle East countries, and living in a district in Umeå (n = 1306) were invited. A total of 111 men and 105 women (16.5%) completed the study. Lower limb muscle strength was examined using a standardized muscle function indices of muscle strength. Grip strength was examined using a JAMAR hand dynamometer. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] was measured using liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. The analyses were adjusted for sex, age, height, body mass index, years since immigration, 25(OH)D, vitamin D deficiency, physical activity, and medical and socioeconomic factors. Twelve percent of the immigrants had vitamin D deficiency [25(OH)D levels <25 nmol/L]. In multivariable analyses, reduced lower limb muscle strength remained linearly associated with lower 25(OH)D concentrations (P = .008) and weaker grip strength remained associated with vitamin D deficiency (P = .022) after adjustments. The association between vitamin D deficiency and reduced lower limb muscle strength did not reach statistical significance (P = .052). The results demonstrate that vitamin D deficiency and low 25(OH)D concentrations were associated with muscle weakness in immigrants.

  • 19.
    Granlund, Lena
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Allmänmedicin.
    Ramnemark, Anna
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Geriatrik.
    Andersson, Christer
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Allmänmedicin.
    Lindkvist, Marie
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Statistik.
    Fhärm, Eva
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Allmänmedicin.
    Norberg, Margareta
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and its association with nutrition, travelling and clothing habits in an immigrant population in Northern Sweden2016Ingår i: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0954-3007, E-ISSN 1476-5640, Vol. 70, nr 3, s. 373-379Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: To study prevalence and determinants of vitamin D deficiency in immigrants from Africa and the Middle East living in Umeå, Sweden.

    DESIGN: Cross-sectional population based.

    SETTING: Umeå, Sweden (63° N).

    SUBJECTS/METHODS: Immigrants aged 25-65 years from nine countries in Africa or the Middle East (n=1306) were invited. A total of 111 men and 106 women (16.5%) completed the study. S-25-hydroxyvitamin D3 was measured with HPLC. Anthropometry, medical, socioeconomic and lifestyle data were registered.

    RESULTS: Vitamin D status was insufficient or deficient in 73% of the participants. Specifically, 12% had vitamin D deficiency (25(OH)D3<25 nmol/l), and only 3.7% had optimal vitamin D status (25(OH)D3 75-125 nmol/l). Mean 25(OH)D3 level was 41.0 nmol/l (±16.6) with no difference between sexes. Levels of 25(OH)D3 were lower (P=0.030) and vitamin D deficiency was twice as common in immigrants from Africa compared with those from the Middle East. In the multiple regression analysis, vitamin D deficiency was significantly associated with low fatty fish intake (OR 4.31, 95% CI 1.61-11.55), not travelling abroad (OR 3.76, 95% CI 1.18-11.96) and wearing long-sleeved clothes in summer (OR 3.15, 95% CI 1.09-9.12).

    CONCLUSIONS: The majority of immigrants from Africa and the Middle East who live in northern Sweden have vitamin D deficiency or insufficiency. Our results are consistent with sun exposure and a diet with high intake of fatty fish being most important in avoiding vitamin D deficiency.

  • 20.
    Granlund, Lena
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Allmänmedicin.
    Ramnemark, Anna
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Geriatrik.
    Andersson, Christer
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Allmänmedicin.
    Lindkvist, Marie
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Norberg, Margareta
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Fhärm, Eva
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Allmänmedicin.
    Associations between vitamin D status and anxiety, depression and health related quality of life in an immigrant population. A cross-sectional study from SwedenManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 21.
    Holmberg, Benny
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Allmänmedicin. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Medicin.
    Andersson, Christer
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Allmänmedicin.
    Stegmayr, Bernd G
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Medicin.
    There is no benefit of atorvastatin for patients with severe renal impairment independent if they have DM or notArtikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 22.
    Innala, Eva
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Obstetrik och gynekologi.
    Andersson, Christer
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin.
    Reply to letter to the editor from prof Viroj Wiwanitkit, Bankok, Thailand2011Ingår i: Journal of Internal Medicine, ISSN 0954-6820, E-ISSN 1365-2796, Vol. 270, nr 4, s. 397-397Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 23.
    Innala, Eva
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Obstetrik och gynekologi.
    Andersson, Christer
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Allmänmedicin.
    Screening for hepatocelular carcinoma in acute intermittent porphyria: A 15-year follow-up in northern Sweden2011Ingår i: Journal of Internal Medicine, ISSN 0954-6820, E-ISSN 1365-2796, Vol. 269, nr 5, s. 538-545Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: To evaluate the benefit of screening for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in gene carriers of acute intermittent porphyria (AIP) and estimate the annual incidence of HCC in this group.

