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  • 1.
    Jarstad, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Eklund, Niklas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Johansson, Patrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Olivius, Elisabeth
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Saati, Abrak
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Sahovic, Dzenan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Strandh, Veronica
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Söderström, Johanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Eklund Wimelius, Malin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Åkebo, Malin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Three approaches to peace: a framework for describing and exploring varieties of peace2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    For decades, peace and conflict studies have devoted more attention to conflict than to peace, and despiteits centrality, peace itself has been under-conceptualized. In this paper, we propose a theoretical frameworkand methodologies to make peace beyond the absence of war researchable. The framework is designed to capture varieties of peace between and beyond dichotomous conceptions of positive versus negative peace, or successful versus failed peace processes. To capture the complexity of peace in its empirical diversity, our framework approaches peace in three different ways: as a situation or condition in a particular locality; as a web of relationships; and as ideas or discourses about what peace is or should be. These approaches provide different avenues for researching peace, and taken together they provide a fuller picture of what peace is, how it is manifested, experienced, and understood. We argue that this framework provides a way forward in advancing conceptual understandings and empirical analyses of peace that can facilitate systematic, comparative, qualitative analyses while at the same time accounting for the complex, multifaceted nature of peace.

  • 2.
    Jarstad, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Olivius, Elisabeth
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Åkebo, Malin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Höglund, Kristine
    Department of Peace and Conflict Research, Uppsala University.
    Söderberg Kovacs, Mimmi
    the Nordic Africa Institute, Uppsala University.
    Söderström, Johanna
    Department of Government, Uppsala University.
    Saati, Abrak
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Kostić, Roland
    the Hugo Valentin Centre and Department of Peace and Conflict Research, Uppsala University.
    Sahovic, Dzenan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Peace agreements in the 1990s – what are the outcomes 20 years later?2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In the 1990s, a number of protracted armed conflicts were finally ended. This period can be described as a paradigmatic shift with regards to how armed conflicts are brought to an end. When the logic of the Cold War no longer hindered the United Nations (UN) to intervene, the number of UN peace operations rose dramatically and became more comprehensive. In addition, conflicts increasingly ended through negotiated settlements rather than military victory. The peace processes of the 1990s gave rise to great optimism that negotiations and peacebuilding efforts, often with considerable international involvement, would bring sustainable peace to war-affected countries. The outcomes of these peace processes, however, appears to be far from unanimously positive. Today, 20 years after the war endings of the 1990s, it is therefore imperative to critically analyze and evaluate these peace processes and their long-term results. What is the situation like today in countries where conflicts ended in the 1990s? What has become of the peace? In this paper, the long-term outcomes of peace processes that took place in the 1990s are evaluated through brief analyses of a number of cases,demonstrating that the nature and quality of peace today show great diversity. The paper also includes a conceptualization of the ”peace triangle” aimed at distinguishing between different forms of peace, as well as a study of the relationship between peacebuilding and democracy in UN peace operations in the 1990s, concluding that outcomes with regards to democratic development in the intervened countries are generally poor.

  • 3.
    Jarstad, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Åkebo, Malin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Johansson, Patrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Barnes, Philippa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Eklund, Niklas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Eklund Wimelius, Malin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Olivius, Elisabeth
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Saati, Abrak
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Sahovic, Dzenan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Strandh, Veronica
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Söderström, Johanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science. Department of Government, Uppsala University and Department of Comparative Politics, University of Bergen .
    Varieties of peace: presentation of a research program2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Varieties of Peace research program aims to analyze long-term effects of peace processes in conflicts that ended in the 1990s. The central research questions are: What characterizes peace after the peace processes initiated in the 1990s and how does it vary? How can this variation be described and explained? Peace processes have been studied using short time perspectives, usually in ”lessons-learned” evaluations five years after conflict termination, and usually with theories of conflict as a starting point. The Varieties of Peace research program is an ambitious initiative, which starts from a theoretical understanding of peace, its quality and character, and views peace and peace processes as dynamic and transformative. It will investigate and evaluate different types of peace processes from a comparative perspective and 25–30 years after they started, with the ambition of producing generalizable knowledge about peace, what it is and how it can be achieved. As a starting point, the program studies explanatory factors in five areas: 1) the actions, capacity and resilience of civil society, 2) the interests and strategies of the elites, 3) the aims and character of the agreements, 4) the societies’ institutions and resilience, and 5) international involvement. These issues will be studies in at least ten projects, with the ambition to capture and explain variation, internal dynamics and ultimately the results and effects of peace processes, studied over a longer period of time. The Varieties of Peace program is funded by Riksbankens Jubileumsfond: the Swedish Foundation for Humanities and Social Sciences, 2017-2024. For more info, please visit our webpage at www.varietiesofpeace.net.

