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  • 1.
    Aronsson, Thomas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Löfgren, Karl-Gustaf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Marklund, Per-Olov
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    On output of the Swedish education sector: Additional remarks1999In: The Review of Income and Wealth, ISSN 0034-6586, E-ISSN 1475-4991, Vol. 45, no 4, p. 535-542Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The main purpose of this paper is to relate the empirical attempt of measuring output from the education sector to theoretical results about the welfare significance of an extended net national product (NNP) measure. We show that economic theory provides a more focused way of interpreting such output estimates, which has not been recognized in previous studies. The paper also contains new estimates of the output from the Swedish education sector.

  • 2.
    Bergquist, Ann-Kristin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Marklund, Per-Olov
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Erfarenheter av styrmedel på miljöområdet: en forskningsöversikt2011Report (Refereed)
  • 3. Broberg, Thomas
    et al.
    Marklund, Per-Olov
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Samakovlis, Eva
    Hammar, Henrik
    Testing the Porter hypothesis: the effects of environmental investments on efficiency in Swedish industry2013In: Journal of Productivity Analysis, ISSN 0895-562X, E-ISSN 1573-0441, Vol. 40, no 1, p. 43-56Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The main objective of this paper is to test the Porter hypothesis by assessing static and dynamic effects of environmental policy on productivity. According to the hypothesis, stringent environmental regulations have dynamic effects on firm performance, and these effects eventually generate profits that offset the adaptation costs. We extend previous analyses by using unique data on environmental protection investments in the Swedish manufacturing industry as a proxy for environmental stringency. These data enable us to separate environmental protection investments into pollution prevention and pollution control. This distinction is crucial since the hypothesis claims that it is investments in prevention that have positive dynamic effects on firm performance. To test the hypothesis, a stochastic production frontier model is estimated where firm inefficiency is a function of investments in environmental protection. In general, we find no support for the Porter hypothesis within the time frame of our study, indicating that environmental regulations lead to efficiency losses. This result is even stronger in the harshly regulated pulp and paper industry.

  • 4.
    Brännlund, Runar
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Carlén, Ola
    SLU.
    Lundgren, Tommy
    Institutionen för skogsekonomi, Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet SLU.
    Marklund, Per-Olov
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    En samhällsekonomisk bedömning av intensivodling av skog2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    SLU har av Jordbruksdepartementet fått i uppdrag att utreda effekterna av "intensivodling" av skog på skogsmark med låga naturvärden samt på nedlagd åkermark. I uppdraget ingår även att belysa de samhällsekonomiska konsekvenserna av "intensivodling", men även att genomföra en samhällsekonomisk kostnads-intäktsanalys av intensivodlingsåtgärder.

    Syftet med denna rapport är att bidra med ett underlag till en samhällsekonomisk bedömning av intensivodling av skog. Detta görs dels i form av en konsekvensanalys av relativt konceptuell karaktär i syfte att belysa möjliga effekter på prisbildning och marknadsutbud, dels att genomföra en samhällsekonomisk kostnads- och intäktsanalys som beaktar såväl marknadsprissatta som icke marknadsprissatta nyttigheter och onyttigheter.

    Den mer konceptuella konsekvensanalysen visar att intensivodling i den skala som diskuteras kan få relativt stora marknadseffekter via relativprisförändringar på lång sikt. Givet allt annat oförändrat kan man förvänta sig att nettointäkten (pris minus avverkningskostnad) faller till följd av intensivodling. Resultaten antyder att priserna på såväl timmer som massaved kan falla kraftigt, vilket naturligtvis får återverkningar på skogsägarnas ekonomi. I ett scenario där framtida efterfrågan på skogsprodukter ökar relativt kraftigt motverkas denna effekt. Delar av de åtgärder som "intensivodling" innebär är redan idag tillåtna. En naturlig fråga som uppstår är därmed varför åtgärderna inte genomförs. Ett möjligt, och enkelt, svar på detta är att skogsägarna inte finner det lönsamt, eller snarare att den förväntade lönsamheten inte är tillräckligt hög. Det kan med andra ord vara så att skogsägarna inte tror att framtida efterfrågeökningar kan leda till prishöjningar som gör "intensivodling" lönsamt.