    Subjects: All AIP gene carriers aged ≥55 years from the northernmost county in Sweden, Norrbotten, were invited for screening in this prospective study every 1–1.5 years during the period 1994–2009. We registered all HCC cases amongst AIP gene carriers in the northern region of Sweden (four counties). We compared gene carriers with repeated screening intervals of <2 years (Group A) with controls (Group B; i.e. gene carriers who had never been screened, those screened for the first time or screened at intervals of >2 years, or dropouts). The screening included radiological examination of the liver and relevant laboratory tests.

    Results, A total of 62 AIP subjects participated in the study, comprising 33% of the total AIP population aged >55 years in the northern region of Sweden. HCC was diagnosed in 22 AIP subjects (12 men and 10 women), mean age 69 (59–82) years. Amongst these subjects, 73% had experienced prior AIP attacks. The incidence rate ratio for HCC was 64 (52 in men and 93 in women). There were no cases of hepatitis B/C or alcohol abuse. Liver cirrhosis was rare. Liver resection could be performed in most subjects in Group A. Fourteen patients died of HCC, one in Group A and 13 in Group B. Compared with those who were not screened regularly, screening was associated with improved 3-year and 5-year survival (P = 0.005 and 0.038).

    Conclusions, Screening for HCC in carriers of AIP enables early diagnosis and a choice of potentially curative treatments with improved prognosis. We recommend annual screening using liver imaging for AIP gene carriers >50 years of age.

  • 24.
    Innala, Eva
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Obstetrik och gynekologi.
    Bäckström, Torbjörn
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Obstetrik och gynekologi.
    Bixo, Marie
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Obstetrik och gynekologi.
    Andersson, Christer
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Allmänmedicin.
    Evaluation of gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist treatment for prevention of menstrual-related attacks in acute porphyria2010Ingår i: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6349, E-ISSN 1600-0412, Vol. 89, nr 1, s. 95-100Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the benefits and adverse effects of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist treatment for prevention of recurrent menstrual attacks in women with acute intermittent porphyria and variegate porphyria. To describe concomitant add-back therapies with estradiol and progesterone and describe their benefits and adverse effects. DESIGN: A retrospective follow-up with questionnaires, interviews and medical records. SETTING: Out-patient care at the Umeå University Hospital in Sweden. POPULATION: Sixteen Caucasian women with DNA-diagnosed porphyria and menstrual-cycle-related porphyria attacks were treated with GnRH agonists during 1984-2000. Fourteen women participated. The mean age when treatment started was 33 years (17-48 years). The duration of treatment varied between 5 months and 9 years. METHODS: GnRH agonists were administered by the intranasal route or by injections. To reduce menopausal symptoms, add-back therapy with low doses of estradiol was administered, and for endometrial protection progesterone was usually administered. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Treatment effects and adverse events as detected in questionnaires, interviews and medical records. RESULTS: Eleven women reported benefits from GnRH agonist treatment with less intense and/or less frequent porphyria attacks, and in four of them attacks almost disappeared. Two women reported no change. One woman had only temporary improvement. Porphyria attacks were triggered by solely estradiol add-back in two women and in five of nine women when progesterone was given. CONCLUSIONS: GnRH agonist treatment can ameliorate menstrual-cycle-related attacks of porphyria. Dose findings for GnRH agonists and add-back regimes especially for progesterone are intricate.

