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  • 1.
    Piotrowska, Patrycja
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Rebbling, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Lindberg, Daniel
    Backman, Rainer
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Öhman, Marcus
    Boström, Dan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Waste gypsum board and ash-related problems during combustion of biomass: 1. Fluidized bed2015In: Energy & Fuels, ISSN 0887-0624, E-ISSN 1520-5029, Vol. 29, no 2, p. 877-893Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper is the first in a series of two describing the use of waste gypsum boards as an additive during combustion of biomass. This paper focuses on experiments performed in a bench-scale bubbling fluidized-bed reactor (5 kW). Three biomass fuels were used, i.e., wheat straw (WS), reed canary grass (RC), and spruce bark (SB), with and without addition of shredded waste gypsum board (SWGB). The objective of this work was to determine the effect of SWGB addition on biomass ash transformation reactions during fluidized bed combustion. The combustion was carried out in a bed of quartz sand at 800 or 700 degrees C for 8 h. After the combustion stage, a controlled fluidizedbed agglomeration test was carried out to determine the defluidization temperature. During combustion experiments, outlet gas composition was continuously measured by means of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. At the same place in the flue gas channel, particulate matter was collected with a 13-stage Dekati low-pressure impactor. Bottom and cyclone fly ash samples were collected after the combustion tests. In addition, during the combustion tests a 6-h deposit sample was collected with an air-cooled (430 degrees C) probe. All ash samples were analyzed by means of scanning electron microscopy combined with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry for elemental composition and with X-ray powder diffraction for the detection of crystalline phases. Decomposition of CaSO4 originating from SWGB was mainly observed during combustion of reed canary grass at 800 degrees C. The decomposition was observed as doubled SO2 emissions. No significant increase of SO2 during combustion of SB and WS was observed. However, the interaction of SWGB particles with WS and SB ash forming matter, mainly potassium containing compounds, led to the formation of K2Ca2(SO4)(3).

  • 2.
    Rebbling, Anders
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Näzelius, Ida-Linn
    Piotrowska, Patrycja
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Skoglund, Nils
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics. Energy Engineering, Department of Engineering Sciences & Mathematics, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Boman, Christoffer
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Boström, Dan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Öhman, Marcus
    Waste Gypsum Board and Ash-Related Problems during Combustion of Biomass. 2. Fixed Bed2016In: Energy & Fuels, ISSN 0887-0624, E-ISSN 1520-5029, Vol. 30, no 12, p. 10705-10713Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper is the second of two describing the use of shredded waste gypsum board (SWGB) as an additive during combustion of biomass. The focus of this paper is to determine whether SWGB can be used as a fuel additive providing CaO and SO2/SO3 for mitigation of ash-related operational problems during combustion of biomass and waste derived fuels in grate fired fixed bed applications. The former study in this series was performed in a fluidized bed and thus allow for comparison of results. Gypsum may decompose at elevated temperatures and forms solid CaO and gaseous SO2/SO3 which have been shown to reduce problems with slagging on the fixed bed and alkali chloride deposit formation. Three different biomasses, spruce bark (SB), reed canary grass (RG), and wheat straw (WS), were combusted with and without addition of SWGB in a residential pellet burner (20 kWth). Waste derived fuel with and without the addition of SWGB was combusted in a large scale grate-fired boiler (25 MWth). The amount of added SWGB varied between 1 and 4 wt %. Ash, slag, and particulate matter (PM) were sampled and subsequently analyzed with scanning electron microscopy/ energy dispersive spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. Decomposition of CaSO4 originating from SWGB was observed as elevated SO2 emissions in both the large scale and small scale facilities and significantly higher than was observed in the fluidized bed study. Slag formation was significantly reduced due to formation of calcium-silicates in small scale application, but no conclusive observations regarding calcium reactivity could be made in the large scale application. In the small scale study the formation of K2SO4 was favored over KCl in PM, while in the large scale study K3Na(SO4)2 and K2Zn2(SO4)3 increased. It is concluded that SWGB can be used as a source of CaO and SO2/SO3 to mitigate slag formation on the grate and chloride-induced high temperature corrosion and that fixed bed applications are likely more suitable than bubbling fluidized beds when using SWGB as an additive.

