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  • 1.
    Davis, Louise
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Jowett, Sophia
    Tafvelin, Susanne
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Communication Strategies: The Fuel for Quality Coach-Athlete Relationships and Athlete Satisfaction2019In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 10, article id 2156Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present two-study paper examined the role of communication strategies that athletes use to develop their coach-athlete relationship. Study 1 examined the mediating role of motivation, support, and conflict management strategies between the quality of the coach-athlete relationship and athletes' perceptions of sport satisfaction. Study 2 examined the longitudinal and mediational associations of communication strategies and relationship quality across two time points, over a 6-week period. Within both studies, data were collected through multi-section questionnaires assessing the studies' variables. For study 1, structural equation modeling highlighted significant indirect effects for motivation and support strategies between the quality of the coach-athlete relationship and athletes' experiences of sport satisfaction. For study 2, significant indirect effects were found for the athletes' perceptions of the quality of the coach-athlete relationship at time 2 between athletes' use of communication strategies at time point 1 and time point 2. Together these findings provide support for the practical utility of communications strategies in enhancing the quality of the coach-athlete relationship and athlete's experiences of sport satisfaction. In addition, the findings provide evidence to highlight the potential cyclical relationship between communication and relationship quality across time.

  • 2. Hasson, Henna
    et al.
    Schwarz, Ulrica von Thiele
    Holmström, Stefan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Karanika-Murray, Maria
    Tafvelin, Susanne
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Improving organizational learning through leadership training2016In: Journal of Workplace Learning, ISSN 1366-5626, E-ISSN 1758-7859, Vol. 28, no 3, p. 115-129Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - This paper aims to evaluate whether training of managers at workplaces can improve organizational learning. Managers play a crucial role in providing opportunities to employees for learning. Although scholars have called for intervention research on the effects of leadership development on organizational learning, no such research is currently available.

    Design/methodology/approach - The training program consisted of theoretical and practical elements aimed to improve line managers' transformational leadership behaviors and, in turn, improve organizational learning. The study used a pre- and post-intervention evaluation survey. Line managers' and their subordinates' perceptions of organizational learning were measured with the Dimensions of Organizational Learning Questionnaire and with post-intervention single items on organizational learning.

    Findings - Comparisons between pre- and post-intervention assessments revealed that managers' ratings of continuous learning and employees' ratings of empowerment and embedded systems improved significantly as a result of the training. The leadership training intervention had positive effects on managers' perceptions of individual-level and on employees' perceptions of organizational-level aspects of organizational learning.

    Originality/value - The study provides empirical evidence that organizational learning can be improved through leadership training. Both line managers and their subordinates perceived that organizational learning had increased after the training intervention, albeit in different ways. Implications for developing leadership training programs and for evaluating these are discussed.

  • 3.
    Hasson, Henna
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Tafvelin, Susanne
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    von Thiele Schwarz, Ulrica
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholms universitet.
    Comparing employees and managers' perception of organizational learning, health, and work performance2013In: Advances in Developing Human Resources, ISSN 1523-4223, E-ISSN 1552-3055, Vol. 15, no 2, p. 163-176Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Problem Disagreement between subordinates and their managers’ perceptions of organizational climate and support has been related to less efficient work performance and worse organizational outcomes. Possible consequences of disagreement between managers’ and subordinates’ ratings of organizational learning are currently not known. Little is also known about how the level of agreement between the two ratings relates to employees’ performance and well-being at work.

    The Solution The study was conducted in an industrial company in Sweden. First-line managers’ and their subordinates’ responses to the Dimensions of the Learning Organization Questionnaire (DLOQ) were evaluated along with employees’ ratings of their work performance and health.

    The Stakeholders Key stakeholders include leaders responsible for group- and organization-level learning activitities and employees’ well-being and work performance. In addition, representatives from human development departments will find this study to be of interest.

  • 4. Hasson, Henna
    et al.
    von Thiele Schwarz, Ulrica
    Nielsen, Karina
    Tafvelin, Susanne
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Karolinska Inst, Procome Res Grp, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Are We All in the Same Boat?: The Role of Perceptual Distance in Organizational Health Interventions2016In: Stress and Health, ISSN 1532-3005, E-ISSN 1532-2998, Vol. 32, no 4, p. 294-303Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The study investigates how agreement between leaders' and their team's perceptions influence intervention outcomes in a leadership-training intervention aimed at improving organizational learning. Agreement, i.e. perceptual distance was calculated for the organizational learning dimensions at baseline. Changes in the dimensions from pre-intervention to post-intervention were evaluated using polynomial regression analysis with response surface analysis. The general pattern of the results indicated that the organizational learning improved when leaders and their teams agreed on the level of organizational learning prior to the intervention. The improvement was greatest when the leader's and the team's perceptions at baseline were aligned and high rather than aligned and low. The least beneficial scenario was when the leader's perceptions were higher than the team's perceptions. These results give insights into the importance of comparing leaders' and their team's perceptions in intervention research. Polynomial regression analyses with response surface methodology allow three-dimensional examination of relationship between two predictor variables and an outcome. This contributes with knowledge on how combination of predictor variables may affect outcome and allows studies of potential non-linearity relating to the outcome. Future studies could use these methods in process evaluation of interventions.