  • 25.
    Innala, Eva
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Obstetrik och gynekologi.
    Bäckström, Torbjörn
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Obstetrik och gynekologi.
    Sundström Poromaa, Inger
    Department of Women's and Children's Health, Uppsala University, Uppsala.
    Andersson, Christer
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Allmänmedicin.
    Bixo, Marie
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Obstetrik och gynekologi. Department of Clinical Science and Education, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Women with acute intermittent porphyria have a defect in 5 alpha-steroid production during the menstrual cycle2012Ingår i: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6349, E-ISSN 1600-0412, Vol. 91, nr 12, s. 1445-1452Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective. To measure serum concentrations of progesterone, estradiol and 5 alpha- and 5 beta-reduced progesterone metabolites in the follicular and luteal phases of the menstrual cycle in women with latent acute intermittent porphyria and manifest acute intermittent porphyria in comparison with healthy control women. Design. A descriptive study with repeated measurements during a complete, ovulatory menstrual cycle. Setting. University hospital out-patient clinic. Population. Thirty-two women with DNA-diagnosed acute intermittent porphyria and 20 healthy control women. Methods. Blood samples for serum progesterone, estradiol, allopregnanolone and pregnanolone were drawn on predefined menstrual cycle days, twice in the follicular phase and three times in the luteal phase. Serum levels of estradiol and progesterone were analysed with commercial kits. Allopregnanolone and pregnanolone levels were analysed with radioimmunoassay following diethylether extraction and celite column chromatography. Main outcome measures. Changes in serum levels of progesterone, estradiol, allopregnanolone and pregnanolone throughout the menstrual cycle. Results. Women with acute intermittent porphyria displayed lower serum concentrations of allopregnanolone in comparison with healthy control women, the difference being most prominent in the luteal phase (p < 0.001). Levels of pregnanolone did not differ significantly between groups. No significant difference was found between women with latent acute intermittent porphyria and manifest acute intermittent porphyria. Conclusions. Decreased levels of the 5 alpha-reduced progesterone metabolite allopregnanolone were found in the menstrual cycle of women with acute intermittent porphyria. This has not been reported previously and could indicate a reduced 5 alpha-reductase type 1 capacity in the ovary and liver among these women.

  • 26.
    Norberg, Margareta
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och folkhälsovetenskap.
    Eriksson, Jan
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Medicin.
    Lindahl, B
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Andersson, Christer
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Allmänmedicin.
    Rolandsson, Olov
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Allmänmedicin.
    Stenlund, Hans
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och folkhälsovetenskap.
    Weinehall, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och folkhälsovetenskap.
    A combination of HbA1c, fasting glucose and BMI is effective in screening for individuals at risk of future type 2 diabetes: OGTT is not needed.2006Ingår i: Journal of Internal Medicine, ISSN 0954-6820, E-ISSN 1365-2796, Vol. 260, nr 3, s. 263-71Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To identify a screening model that predicts high risk of future type 2 diabetes and is useful in clinical practice. DESIGN AND METHODS: Incident case-referent study nested within a population-based health survey. We compared screening models with three risk criteria and calculated sensitivity, specificity, positive (PPV) and negative (NPV) predictive values and attributable proportion. We used fasting plasma glucose (FPG) alone or with an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), glycosylated haemoglobin A (HbA1c) (normal range 3.6-5.3%), body mass index (BMI), triglycerides and family history of diabetes (FHD). SETTING: Participants in a health survey at all primary care centres (n=33,336) and subjects with diagnosed type 2 diabetes in primary and hospital care (n=6088) in Umeå during 1989-2001. SUBJECTS: Each of the 164 subjects who developed clinically diagnosed type 2 diabetes (median time to diagnosis of 5.4 years) and 304 sex- and age-matched referents without diabetes diagnosis. RESULTS: Screening models with at least one criterion present had sensitivities of 0.90-0.96, specificities of 0.43-0.57 and PPVs of 8-9%. Combinations of the criteria, FPG>or=6.1 mmol L-1 (capillary plasma), HbA1c>or=4.7% and BMI>or=27 in men and BMI>or=30 in women, had sensitivities, specificities and PPVs of 0.66%, 0.93% and 32%, and 0.52%, 0.97% and 46% respectively. Using FHD as one of three risk criteria showed comparable results. Addition of triglycerides or OGTT did not improve the prediction. CONCLUSIONS: The combination of HbA1c, FPG and BMI are effective in screening for individuals at risk of future clinical diagnosis of type 2 diabetes. OGTT or FHD is not necessary.