  • 4.
    Söderlund (Åkebo), Malin
    et al.
    Svenska Freds- och Skiljedomsföreningen.
    Wennerstrand, Sofia
    Svenska Freds- och Skiljedomsföreningen.
    Verktyg för fred: exempel från Liberia och Sri Lanka2007Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 5.
    Söderström, Johanna
    et al.
    Department of Government, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Åkebo, Malin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Jarstad, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science. Department of Government, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Friends, Fellows and Foes: A new framework for studying relational peace2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we suggest that taking a relational view of peace serious is a fruitful avenue for expanding current theoretical frameworks surrounding peace as a concept. Paving the way for such an approach, this paper conducts a review of the literature which takes on peace as a relational concept. We then return to how a relationship is conceptualized, before turning to how such components would be further defined in order to specify relational peace. Based on this framework, we argue that a peaceful relation entails non-domination, deliberation and cooperation between the actors in the dyad, the actors involved recognize and trust each other and believe that the relationship is one between legitimate actors and ultimately an expression of friendship. It clarifies the methodological implications of studying peace in this manner. It also demonstrates some of the advantages of this approach, as it shows how peace and war can co-exist in webs of multiple interactions, and the importance of studying relations, and how actors understand these relationships, as a way of studying varieties of peace.

  • 6.
    Åkebo, Malin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Ceasefire agreements and peace processes: a comparative study2016Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This book analyses and compares ceasefire agreements as part of peace processes in intrastate armed conflicts.

     

    Research repeatedly underscores the importance of ceasefire agreements in peace processes but suggests that they can influence such processes in fundamentally different ways. However, despite contradictory expectations, remarkably few studies have so far been devoted to systematic and in-depth analysis of ceasefire agreements in contemporary intrastate armed conflicts. This book contributes to filling this gap by using a process-oriented conflict dynamics approach to analyse and explain how ceasefire agreements are being influenced by and in turn influences the broader dynamics of peace processes. Empirically, the book focuses on the armed conflicts in Aceh (Indonesia) and Sri Lanka. Based on document studies and 57 interviews with key actors, it presents comparative insights and in-depth knowledge about ceasefire agreements in different contextual settings. The book problematizes the common assumption in the literature that ceasefire agreements create momentum in peace processes and pave the way to peace, and it provides a more nuanced analysis and understanding based on two empirical cases analysed within a comparative framework. In contrast to conventional wisdom, it demonstrates how ceasefires on the contrary also can have negative implications on peace processes.

     

    This book will be of much interest to students of conflict resolution, peace studies, intra-state conflict, security studies and IR in general.

  • 7.
    Åkebo, Malin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    “Coexistence Ceasefire” in Mindanao2019In: Peace and Change, ISSN 0149-0508, E-ISSN 1468-0130, Vol. 44, no 4, p. 468-496Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the peace and conflict literature, a ceasefire is often conceived as an event or an outcome of an armed conflict. In this paper, I argue that we can gain a better understanding of ceasefires by approaching them as dynamic processes of change and by exploring patterns of interactions and changing relationships in the context of ceasefire. I use this approach in a case study of the ceasefire between the government of the Philippines and the Moro Islamic Liberation Front (MILF) in Mindanao. I suggest that the Mindanao ceasefire can be conceptualized as a form of “coexistence ceasefire,” and I trace the development of the particular ceasefire structure and interactions to features of the armed conflict, including its territorial dimension and the presence of multiple sources of violence. The paper contributes a new and more nuanced way of studying ceasefires that provides a better understanding of their characteristics and dynamics and of how they shape and in turn are shaped by the broader conflict landscape.

  • 8.
    Åkebo, Malin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Disaster governance in war-torn societies: tsunami recovery in urbanising Aceh and Sri Lanka2016In: Disaster governance in urbanising Asia / [ed] Michelle Ann Miller, Mike Douglass, Singapore: Springer, 2016, p. 85-107Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The chapter focuses on disaster governance in the context of the earthquake and tsunami that severely hit the war-torn areas of Aceh and Sri Lanka in December 2004. It explores how the tsunami response and recovery actions were influenced by the ongoing armed conflicts and how the process of tsunami recovery, in its own turn, shaped the politics of the violent conflicts. The chapter takes a closer look at the urban dimension of tsunami recovery and at urban–rural intersections. While the tsunami on the one hand opened up a window of opportunity for reaching a peaceful solution to the violent conflicts, at the same time, as illustrated in the chapter, the natural disaster also contributed to consolidate dividing lines between geographical localities, urban and rural societies and identity groups. The chapter points to the importance of recognising competing governance systems and how prior tensions, cleavages and political power struggles might be reproduced and accentuated in the light of environmental disasters. In conclusion, the chapter underlines the essential importance of taking context into account and of recognising the political processes at play so as to understand the response and recovery from environmental disasters in different conflict settings and societies.

  • 9.
    Åkebo, Malin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    International dimensions of peace processes in Aceh and Sri Lanka: the role of intermediaries in the 2000s2012In: The Security-Development Nexus: Peace, Conflict and Development / [ed] Ramses Amer, Ashok Swain and Joakim Öjendal, London: Anthem Press, 2012, p. 111-136Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Åkebo, Malin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    The Politics of Ceasefires: On Ceasefire Agreements and Peace Processes in Aceh and Sri Lanka2013Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent decades we have seen an increase in peace processes aimed at solving armed conflicts through peaceful means. The often fragile characteristics of such processes and the settlements that they produce underline the essential importance of improving our understanding of the dynamics at play in transitions from war to peace. This thesis aims to contribute to this overarching objective by analysing ceasefire agreements in relation to peace processes in two protracted intrastate armed conflicts: Aceh, Indonesia, and Sri Lanka. In the scholarly literature, ceasefire agreements are often assumed to create momentum due to their ability to pave the way to a peaceful solution. At the same time, it has also been suggested that ceasefires can influence conflict dynamics in negative ways. Although there are many unanswered questions about ceasefire agreements in contemporary peace processes, few studies have been devoted to systematic and in-depth analysis of how ceasefire agreements can be characterized and analysed in relation to peace processes in protracted intrastate conflicts. This thesis, which is based on written documents and on interviews conducted during four research trips to the region, contributes to filling this research gap by presenting comparative case studies of Aceh and Sri Lanka. The point of departure in the study is a process-oriented, conflict dynamics approach and a view that war-to-peace transitions require changes in the conflicting parties’ attitudes, behaviours and relationships. I analyse and compare ceasefire agreements by looking at their initiation, form and content, and by examining their implementation and the unfolding of the processes. I identify six key factors in the literature that can influence the conflicting parties’ attitudes, behaviours and relationships. I then use these factors to analyse ceasefire agreements in relation to the dynamics of the broader peace processes. In this thesis I show how these key factors – including issues of recognition, trust, whether the parties’ claims are met, international involvement, contextual changes and intra-party dynamics – have mattered. I also show that context is important for understanding how and why they have mattered. The results suggest that ceasefire agreements can facilitate war-topeace transitions; however, it also illuminates challenges and the risk that such agreements can be counter-productive in the context of intrastate conflicts. The study also shows that ceasefire agreements have a historical legacy, as illustrated by their impact on subsequent interactions and agreements, and it underlines the symbolic politics of ceasefires in asymmetrical intrastate conflicts. The thesis ends with a number of propositions, among others that ceasefire agreements tend to become more comprehensive over time and that power struggles and developments within the conflicting parties are important for understanding ceasefire agreements in relation to contemporary peace processes.

  • 11.
    Åkebo, Malin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    The role of external actors in managing peace processes in Asia: an overview of attempts in Aceh, Mindanao and Sri Lanka2011In: Conflict management and dispute settlement in East Asia / [ed] Ramses Amer and Keyuan Zou, Farnham and Burlington: Ashgate, 2011, p. 83-106Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Åkebo, Malin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    The Role of the Media in Times of War-Making and Peace-Making in Aceh2015In: Asian Politics & Policy, ISSN 1943-0779, E-ISSN 1943-0787, Vol. 7, no 2, p. 327-332Article in journal (Refereed)
1 - 12 of 12
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