  • 3.
    Werner, Kajsa
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Piotrowska, Patrycja
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Gentili, Francesco
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Holmlund, Mattias
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, SLU.
    Boman, Christoffer
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Broström, Markus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Characterization of Thermochemical Fuel Properties of Microalgae and Cyanobacteria2014Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 4. Zhu, Youjian
    et al.
    Piotrowska, Patrycja
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    van Eyk, Philip J.
    Boström, Dan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Kwong, Chi Wai
    Wang, Dingbiao
    Cole, Andrew J.
    de Nys, Rocky
    Gentili, Francesco G.
    Ashman, Peter J.
    Cogasification of Australian Brown Coal with Algae in a Fluidized Bed Reactor2015In: Energy & Fuels, ISSN 0887-0624, E-ISSN 1520-5029, Vol. 29, no 3, p. 1686-1700Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recently, the use of algae for CO2 abatement, wastewater treatment, and energy production has increasingly gained attention worldwide. In order to explore the potential of using algae as an alternative fuel as well as the possible challenges related to the algae gasification process, two species of macroalgae, Derbesia tenuissima and Oedogonium sp., and one type of microalgae, Scenedesmus sp. were studied in this research. In this work, Oedogonium sp. was cultivated with two protocols: producing biomass with both high and low levels of nitrogen content. Cogasification of 10 wt % algae with an Australian brown coal was performed in a fluidized bed reactor, and the effects of algae addition on syngas yield, ash composition, and bed agglomeration were investigated. It was found that CO and H-2 yield increased and CO2 yield decreased after adding three types of macroalgae in the coal, with a slight increase of carbon conversion rate, compared to the coal alone experiment. In the case of coal/Scenedesmus sp, the carbon conversion rate decreased with lower CO/CO2/H-2 yield as compared to coal alone. Samples of fly ash, bed ash, and bed material agglomerates were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy combined with an energy dispersive X-ray detector (SEM-EDX) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). It was observed that both the fly ash and bed ash samples from all coal/macroalgae tests contained more Na and K as compared to the coal test. High Ca and Fe contents were also found in the fly ash and bed ash from the coal/Scenedesmus sp. test. Significant differences in the characteristics and compositions of the ash layer on the bed particles were observed from the different tests. Agglomerates were found in the bed material samples after the cogasification tests of coal/Oedogonium N+ and coal/Oedogonium N. The formation of liquid alkalisilicates on the sand particles was considered to be the main reason for agglomeration for the coal/Oedogonium N+ and coal/Oedogonium N tests. Agglomerates of fused ash and tiny silica sand particles were also found in the coal/Scenedesmus sp. test. In this case, however, the formation of a Fe-Al silicate eutectic mixture was proposed to be the main reason for agglomeration. Debersia was suggested to be a potential alternative fuel, which can be cogasified with brown coal without any significant operating problems under the current experimental conditions. However, for the other algae types, appropriate countermeasures are needed to avoid agglomeration and defluidization in the cogasification process.

  • 5.
    Zhu, Youjian
    et al.
    School of Energy and Power Engineering, Zhengzhou University of Light Industry, Zhengzhou, Henan 450002, People’s Republic of China.
    Piotrowska, Patrycja
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    van Eyk, Philip Joseph
    School of Chemical Engineering, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, South Australia 5005, Australia.
    Boström, Dan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Wu, Xuehong
    School of Energy and Power Engineering, Zhengzhou University of Light Industry, Zhengzhou, Henan 450002, People’s Republic of China.
    Boman, Christoffer
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics, Energy Technology and Thermal Process Chemistry.
    Broström, Markus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Zhang, Jun
    School of Energy and Power Engineering, Zhengzhou University of Light Industry, Zhengzhou, Henan 450002, People’s Republic of China.
    Kwong, Chi Wai
    School of Chemical Engineering, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, South Australia 5005, Australia.
    Wang, Dingbiao
    School of Chemical Engineering and Energy, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, Henan 450001, People’s Republic of China.
    Cole, Andrew J
    MACRO, the Centre for Macroalgal Resources and Biotechnology, James Cook University, Townsville, Queensland 4811, Australia.
    de Nys, Rocky
    MACRO, the Centre for Macroalgal Resources and Biotechnology, James Cook University, Townsville, Queensland 4811, Australia.
    Gentili, Francesco G.
    Department of Wildlife, Fish, and Environmental Studies, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), 901 83 Umeå, Sweden.
    Ashman, Peter J.
    School of Chemical Engineering, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, South Australia 5005, Australia.
    Fluidized bed co-gasification of algae and wood pellets: gas yields and bed agglomeration analysis2016In: Energy & Fuels, ISSN 0887-0624, E-ISSN 1520-5029, Vol. 30, no 3, p. 1800-1809Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Algae utilization in energy production has gained increasing attention as a result of its characteristics, such as high productivity, rapid growth rate, and flexible cultivation environment. In this paper, three species of algae, including a fresh water macroalgae, Oedogonium sp., a saltwater macroalgae, Derbersia tenuissima, and a microalgae species, Scenedesmus sp., were studied to explore the potential of using smaller amounts of algae fuels in blends with traditional woody biomasses in the gasification processes. Co-gasification of 10 wt % algae and 90 wt % Swedish wood pellets was performed in a fluidized bed reactor. The effects of algae addition on the syngas yield and carbon conversion rate were investigated. The addition of 10 wt % algae in wood increased the CO, H2, and CH4 yields by 3–20, 6–31, and 9–20%, respectively. At the same time, it decreased the CO2 yield by 3–18%. The carbon conversion rates were slightly increased with the addition of 10 wt % macroalgae in wood, but the microalgae addition resulted in a decrease of the carbon conversion rate by 8%. Meanwhile, the collected fly ash and bed material samples were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy combined with an energy-dispersive X-ray detector (SEM–EDX) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique. The fly ashes of wood/marcoalgae tests showed a higher Na content with lower Si and Ca contents compared to the wood test. The gasification tests were scheduled to last 4 h; however, only wood and wood/Derbersia gasification experiments were carried out without significant operational problems. The gasification of 10 wt % Oedogonium N+ and Oedogonium N– led to defluidization of the bed in less than 1 h, and the wood/Scenedesmus (WD/SA) test was stopped after 1.8 h as a result of severe agglomeration. It was found that the algae addition had a remarkable influence on the characteristics and compositions of the coating layer. The coating layer formation and bed agglomeration mechanism of wood/macroalgae was initiated by the reaction of alkali compounds with the bed particles to form low-temperature melting silicates (inner layer). For the WD/SA test, the agglomeration was influenced by both the composition of the original algae fuel as well as the external mineral contaminations. In summary, the operational problems experienced during the co-gasification tests of different algae–wood mixtures were assigned to the specific ash compositions of the different fuel mixtures. This showed the need for countermeasures, specifically to balance the high alkali content, to reach stable operation in a fluidized bed gasifier.

1 - 5 of 5
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