  • 5. Henning, Georg
    et al.
    Stenling, Andreas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Department of Psychology and AgeCap, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; Department of Psychology, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand.
    Tafvelin, Susanne
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Hansson, Isabelle
    Kivi, Marie
    Johansson, Boo
    Lindwall, Magnus
    Preretirement Work Motivation and Subsequent Retirement Adjustment: A Self-Determination Theory Perspective2019In: Work, Aging and Retirement, ISSN 2054-4642, E-ISSN 2054-4650, Vol. 5, no 2, p. 189-203Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research grounded in self-determination theory confirms the importance of different types of work motivation for well-being and job performance. Less is known about the role of work motivation at the end of one's working life and its association with adjustment to retirement. We investigated the association between preretirement work motivation and retirement adjustment in a subsample of the Health, Aging and Retirement Transitions in Sweden (HEARTS) study. We included participants (n = 572) who retired between two annual waves in this longitudinal study. Retirement adjustment was operationalized as change between waves in satisfaction of the three basic psychological needs (autonomy, competence, and relatedness). The association between preretirement work motivation and retirement adjustment varied depending on the subdimension of motivation (intrinsic, identified, introjected, external, or amotivation), type of transition (full vs. partial), and the particular need (autonomy, competence, and relatedness). In line with our expectations, low intrinsic work motivation was associated with gains in autonomy satisfaction for full-time retirees, which may be interpreted as a relief from dissatisfying jobs. Among those who continued to work, high intrinsic motivation was related to increases in relatedness satisfaction, that is, retirees who were intrinsically motivated for their work seem to benefit from continuing to work in retirement. In contrast to our expectations, amotivation before retirement was associated with gains in relatedness satisfaction for those continuing to work. Our results highlight the complexity of retirement and the need to study postretirement adjustment as a multifaceted and multidirectional process.

  • 6. Lornudd, Caroline
    et al.
    Tafvelin, Susanne
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Schwarz, Ulrica von Thiele
    Bergman, David
    The mediating role of demand and control in the relationship between leadership behaviour and employee distress: A cross-sectional study2015In: International Journal of Nursing Studies, ISSN 0020-7489, E-ISSN 1873-491X, Vol. 52, no 2, p. 543-554Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The relationship between leadership and employee distress is well established, however, the processes involved in this relationship remain largely unclear. For a stretched nursing workforce, understanding in what ways leadership may influence employee distress is particularly important. Objectives: To examine possible mediating effects of the work environment factors demand and control in the relationship between leadership behaviour in change, production, and employee orientation and employee distress. Design: Cross-sectional study design. Settings: The study was conducted at a large county council in Sweden providing both institutional and non-institutional care. Participants: A random sample of 1249 employees (primarily nurses, but also a wide range of other healthcare professionals and administrative staff), who had a healthcare manager that was about to enter a leadership development programme (n = 171), responded to a web-based questionnaire. The response rate was 62%. Methods: The employees rated their healthcare managers' behaviour in change, production, and employee orientation, as well as their own perceptions of level of demand, control (subdivided into decision authority and skill discretion), and five distress outcomes. Multilevel analysis was performed. Results: The mediators demand, decision authority, and skill discretion were significant predictors of all five distress outcomes for all three leadership orientations. In eight of 15 regressions, the mediators fully explained the relationships between leadership orientations and outcomes. Four of five relationships with distress outcomes were fully mediated for change-oriented leadership, whereas two of five outcomes were fully mediated for production- and employee-oriented leadership. In all three leadership orientations, the relationship between the mediator skill discretion and the distress measure disengagement were particularly strong, with B-coefficients (-.44, p < .001) twice as high as for any of the other relationships. Conclusions: It seems that the way that employees perceive healthcare managers' change-oriented behaviour, and how that aspect is related to employee distress, is primarily explained by perception of demand and control. Furthermore, regardless of leadership behaviour orientation, how employees perceive their opportunity to use specific job skills plays an important role in the interplay between perception of healthcare managers' behaviour and disengagement.

  • 7.
    Lundmark, Robert
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Department of Learning, Informatics, Management and Ethics, Medical Management Centre, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hasson, Henna
    Schwarz, Ulrica von Thiele
    Hasson, Dan
    Tafvelin, Susanne
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Department of Learning, Informatics, Management and Ethics, Medical Management Centre, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Leading for change: line managers' influence on the outcomes of an occupational health intervention2017In: Work & Stress, ISSN 0267-8373, E-ISSN 1464-5335, Vol. 31, no 3, p. 276-296Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Line managers may play a central role in the success of occupational health interventions. However, few studies have focussed on the relationship between line managers' behaviours and the outcomes of occupational health interventions. We examined the influence of both line managers' attitudes and actions towards an intervention as well as their transformational leadership on the expected outcomes of the intervention (i.e. employee self-rated health and work ability). The intervention consisted of the implementation and use of a web-based system for occupational health management. A sample of 180 employees provided data for the analysis. Self-rated health and work ability were measured at the baseline (Time 1) and follow-up (Time 3), while employee ratings of line managers' attitudes and actions, and transformational leadership were measured during the intervention process (Time 2). The results revealed that line managers' attitudes and actions positively predicted changes in both self-rated health and work ability. The influence of transformational leadership was indirect and mediated through line managers' attitudes and actions towards the intervention. Based on the results, we suggest using process measures that include aspects of both line managers' attitudes and actions as well as their transformational leadership in future process evaluation.