  • 27.
    Norberg, Margareta
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Granlund, Lena
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Allmänmedicin.
    Ramnemark, Anna
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Geriatrik.
    Andersson, Christer
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Allmänmedicin.
    Fhärm, Eva
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Allmänmedicin.
    Lindkvist, Marie
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    A randomised trial of vitamin D among immigrants in Sweden: response to treatment - a question of starting point and doseManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 28.
    Norberg, Margareta
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och folkhälsovetenskap.
    Stenlund, Hans
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och folkhälsovetenskap.
    Lindahl, B
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Andersson, Christer
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Allmänmedicin.
    Eriksson, Jan
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Medicin.
    Weinehall, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och folkhälsovetenskap.
    Work stress and low emotional support is associated with increased risk of future type 2 diabetes in women2007Ingår i: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice, ISSN 0168-8227, E-ISSN 1872-8227, Vol. 76, nr 3, s. 368-377Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A case-referent study nested within a population-based health survey investigated the associations between psychosocial stress, such as work stress and low emotional support, and future development of type 2 diabetes among occupationally working middle-aged men and women. All participants in a health survey conducted during 1989-2000 (n=33,336) in Umeå in northern Sweden, were included. We identified 191 cases, who were not diabetic initially but were diagnosed with type 2 diabetes after 5.4+/-2.6 years. Two age- and sex-matched referents were selected for each case. Multivariate logistic regression analyses and interaction effects between variables were evaluated.

    In women, passive or tense working situations were associated with future type 2 diabetes with odds ratios 3.6 (95% confidence interval 1.1-11.7) and 3.6 (1.0-13.3), respectively, and also low emotional support 3.0 (1.3-7.0). These associations were not seen in men. In women, they remained after adjustment for BMI, civil status and educational level, and there were also tendencies for interactions between work stress and low emotional support.

    In conclusion, work stress and low emotional support may increase the risk of type 2 diabetes in women, but not in men. These findings contribute to our understanding of psychosocial stress as potential risk factors for type 2 diabetes in a Swedish population.

  • 29.
    Norberg, Margareta
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Stenlund, Hans
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Lindahl, Bernt
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Andersson, Christer
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Allmänmedicin.
    Weinehall, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och folkhälsovetenskap.
    Hallmans, Göran
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Näringsforskning.
    Eriksson, Jan
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin.
    Components of metabolic syndrome predicting diabetes: no role of inflammation or dyslipidemia.2007Ingår i: Obesity (Silver Spring), ISSN 1930-7381, Vol. 15, nr 7, s. 1875-1885Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 30. Wahlin, Staffan
    et al.
    Harper, Pauline
    Sardh, Eliane
    Andersson, Christer
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Allmänmedicin.
    Andersson, Dan EH
    Ericzon, Bo-Göran
    Combined liver and kidney transplantation in acute intermittent porphyria2010Ingår i: Transplant International, ISSN 0934-0874, E-ISSN 1432-2277, Vol. 23, nr 6, s. e18-e21Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We report two patients with acute intermittent porphyria (AIP) who were successfully treated with combined liver and kidney transplantation. Both had a very poor quality of life as a result of years of frequent acute porphyria symptoms, chronic peripheral neuropathy and renal failure requiring dialysis. After transplantation, clinical and biochemical signs of porphyria disappeared. The excretion pattern of porphyrin precursors normalized within the first day and plasma porphyrins returned to normal within a week. These and other recent cases have clarified previous concerns and have helped to formulate the indications for and the timing of transplantation in AIP.

1 - 30 av 30
RefereraExporteraLänk till träfflistan
Permanent länk
Referera
Referensformat
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Annat format
Fler format
Språk
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Annat språk
Fler språk
Utmatningsformat
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf