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  • 1.
    Edlund, Jonas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Öun, Ida
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Småbarnfamiljers vardagsliv: ska man dela lika på ansvaret för familj och försörjning?: En jämförelse mellan människors åsikter i Sverige och några länder kring Östersjön2016In: Utblick: Sverige i en internationell jämförelse / [ed] Filip Fors och Jenny Olofsson, Umeå: Sociologiska institutionen, Umeå universitet , 2016, p. 79-102Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    När människor får barn blir frågor om jämställdhet och genus ofta extra framträdande. Föräldrarna ska till exempel bestämma hur föräldraledigheten ska delas upp och vem som senare ska hämta på dagis. Dessa beslut påverkas till viss del av individers specifika villkor och preferenser, men regler och normer i det omgärdande samhället har också stor betydelse. I det här kapitlet undersöker vi vad människor i allmänhet har för åsikter i frågor som rör barnfamiljers fördelning av omsorgsarbete och försörjning. Fem europeiska länder ingår i studien. Och även om dessa länder till viss del har mycket gemensamt, går åsikterna i frågor som rör genus och jämställdhet till stor del isär.

  • 2.
    Edlund, Jonas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Öun, Ida
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Who should work and who should care?: attitudes towards the desirable division of labour between mothers and fathers in five European countries2016In: Acta Sociologica, ISSN 0001-6993, E-ISSN 1502-3869, Vol. 59, no 2, p. 151-169Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, we study attitudes towards the gendered division of paid and unpaid work from a comparative perspective. Based on the notion that political institutions are important in structuring individuals’ orientations, five countries with different family policy arrangements are included in the analysis: Denmark, Finland, Germany, Poland and Sweden. Previous comparative attitude research has a strong bias towards public opinion about women’s employment, while research on attitudes towards men’s participation in care work is rare. Drawing on data from the International Social Survey Programme (ISSP) 2012, we use latent class analysis to explore public opinion about: (a) how parents should divide the responsibilities of economic provision and unpaid work; and (b) whether and how parents should divide paid parental leave between them. The strongest support for a traditional organization of work and care is found in Poland, while the strongest support for an equal sharing of work and care responsibilities is found in Sweden. Among the Nordic countries, results differ. While those holding non-traditional ideals in Denmark and Finland emphasize the importance of full-time work for both parents, non-traditional Swedes instead emphasize that both parents should cut back their work hours and thereby share the responsibility for earning and caring in the family.

  • 3.
    Grönlund, Anne
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Öun, Ida
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Beyond the Mummy Track?: Part-time Rights, Gender, and Career-Family Dilemmas2018In: Nordic Journal of Working Life Studies, ISSN 2245-0157, E-ISSN 2245-0157, Vol. 8, no 3, p. 177-198Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Statutory rights to part-time work are increasingly discussed and institutionalized, but have been little empirically investigated. On the basis of a survey of Swedish parents (n = 1900), the article explores the usage and usefulness of the right to work hour reductions in relation to career-family dilemmas. The results show that the gender composition of the workplace affects both mothers’ and fathers’ likelihood of reducing work hours. Mothers who reduce work hours experience lower work-family conflict but stronger fears of negative career repercussions. For fathers, the implications of work hour reductions vary with the gender composition of the workplace. Meanwhile, the division of housework is related both to the likelihood of reducing work hours and to its implications. The analysis suggests that even when a statutory right to part-time is provided, workplace norms and men’s participation in housework are crucial for changing gender patterns.

  • 4.
    Grönlund, Anne
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Öun, Ida
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    In search of family-friendly careers?: Professional strategies, work conditions and gender differences in work-family conflict2018In: Community, Work and Family, ISSN 1366-8803, E-ISSN 1469-3615, Vol. 21, no 1, p. 87-105Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to investigate whether women in a dual-earner context acquire family-friendly jobs as a strategy to keep work–family conflict down. The analysis is based on a survey of newly graduated highly educated men and women in five occupations in Sweden (n ≈ 2400). The sample was stratified by occupation and gender to minimize the influence of factors other than gender. The results show that women are more family-oriented, but also more career-oriented than men in their professional strategies. In their jobs, women have less control over work and schedules than men but a similar level of work demands. However, women face lower requirements for employer flexibility (e.g. frequent over time) and this is related to their professional strategies. Finally, women report a higher level of work–family conflict than men in the same occupation, but this gender difference becomes non-significant when accounting for women's lower level of control. In sum, women in this sample clearly aim for both family and career and do not acquire family-friendly jobs, but aim to avoid 'family-unfriendly' requirements for constant availability. To some extent, this enables them to limit their work–family conflict but due to their lower control over work, women still experience more conflict than men in the same occupation.