  • 8.
    Lundmark, Robert
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Medical Management Centre, Department of Learning, Informatics, Management and Ethics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Schwarz, Ulrica von Thiele
    Hasson, Henna
    Stenling, Andreas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Tafvelin, Susanne
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Medical Management Centre, Department of Learning, Informatics, Management and Ethics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Making it fit: Associations of line managers' behaviours with the outcomes of an organizational-level intervention2018In: Stress and Health, ISSN 1532-3005, E-ISSN 1532-2998, Vol. 34, no 1, p. 163-174Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Line managers' behaviours are important during implementation of occupational health interventions. Still, little is known about how these behaviours are related to intervention outcomes. This study explored the relationship between line managers' intervention-specific transformational leadership (IsTL), intervention fit (the match between the intervention, persons involved, and the surrounding environment), and change in intrinsic motivation and vigour. Both direct and indirect relationships between IsTL and change in intrinsic motivation and vigour were tested. Ninety employees participating in an organizational-level occupational health intervention provided questionnaire ratings at baseline and after 6months. The results showed IsTL to be related to intervention fit and intervention fit to be related to intrinsic motivation. Using intervention fit as a mediator, the total effects (direct and indirect combined) of IsTL on change in intrinsic motivation and vigour were significant. In addition, IsTL had a specific indirect effect on intrinsic motivation. This study is the first to use IsTL as a measure line managers' behaviours. It is also the first to empirically evaluate the association between intervention fit and intervention outcomes. By including these measures in evaluations of organizational-level occupational health interventions, we can provide more informative answers as to what can make interventions successful.

  • 9. Molnar, Malin Mattson
    et al.
    Schwarz, Ulrica Von Thiele
    Hellgren, Johnny
    Hasson, Henna
    Tafvelin, Susanne
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Medical Management Centre, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Leading for Safety: A Question of Leadership Focus2019In: SH@W Safety and Health at Work, ISSN 2093-7911, E-ISSN 2093-7997, Vol. 10, no 2, p. 180-187Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: There is considerable evidence that leadership influences workplace safety, but less is known about the relative importance of different leadership styles for safety. In addition, a leadership style characterized by an emphasis and a focus on promoting safety has rarely been investigated alongside other more general leadership styles.

    Methods: Data were collected through a survey to which 269 employees in a paper mill company responded. A regression analysis was conducted to examine the relative roles of transformational, transactional (management-by-exception active; MBEA), and safety-specific leadership for different safety behavioral outcomes (compliance behavior and safety initiative behaviors) and for minor and major injuries.

    Results: A safety-specific leadership contributed the most to the enhanced safety of the three different kinds of leadership. Transformational leadership did not contribute to any safety outcome over and above that of a safety-specific leadership, whereas a transactional leadership (MBEA) was associated with negative safety outcomes (fewer safety initiatives and increased minor injuries).

    Conclusion: The most important thing for leaders aiming at improving workplace safety is to continuously emphasize safety, both in their communication and by acting as role models. This highlights the importance for leadership training programs aiming to improve safety to actually focus on safety-promoting communication and behaviors rather than general leadership. Furthermore, an overly monitoring and controlling leadership style can be detrimental to attempts at achieving improved workplace safety.

  • 10.
    Schéle, Ingrid
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Hauer, Esther
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Holmström, Stefan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Lundkvist, Erik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Stenling, Andreas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Eriksson Sörman, Daniel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Tafvelin, Susanne
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    The interrelationships between individual, contextual and processual constructs and stress and wellbeing among psychologists2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Stenling, Andreas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Tafvelin, Susanne
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Transfer of Training After an Organizational Intervention in Swedish Sports Clubs: A Self-Determination Theory Perspective2016In: Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology (JSEP), ISSN 0895-2779, E-ISSN 1543-2904, Vol. 38, no 5, p. 493-504Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Leadership development programs are common in sports, but seldom evaluated; hence, we have limited knowledge about what the participants actually learn and the impact these programs have on sports clubs' daily operations. The purpose of the current study was to integrate a transfer of training model with self-determination theory to understand predictors of learning and training transfer, following a leadership development program among organizational leaders in Swedish sports clubs. Bayesian multilevel path analysis showed that autonomous motivation and an autonomy-supportive implementation of the program positively predicted near transfer (i.e., immediately after the training program) and that perceiving an autonomy-supportive climate in the sports club positively predicted far transfer (i.e., 1 year after the training program). This study extends previous research by integrating a transfer of training model with self-determination theory and identified important motivational factors that predict near and far training transfer.

  • 12.
    Stenling, Andreas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Tafvelin, Susanne
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Transformational leadership and well-being in sports: the mediating role of need satisfaction2014In: Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, ISSN 1041-3200, E-ISSN 1533-1571, Vol. 26, no 2, p. 182-196Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study examined the direct and indirect effect of coaches’ transformational leadership on athlete well-being. Participants were 184 floorball players who completed questionnaires about perceived transformational leadership from their coach, need satisfaction,and sport-related well-being. The analyses revealed positive relationships between perceived transformational leadership, need satisfaction, and well-being. The results also demonstrated that the positive effect of transformational leadership on athletes’ well-being was mediated by athletes’ need satisfaction. Furthermore, the results from this study add the previously unexplored outcome athlete well-being to the positive effects of transformational leadership in sports, thereby extending our knowledge of the transformational leadership process.

  • 13.
    Tafvelin, Susanne
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    The Transformational Leadership Process: Antecedents, Mechanisms, and Outcomes in the Social Services2013Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Social service organizations have changed dramatically during the last decade in an effort to increase effectiveness and control. This has placed new demands on those in leadership roles, and the need for knowledge of how to lead these transformed organizations has increased. Transformational leadership is a leadership model based on vision and empowerment, one suggested to increase both employee effectiveness and well-being, but the usefulness of this model in the public sector has been questioned. The general aim of this thesis is therefore to increase our understanding of the transformational leadership process in the context of social service organizations by investigating factors that explain when and why transformational leadership emerges and is effective. Questionnaire data from social service employees as well as interview data from managers were used in three empirical studies. Results from Studies 1 & 2 show that transformational leadership is positively associated with employee outcomes including commitment, role clarity, and well-being. Factors that might influence the effectiveness of transformational leadership were addressed in Study 1. It was found that leader continuity enhanced the effect of transformational leadership on role clarity and commitment, indicating that it takes time before transformational leaders actually have an effect on employees. Furthermore, co-worker support enhanced the effect on commitment, reflecting the role of followers in the transformational leadership process. The way in which transformational leaders influence employees was examined in Study 2, and climate for innovation mediated the relationship between transformational leadership and well-being both cross-sectionally and one year later. Finally, organizational factors that may hinder the emergence of transformational leadership were addressed in Study 3, and newly recruited managers were interviewed during their first year of leadership. Eight hindering factors in the organization to exhibit transformational leadership were identified, including the organizational structure, ongoing change, and the leaders’ working conditions. In all, this thesis has demonstrated the usefulness of transformational leadership in social services in terms of being associated with employee positive attitudes and well-being, and has also identified factors that may both help and hinder the transformational leadership process in this context.

  • 14.
    Tafvelin, Susanne
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Armelius, Kerstin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Westerberg, Kristina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Toward understanding the direct and indirect effects of transformational leadership on well-being: A longitudinal study2011In: Journal of Leadership and Organizational Studies, ISSN 1071-7919, Vol. 18, no 4, p. 480-492Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this two-wave longitudinal panel study, the authors strived to advance understanding of how transformational leadership affects employee well-being over time. The authors proposed a model that included both direct and indirect effects, which was tested in a sample of social service employees. Results of structural equation modeling revealed that transformational leadership had no direct effect on well-being over time. Instead, both the short-term and long-term effects of transformational leadership on well-being were mediated by a positive climate for innovation. The study contributes to knowledge about the complicated processes by which leaders influence well-being of employees.

  • 15.
    Tafvelin, Susanne
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Procome research group, Medical Management Centre, Department of Learning, Informatics, Management and Ethics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm.
    Hasson, Henna
    Agreement of Safety Climate: Does it Affect Employees' and Managers' Health and Work Performance?2019In: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, ISSN 1076-2752, E-ISSN 1536-5948, Vol. 61, no 4, p. E125-E131Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To investigate whether agreement and disagreement between teams and their managers on safety climate relates to their health and work performance. Methods: Questionnaire ratings of 47 managers and 211 employees on safety climate and self-rated health, stress, work ability, and work performance were analyzed using polynomial regression with response surface analyses. Results: Teams' stress was lower when there was agreement between the team and the manager on safety climate, and their work performance was lower when the manager rated safety climate higher than the team did. Managers' health, but not their work performance, was higher for managers who were in agreement with their teams. Conclusions: Agreement between managers and teams on safety climate was related to both employee and manager health outcomes. Disagreement (managers' ratings higher than teams') was negatively related to employee work performance.

  • 16.
    Tafvelin, Susanne
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hasson, Henna
    Holmström, Stefan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Schwarz, Ulrica von Thiele
    Are Formal Leaders the Only Ones Benefitting From Leadership Training?: A Shared Leadership Perspective2019In: Journal of leadership & organizational studies, ISSN 1548-0518, E-ISSN 1939-7089, Vol. 26, no 1, p. 32-43Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Leadership training most often involves training of formal leaders, and little is known about the potential benefits of leadership training for other members of an organization. Using theories of shared leadership, the current study examined outcomes of transformational leadership training that targets both formal and informal leaders (i.e., both vertical and shared leadership). The training was set in a Swedish paper pulp factory and involved formal and informal leaders participating in 20 days of training over a period of 16 months. Based on employee survey data collected both pre- and postintervention our analyses revealed that both formal and informal leaders significantly improved their transformational leadership behaviors. Interestingly, the improvement in transformational leadership behaviors of formal and informal leaders tended to predict employee efficiency and well-being in different ways. Improvements in formal leaders' transformational leadership were related to employee well-being, while informal leaders' increases in transformational leadership were associated with efficiency. The results point toward the benefit of a shared leadership perspective on leadership training and indicate that improvements in transformational leadership may affect employees differently depending on who in the organization displays them.

  • 17.
    Tafvelin, Susanne
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Hyvönen, Ulf
    Westerberg, Kristina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Transformational leadership in the social work context: the importance of leader continuity and co-worker support2014In: British Journal of Social Work, ISSN 0045-3102, E-ISSN 1468-263X, Vol. 44, no 4, p. 886-904Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Social work leadership has attracted growing attention in both social work practice and research. As social service organisations have changed in a variety of ways during the last decades, knowledge of how  leaders should act in these transformed organisations  is crucial. However,  few  empirical  studies have examined what  kind  of leadership  these changed  organisations  benefit from  and how  the  continuing  organisational change might  affect  the impact leaders have. The present study aimed at exploring the effect of transformational leadership of first line managers in a social work  setting.  We used a randomised  sample of  158 employees in a Swedish social service organisation, and examined the direct and indirect effect of transformational leadership on two important employee attitudes—commitment and role clarity. The results demonstrate the contri- bution of  transformational leadership  in creating  a workplace  where  employees  are committed and know  what  their  assignment is. Interaction effects of leader continuity and  co-worker  support  indicate  the  need  for  some stability  in  the  organisation in order  to increase the positive  influence  transformational leaders have on employees. This study has implications for leadership training in social work  and is a contribution.

  • 18.
    Tafvelin, Susanne
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Isaksson, Kerstin
    Westerberg, Kristina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    The First Year of Service: A Longitudinal Study of Organisational Antecedents of Transformational Leadership in the Social Service Organisations2018In: British Journal of Social Work, ISSN 0045-3102, E-ISSN 1468-263X, Vol. 48, no 2, p. 430-448Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this longitudinal interview study, we have strived to advance the understanding of how organisational factors may hinder the emergence of transformational leadership among first line managers in social service organisations. By interviewing managers in a Swedish social service organisation during their first year of leadership, we first identified leadership ideals and then asked them to identify factors that hinder the performance of this leadership. Qualitative content analysis was used to analyse the data and the results revealed that the managers strived for a transformational leadership, but several factors in the organisation made it difficult to lead in the way they intended. Hindering factors were identified both at the organisational level, such as 'top-down management', 'financial strain' and 'continuous change', and in the managers' own working environment in terms of no support', 'high work-load', 'limited influence', 'administrative tasks' and 'distance to employees'. This study contributes to our understanding of organisational antecedents of transformational leadership as well as the premises of transformational leadership in social service organisations.

  • 19.
    Tafvelin, Susanne
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Isaksson, Kerstin
    Mälardalens högskola.
    Westerberg, Kristina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    The First Year of Service: A Longitudinal Study of Organizational Antecedents of Transformational Leadership in the Public SectorManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this longitudinal interview study, we have strived to advance the understanding of how organizational factors may hinder the emergence of transformational leadership among first-line managers in the public sector. By interviewing managers in a Swedish social service organization during their first year of leadership we first identified leadership ideals and then asked them to identify factors that hinder the performance of this leadership. Qualitative content analysis was used to analyse the data, and the results revealed that the leaders strived for a transformational leadership, but several factors in the organization made it difficult to lead in the way they intended. Hindering factors were identified both at the organizational level, such as ‘top-down management’, ‘financial strain’ and ‘continuous change’ and in the leaders’ own working environment in terms of ‘no support’, ‘high work load’, ‘limited influence’, ‘administrative tasks’, and ‘distance to employees’. These factors were also experienced as having negative consequences for the leaders in terms of ill health, immoral conduct, and turn over as well as resulting in a passive leadership style. This study contributes to our understanding of organizational antecedents of transformational leadership as well as the premises of transformational leadership in public organizations.

  • 20.
    Tafvelin, Susanne
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Keisu, Britt-Inger
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Kvist, Elin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    The Prevalence and Consequences of Intragroup Conflicts for Employee Well-Being in Women-Dominated Work2020In: Human service organizations, management, leadership & governance, ISSN 2330-3131, E-ISSN 2330-314X, Vol. 44, no 1, p. 47-62Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examined the prevalence and consequences of intragroup conflicts for well-being in three women-dominated occupations from a gender perspective. Using survey data from 1299 nurses, teachers, and social workers, we found that task conflict was the most common type of conflict but it was unrelated to well-being. Relationship conflict was negatively associated with vigor and positively associated with employee stress, burnout, and depression. Process conflicts were positively associated with depression. Our findings revealed that women and men in the same occupation experience intragroup conflicts in the same way. Organizations should therefore primarily reduce relationship conflicts to ensure employee well-being.

    Practitioner Points:

    ● Not all types of conflicts at work are destructive. Some types of conflict may in fact be a good thing!

    ● Task conflict is the most common type of conflict in women-dominated workplaces, but it does not impair employee well-being. Instead, the contesting of ideas may lead to nuanced decisions.

    ● Managers in women-dominated workplaces should pay close attention to, and try to resolve, relationship conflicts as they may reduce employee well-being.

  • 21.
    Tafvelin, Susanne
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nielsen, Karina
    Schwarz, Ulrica von Thiele
    Stenling, Andreas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Leading well is a matter of resources: Leader vigour and peer support augments the relationship between transformational leadership and burnout2019In: Work & Stress, ISSN 0267-8373, E-ISSN 1464-5335, Vol. 33, no 2, p. 156-172Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although studies suggest that transformational leaders play an important role in employee health and well-being, the relationship between transformational leadership and employee burnout remains unclear. One reason may be that moderators may play an important role. Building on conservation of resources theory, we examined if leaders' perceptions of internal and external resources in terms of vigour and peer support augmented the relationship between transformational leadership and employee burnout in a sample of municipality workers and their leaders in Sweden (N = 217). Multilevel analyses over two time points revealed that both vigour and peer support enhance this relationship, such that when leaders experience high levels of vigour or peer support, the negative relationship between transformational leadership behaviours and employee burnout was strengthened. Our findings suggest that both personal and contextual resources may help leaders to better engage in transformational leadership, which is important in order to protect employees from burning out.

  • 22.
    Tafvelin, Susanne
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Medical Management Centre, Department of Learning, Informatics, Management and Ethics, Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Nielsen, Karina
    Simonsen Abildgaard, Johan
    Richter, Anne
    von Thiele Schwarz, Ulrica
    Hasson, Henna
    Leader-team perceptual distance affects outcomes of leadership training: examining safety leadership and follower safety self-efficacy2019In: Safety Science, ISSN 0925-7535, E-ISSN 1879-1042, Vol. 120, p. 25-31Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Whether leaders and their teams agree or not on perceptions of leadership has been found to impact follower well-being and performance. Less is known about how agreements or disagreements play a role in relation to safety and leadership training. The present study examined the effects of leaders' and followers' perceptual distance on safety leadership prior to a leadership safety training. Forty-eight leaders and a total of 211 followers from the paper industry completed surveys before and after training. Polynomial regression with response surface analyses revealed that the agreement between leaders and their followers regarding safety leadership before training was positively related to training outcomes including safety leadership and followers' safety self-efficacy. Line managers who overrated themselves on safety leadership before training had less favorable training outcomes. Our findings suggest that 360-degree feedback may not be sufficient for motivating leaders to change their behaviors during leadership training.

  • 23.
    Tafvelin, Susanne
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Schwarz, Ulrica von Thiele
    Hasson, Henna
    In agreement?: Leader-team perceptual distance in organizational learning affects work performance2017In: Journal of Business Research, ISSN 0148-2963, E-ISSN 1873-7978, Vol. 75, p. 1-7Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Leaders and their teams often differ in their perceptions of organizational issues, which have been suggested to influence both employee well-being and performance. The present study examined leader-team perceptual distance regarding organizational learning and its consequences for employee work performance. Sixty-eight leaders and their teams from the Swedish forest industry participated in the study. Polynomial regression with response surface analyses revealed that the perceptual distance between leaders and their teams regarding organizational learning was related to lowered work performance, beyond the influence of employee ratings alone. The analyses also indicated that work performance tended to decrease when the leader rated organizational learning as higher than the team. Our findings suggest that it is important for organizations to minimize the perceptual distance between the leaders and their teams and that further research on the construct of leader-team perceptual distance is warranted. 

  • 24.
    Tafvelin, Susanne
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Medical Management Centre, Department of Learning, Informatics, Management and Ethics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Schwarz, Ulrica von Thiele
    Nielsen, Karina
    Hasson, Henna
    Employees' and line managers' active involvement in participatory organizational interventions: Examining direct, reversed, and reciprocal effects on well-being2019In: Stress and Health, ISSN 1532-3005, E-ISSN 1532-2998, Vol. 35, no 1, p. 69-80Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examined how employee participation and perceptions of line managers' support during a participatory organizational intervention were related to well-being over time. Although previous studies suggest that employees' and managers' active involvement in participatory organizational interventions may be related to well-being, little is known about the temporal aspects, such as at which time during the intervention these factors matter, or possible reciprocal effects. Building on conservation of resources theory, we tested hypotheses concerning direct, reversed, and reciprocal relationships between employee participation and perceptions of line manager support in relation to well-being. We used a four-wave panel design consisting of 159 hospital workers. Cross-lagged analyses showed that perceived line managers' support in the initiation and active phase was related to participation in the active phase. Participation in the initiation and active phase was related to well-being in the active and sustained phase, respectively. Results also revealed that participation in the initiation phase was related to perceived line managers' support in the active phase, which in turn predicted participation in the active phase, which translated into job satisfaction in the sustained phase supporting reversed and reciprocal effects in the form of resource caravans. Theoretical implications for research and practice are discussed.

  • 25.
    Tafvelin, Susanne
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Stenling, Andreas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Lundmark, Robert
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Department of Learning, Informatics, Management and Ethics Karolinska Institutet, Medical Management Centre, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Westerberg, Kristina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Aligning job redesign with leadership training to improve supervisor support: a quasi-experimental study of the integration of HR practices2019In: European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, ISSN 1359-432X, E-ISSN 1464-0643, Vol. 28, no 1, p. 74-84Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this quasi-experimental study, we examine the alignment of a job redesign initiative with leadership training aimed at increasing supervisors' opportunities for providing support to employees. In addition, we examine intervention-mediated effects on climate for innovation through increases in perceived supervisor support. To test the hypothesized process, we used employee ratings (N = 524) of perceived supervisor support and climate for innovation collected at three time points over 2 years in the home help services in seven Swedish municipalities. Results of latent growth curve analyses showed that employees in the intervention group had a stronger and positive slope of perceived supervisor support relative to the comparison group. Further, the growth trajectories of perceived supervisor support were positively associated with climate for innovation at the 24-month follow-up. The study contributes to the human resource management literature by showing that alignment of employment practices such as training with work practices such as job redesign may be a promising strategy for achieving positive outcomes at multiple levels in organizations.

  • 26.
    Tafvelin, Susanne
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    von Thiele Schwarz, Ulrica
    Karolinska institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hansson, Henna
    Karolinska institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Holmström, Stefan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Häsänen, Lars
    Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Organizational behaviour managemant (OBM) as an intervention in occupational health psychology2012In: Proceedings of the 10th European Academy of Occupational Health psychology Conference / [ed] Aditya Jain, David Hollis, Nicholas Andreou, Flavia Wehrle, European Academy of Occupational Health psychology, eaohp, 2012, p. 350-350Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 27.
    Tafvelin, Susanne
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    von Thiele Schwarz, Ulrica
    Stenling, Andreas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Leadership Training to Increase Need Satisfaction at Work: A Quasi-Experimental Mixed Method Study2019In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 10, article id 2175Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With a growing number of studies showing the applicability of the self-determination theory for various work and organizational outcomes, the next logical step is to investigate if and how employee need satisfaction at work can be purposefully increased through an intervention. The purpose of the present study was to test whether we could train managers' display of autonomy, competence, and relatedness support toward employees and whether this resulted in improved employee need satisfaction, well-being, and job performance. Data were obtained from 37 managers (rated by N = 538 subordinates) assigned to either an experimental or control condition at three time points: before, during, and after the training. We also used focus group interviews to evaluate the experience of the training. The quantitative analyses showed no statistically significant improvement in managers' display of needs support or employee need satisfaction. However, the qualitative data pointed toward important factors related to the implementation of need supportive leadership training that should be considered.

  • 28.
    Tafvelin, Susanne
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Westerberg, Kristina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Factors influencing psychological contract content in a social service organization2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 29.
    Tafvelin, Susanne
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Westerberg, Kristina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Learning climate as a mediator of leadership style and subordinate stress2007In: The 13:th European Congress of Work and Organizational Psychology, 2007, p. 85-85Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 30.
    Tafvelin, Susanne
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Westerberg, Kristina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Transformational leadership and the importance of relationship continuity at work2011In: The Work Environment: Impact of Technological, Social and Climate Change / [ed] Maria Albin, Johanna Alkan-Olsson, Mats Bobgard, Kristina Jakobsson, Björn Karlson, Peter Lundqvist, Mikael Ottosson, Fredrik Rassner, Måns Svensson and Håkan Tinnerberg, Göteborg, 2011, p. 87-87Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 31. Villaume, Karin
    et al.
    Tafvelin, Susanne
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Hasson, Dan
    Health-relevant personality traits in relation to adherence to a web-based occupational health promotion and stress management intervention2018In: International Journal of Workplace Health Management, ISSN 1753-8351, E-ISSN 1753-836X, Vol. 11, no 3, p. 143-158Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to investigate the possible associations between health-relevant personality traits and adherence; and if these traits predict adherence to a web-based occupational health intervention. Design/methodology/approach In total, 563 participants were analyzed using the Health-relevant Personality Inventory. Adherence measures were: logins, utilization of self-help exercises and time spent logged in. Findings Higher levels of antagonism (a facet of agreeableness) and impulsivity (a facet of conscientiousness) correlated to fewer logins, and higher levels of negative affectivity (a facet of neuroticism) and impulsivity correlated to a higher utilization of self-help exercises. Alexithymia (a facet of openness) negatively predicted self-help exercise utilization and antagonism was a positive predictor. Negative affectivity was a positive predictor of time spent logged in to the intervention. There were sex-related differences in outcomes. Originality/value This is the first study to investigate health-relevant personality traits in relation to adherence to a web-based occupational health intervention. The practical implications are that intervention developers could benefit from taking personality into consideration to better understand and improve adherence.

  • 32. von Thiele Schwarz, Ulrica
    et al.
    Hasson, Henna
    Tafvelin, Susanne
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Medical Management Centre, Department of Learning, Informatics, Management and Ethics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Leadership training as an occupational health intervention: improved safety and sustained productivity2016In: Safety Science, ISSN 0925-7535, E-ISSN 1879-1042, Vol. 81, p. 35-45Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The safety climate in an organization is determined by how managers balance the relative importance of safety and productivity. This gives leaders a central role in safety in an organization, and from this follows that leadership training may improve safety. Transformational leadership may be one important component but may need to be combined with positive control leadership behaviors. Leadership training that combines transformational leadership and applied behavior analysis may be a way to achieve this. Purpose: The study evaluates changes in safety climate and productivity among employees whose leaders (n = 76) took part in a leadership training program combining transformational leadership and applied behavior analysis. Changes in managers' ratings of transformational leadership, contingent rewards, Management-by-Exceptions Active (MBEA) and safety self-efficacy were evaluated. Moreover, we compare whether the training has differentiated effects on safety depending on managers' specific focus on improvements in: (1) safety, (2) productivity or (3) general leadership. Result: Safety climate improved over time, while self-rated productivity remained unchanged. As hypothesized, transformational leadership, contingent rewards and safety self-efficacy as proxies for positive control behaviors increased while MBEA, a negative control behavior, decreased. Managers focusing on general leadership skills showed greater improvement in safety climate expectations. Conclusions: Training leaders in both transformational leadership and applied behavior analysis is related to improvements in leadership and safety. There is no added benefit of focusing specifically on safety or productivity.

  • 33. von Thiele Schwarz, Ulrica
    et al.
    Sjoberg, Anders
    Hasson, Henna
    Tafvelin, Susanne
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Measuring Self-Rated Productivity Factor Structure and Variance Component Analysis of the Health and Work Questionnaire2014In: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, ISSN 1076-2752, E-ISSN 1536-5948, Vol. 56, no 12, p. 1302-1307Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To test the factor structure and variance components of the productivity subscales of the Health and Work Questionnaire (HWQ). Methods: A total of 272 individuals from one company answered the HWQ scale, including three dimensions (efficiency, quality, and quantity) that the respondent rated from three perspectives: their own, their supervisor's, and their coworkers'. A confirmatory factor analysis was performed, and common and unique variance components evaluated. Results: A common factor explained 81% of the variance (reliability 0.95). All dimensions and rater perspectives contributed with unique variance. The final model provided a perfect fit to the data. Conclusions: Efficiency, quality, and quantity and three rater perspectives are valid parts of the self-rated productivity measurement model, but with a large common factor. Thus, the HWQ can be analyzed either as one factor or by extracting the unique variance for each subdimension.

  • 34.
    Westerberg, Kristina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Tafvelin, Susanne
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Changes in commitment to change among leaders in home help services2015In: Leadership in Health Services, ISSN 1751-1879, E-ISSN 1751-1887, Vol. 28, no 3, p. 216-227Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of the this study was to explore the development of commitment to change among leaders in the home help services during organizational change and to study this development in relation to workload and stress. During organizational change initiatives, commitment to change among leaders is important to ensure the implementation of the change. However, little is known of development of commitment of change over time. Design/methodology/approach: The study used a qualitative design with semi-structured interviews with ten leaders by the time an organizational change initiative was launched and follow-up one year later. Thematic content analysis was used to analyze the interviews. Findings: Commitment to change is not static, but seems to develop over time and during organizational change. At the first interview, leaders had a varied pattern reflecting different dimensions of commitment to change. One year later, the differences between leaders’ commitment to change was less obvious. Differences in commitment to change had no apparent relationship with workload or stress. Research limitations/implications: The data were collected from one organization, and the number of participants were small which could affect the results on workload and stress in relation to commitment to change. Practical implications: It is important to support leaders during organizational change initiatives to maintain their commitment. One way to accomplish this is to use management team meetings to monitor how leaders perceive their situation. Originality/value: Qualitative, longitudinal and leader studies on commitment to change are all unusual, and taken together, this study shows new aspects of commitment.

  • 35.
    Westerberg, Kristina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Tafvelin, Susanne
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    The importance of leadership style and psychosocial work environment to staff-assessed quality of care: implications for home help services2014In: Health & Social Care in the Community, ISSN 0966-0410, E-ISSN 1365-2524, Vol. 22, no 5, p. 461-468Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Work in home help services is typically conducted by an assistant nurse or nursing aide in the home of an elderly person, and working conditions have been described as solitary with a high workload, little influence and lack of peer and leader support. Relations between leadership styles, psychosocial work environment and a number of positive and negative employee outcomes have been established in research, but the outcome in terms of quality of care has been addressed to a lesser extent. In the present study, we aimed to focus on working conditions in terms of leadership and the employee psychosocial work environment, and how these conditions are related to the quality of care. The hypothesis was that the relation between a transformational leadership style and quality of care is mediated through organisational and peer support, job control and workload. A cross-sectional survey design was used and a total of 469 questionnaires were distributed (March-April 2012) to assistant nurses in nine Swedish home help organisations, including six municipalities and one private organisation, representing both rural and urban areas (302 questionnaires were returned, yielding a 65% response rate). The results showed that our hypothesis was supported and, when indirect effects were also taken into consideration, there was no direct effect of leadership style on quality of care. The mediated model explained 51% of the variance in quality of care. These results indicate that leadership style is important not only to employee outcomes in home help services but is also indirectly related to quality of care as assessed by staff members.

1 - 35 of 35
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