  • 5.
    Grönlund, Anne
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Öun, Ida
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Konfliktens ljusa sida2014In: Glimtar av jämställdhet / [ed] Anne Grönlund, Umeå: Boréa Bokförlag, 2014, 1, p. 105-124Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Grönlund, Anne
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Öun, Ida
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Rethinking work-family conflict: dual-earner policies, role conflict and role expansion in Western Europe2010In: Journal of European Social Policy, ISSN 0958-9287, E-ISSN 1461-7269, Vol. 20, no 3, p. 179-195Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this article is to deepen the understanding of work-family conflict and the impact of social policies by integrating the theoretical perspectives of role conflict and role expansion. First, we present a theoretical model identifying different mechanisms through which policy may affect both role conflict and role expansion, with a particular focus on dual-earner policies. Second, we examine some of its implications, using data from the European Social Survey comprising 10,950 employees in 15 countries. In contrast to traditional theories presenting conflict and expansion as mutually exclusive, we find that work—family conflict and experiences of role expansion, measured with indicators of life satisfaction and psychological well being, may go hand in hand. The results also indicate that such a balance is more common in countries with dual-earner policies than in other countries. Women committing as strongly to work as men experience more work-family conflict, but also high levels of well being and satisfaction. The findings largely support our theoretical arguments and imply that future research should examine the conflict-expansion nexus rather than focussing on either of the two. In this context, both gender and policy need to be considered.

  • 7.
    Grönlund, Anne
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Öun, Ida
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    The gender-job satisfaction paradox and the dual-earner society: are women (still) making work-family trade-offs?2018In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 59, no 4, p. 535-545Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Despite their disadvantaged labour market position, women consistently report higher levels of job satisfaction than men. Researchers have attributed women's higher job satisfaction to their lower expectations, arguing that gender differences will fade away as women's labour market prospects improve. Others, however, argue that women are more contented than men because their jobs satisfy a need for family adaptions.

    Objective: In this article, we put the hypotheses of transitions and trade-offs to a strong test, by comparing men and women with comparable human capital investments living in a country where women's employment is strongly supported by policies, practices and social norms.

    Methods: The relationship between gender and job satisfaction is analysed with stepwise OLS regressions. The analysis is based on a survey to newly graduated highly educated men and women in five occupations in Sweden (n≈2 450).

    Results: First, we show that, after controlling for a range of job characteristics, women report a higher level of job satisfaction than men. Second, although the paradox appears to be surprisingly persistent, it cannot be attributed to work-family trade-offs.

    Conclusions: Future research should consider job satisfaction more broadly in the light of gender role socialization and persistent gender inequalities.

  • 8.
    Hardell, Sanna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Johansson Sevä, Ingemar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Öun, Ida
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Welfare service privatization and opinions about service quality: The role of political ideology among local politicians and the public2019In: Social Policy & Administration, ISSN 0144-5596, E-ISSN 1467-9515Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, we join the discussion about the potential consequences of welfare service privatization by examining the relationship between the privatization of welfare service delivery and public opinion about service quality in Sweden. Due to the politically polarized debate about welfare service privatization in Sweden, we also examine the extent to which individuals' ideological orientations influence this relationship in both local politicians and ordinary citizens. For local politicians, the results show that a higher municipal degree of privatization is generally associated with slightly lower levels of satisfaction overall with welfare services, although no such relationship exists for the public. Most importantly, however, the results indicate that political ideology constitutes an important moderator in the relationship between privatization and opinions about service quality. Local politicians and, to some extent, ordinary citizens who place themselves to the left on the ideological left–right scale tend to be less satisfied with services as the municipal degree of welfare service privatization increases. For local politicians who position themselves far to the right on the scale, the relationship between welfare service privatization and satisfaction is positive. These findings suggest that there is no clear-cut relationship between privatization and individuals' opinions about services; rather, this relationship depends on the ideological predispositions of local politicians and ordinary citizens.

  • 9.
    Johansson Sevä, Ingemar
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Öun, Ida
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Conditional representation: Gendered experiences of combining work and family among local politicians2019In: Journal of women, politics & policy, ISSN 1554-4788, E-ISSN 1554-4788, Vol. 40, no 3, p. 367-384Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article focuses on working and living conditions among local politicians in Sweden, and on their experiences of combining political work and family life. Applying a sociological perspective on representation, we first map the working and living conditions represented among politicians, with a specific focus on gender and age. We then examine experiences of work-family conflict and subjective well-being, and investigate how these outcomes are related to gender, age, and working and living conditions. The main findings show significant gender differences in working and living conditions, and substantially higher levels of work-family conflict among young female politicians.

  • 10.
    Johansson Sevä, Ingemar
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Öun, Ida
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Self-Employment as a Strategy for Dealing with the Competing Demands of Work and Family? The Importance of Family/Lifestyle Motives2015In: Gender, Work and Organization, ISSN 0968-6673, E-ISSN 1468-0432, Vol. 22, no 3, p. 256-272Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we test the argument that self-employment may be a strategy for dealing with competing demands of work and family. We do this by comparing work–family conflict experienced by self-employed and employed men and women. By examining to what extent the selfemployed versus regularly employed value time for themselves and their family — i.e., whether they are driven by family/lifestyle motives in their working life — we examine whether selfemployment can help reduce work–family conflict among those guided by family/lifestyle motives. Using data from a 2011 Swedish survey of 2483 self-employed and 2642 regularly employed, the analyses indicate that experiences of work–family conflict differ between selfemployed and employees. Self-employed men and women, especially those with employees, generally experience more work–family conflict than do employees. However, self-employment can sometimes be a strategy for dealing with competing demands of work and family life. The presence of family/lifestyle motives generally decreases the probability of experiencing work–family conflict, particularly among self-employed women with employees.

  • 11. Scholz, Evi
    et al.
    Jutz, Regina
    Edlund, Jonas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Öun, Ida
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Braun, Michael
    ISSP 2012 Family and Changing Gender Roles IV: Questionnaire Development2014Report (Other academic)
  • 12.
    Öun, Ida
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Conflict and concord in work and family: Family policies and individuals' subjective experiences2012Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background This thesis explores the relationship between individuals’ subjective experiences and the welfare state setting. The research questions in focus deal with the outcomes of women’s and men’s increasing dual roles in work and family in contemporary welfare states. The studies analyse women’s and men’s subjective experiences of combining work and family, and their perceptions of fairness in the division of household work.

    Methods The thesis applies a comparative perspective where the unit of analysis is country and/or family policy model. A broad perspective with the aim to capture general patterns across a broad range of welfare states is combined with a narrower case-oriented approach. Multilevel analysis is used to analyse patterns at national as well as individual levels in the same model. Latent Class Analysis is used to capture patterns of latent dimensions with regard to the central concept of subject experiences.

    Results The results indicate that the introduction of policies aiming to promote dual roles among women and men and the articulation of gender equality can matter for individuals’ subjective experiences of work-family conflict. In dual-earner countries, the probability that a high level of conflict is counterbalanced by feelings of life satisfaction is higher than in other policy models. A class asymmetry is found when it comes to effects of policy on men’s and women’s levels of work-family conflict and work-family satisfaction; women in the working class and the salaried class are more similar when it comes to experiences of work-family conflict and satisfaction in Sweden than in Germany and the UK. The analysis also shows that perceptions of fairness in the division of housework are moderated by the institutional and normative context. The politicisation of gender equality increases the correspondence between actual share of housework performed and the perceptions of fairness in the division of housework. The effect of politicisation is more important for men’s perceptions than for women’s.

    Conclusion The thesis contributes to a deepened understanding of the relationship between policy and work-family conflict and the integration of the perspectives of role conflict and role expansion; knowledge about the ways in which both class and gender relations are structured concerning the patterns of work-family conflict and satisfaction in different policy contexts; and new knowledge about the relationship between policy and men’s – and not only women’s – perceptions of fairness in the division of household work.

  • 13.
    Öun, Ida
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Interactions of class, gender and policy: Implications for work-family conflict and satisfactionManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this article is to explore theinteractive effects of gender, social class and public policy on men’s andwomen’s subjective experiences of work-family conflict and work-familysatisfaction. The central idea is that effects of gender and class covariatebetween different types of family policy models. Most previous comparativeresearch on the experiences of work-family conflict among women and men indifferent social contexts has assumed that class effects are similar acrosspolicy models. However, the results in this paper point to a class asymmetrywhen it comes to effects of policy on men’s and women’s levels of work-familyconflict and work-family satisfaction in three countries representing typicalcases with regard to family policy model (Germany, the UK, and Sweden). Theanalysis draws on data from the 2002 round of the International Social SurveyProgramme concerning family and changing gender roles, and shows that patternsof work-family conflict and work-family satisfaction differ among welfarestates. In Sweden women both in the working class and the salaried classexperience higher work-family conflict than men. However, these feelings ofconflict go hand in hand with correspondingly higher levels of work-familysatisfaction. In Germany class cleavages are more prominent than gender withregard to experiences of work-family conflict, while in the UK, women in thesalaried classes stand out with the highest level of work-family conflict ofall groups. In both Germany and the UK, experiences of work-family satisfactiondo not differ significantly between men and women in different classes. 

  • 14.
    Öun, Ida
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Is it fair to share? Perceptions of fairness in the division of housework among couples in 22 countries.2013In: Social Justice Research, ISSN 0885-7466, E-ISSN 1573-6725, Vol. 26, no 4, p. 400-421Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores the relationship between the actual division of housework and men’s and women’s perceived fairness in this regard. The central question is how the actual sharing of housework influences the perceptions of fairness in the division of housework. It is hypothesized that the perceptions of fairness differ between policy models. In countries where gender equality has been more present on the political agenda and dual-earner policies have been introduced, people are expected to be more sensitive to an unfair sharing or division of housework. By analysing the relationship between actual division of housework and perceptions of fairness in household work for 22 countries representing different family policy models, the study takes on a comparative perspective with the purpose of analysing the normative impact of policy. The analysis draws on data from the 2002 round of the International Social Survey Programme on family and changing gender roles. The results show that in countries that have promoted gender equality through the introduction of policies with an aim to promote dual roles in work and family, both women and men are more sensitive to an unfair division of household labour. The difference between perceptions in the different policy models is greater among men than among women, indicating that a politicization of the dual-earner family is more important for men’s equity perceptions than women’s.

  • 15.
    Öun, Ida
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Konflikten arbete-familj: Sverige i ett jämförande perspektiv2014In: Lönsamt arbete: familjeansvarets fördelning och konsekvenser : forskningsantologi till Delegationen för jämställdhet i arbetslivet / [ed] Boye, K. och Nermo, M., Stockholm: Fritzes , 2014, p. 257-280Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 16.
    Öun, Ida
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Män med blick för orättvisor2014In: Glimtar av jämställdhet / [ed] Anne Grönlund, Umeå: Boréa Bokförlag, 2014, 1, p. 85-101Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 17.
    Öun, Ida
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Work-family conflict in the Nordic countries: a comparative analysis2012In: Journal of Comparative Family Studies, ISSN 0047-2328, E-ISSN 1929-9850, Vol. 43, no 2, p. 165-184Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this article is to examine men's and women's subjective experiences of work-family conflict in the Nordic welfare states. These countries are often considered to be frontrunners with regard to gender equality, especially regarding the provision of policies that aim to support the reconciliation between work and family life. However, previous research has produced divergent results in response to the question of whether the welfare state institutions of the Nordic countries help to reduce work-family conflict. Do supportive institutions matter, or is the household division of labour of greater importance regarding experiences of work-family conflict? Drawing on data from the 2002 module of the International Social Survey Programme, the analyses indicate that experiences of work-family conflict among Nordic men and women can be divided into three clusters: work-family balance, occupational work overload, and dual work overload. In spite of their shorter working hours, women experience higher levels of work-family conflict than men. An unfair division of housework also increases work-family conflict. In the main, experiences of work-family conflict do not differ greatly among the Nordic countries, with the exception of Finland, where the level is lower than in the other countries. This points to a difference within the Nordic welfare state regime regarding the transition towards gender equality.

  • 18.
    Öun, Ida
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Pardo Trujillo, Gloria
    Maternity at work: A review of national legislation2005Report (Other academic)
1 - 18 of 18
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