    Vad gäller effekterna på andra näringar och sysselsättning kan man förvänta sig en ökad sysselsättning inom skogsbruket. Men analysen visar även att man inte kan utesluta att sysselsättningen inom turistsektorn minskar som en följd av förändringar i landskapbild och andra för turismen negativa sidoeffekter.

    Resultaten från den samhällsekonomiska analysen visar att intensivodling av skog på skogsmark med låga naturvärden potentiellt kan vara samhällsekonomiskt lönsamt, dvs. intensivodling kan enligt våra beräkningar leda till högre välfärd, givet vissa antaganden. Avgörande för resultatet är vilka antaganden som görs vad gäller värdering av den skog som kommer att produceras, hur stor kolbindningen blir och hur koldioxid värderas, samt effekterna och värdet på andra ej marknadsprissatta "skogsprodukter" som rekreation, jakt, och kväveläckage.

    De slutsatser som dras kan sammanfattas i följande punkter:

    1. Enligt kalkylen är intensivodling företagsekonomiskt lönsamt vid de priser och kostnader som gäller idag.

    2. Enligt kalkylen är intensivodling inte företagsekonomiskt lönsamt om framtida nettovärde av skogen är 80 procent av dagens värde.

    3. Intensivodling ger upphov till "externa effekter" som inte fångas i den privatekonomiska kalkylen: - Bidrar till minskade koldioxidutsläpp, positivt,

    - bidrar till ökat läckage av kväve till Östersjön, negativt,

    - påverkar skogsmarkens rekreationsvärde och jaktvärde negativt.

    4. Nettovärdet av de externa effekterna är helt avhängigt på vilket sätt förändringar i kolbalansen beräknas, hur koldioxid värderas, samt värderingen av andra externa effekter.

    5. De externa effekter som identifieras är motiv till att införa någon form av styrmedel.

    6. Om skogsägarna får ersättning för den koldioxid man binder och tvingas betala för de negativa externa effekterna kan man inte utesluta att de intensivodlingsåtgärder som diskuteras genomförs av skogsägarna.

    7. Det faktum att intensivodling bidrar till minskade utsläpp av koldioxid är inte något skäl till att specifikt stödja intensivodling. Snarare pekar det på att skogen och skogsbruket skall inordnas i den allmänna klimatpolitiken. Likväl som utsläpp orsakade av förbränning beskattas med en koldioxidskatt (eller måste täckas med utsläppsrätter) så måste skogsbruket ersättas för att man tar upp koldioxid.

  • 5.
    Brännlund, Runar
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE).
    Carlén, Ola
    SLU.
    Lundgren, Tommy
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE).
    Marklund, Per-Olov
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE).
    The Costs and Benefits of Intensive Forest Management2012In: Journal of Benefit-Cost Analysis, ISSN 2152-2812, Vol. 3, no 4Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents an approach for studying the socio-economic benefits and costs (CBA) of the introduction of intensified management measures in forestry. Besides from valuation of changes in timber production, assessments of different types of externalities are included in the assessment. The model is exemplified with the use of data from a Swedish governmental study undertaken in 2009 which present impacts on the Swedish forest sector if intensified management measures are applied on environmentally low-valued land and abandoned agricultural lands. The CBA shows that intensified management measures typically are private financially profitable. If these measures also become profitable from the society’s point of view depend on the size of the external effects including carbon balance.

  • 6.
    Brännlund, Runar
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Lundberg, Sofia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Marklund, Per-Olov
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Assessment of green public procurement as a policy tool: Cost-efficiency and competition considerations2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Public procurement is officially regarded as an effective means to secure environmental improvement. Estimates by the European Commission indicate that public authorities within the European Union typically purchase goods and services corresponding to approximately 16 percent of GNP per annum. Hence, it is believed, private firms can be stimulated to invest in sustainable production technologies if the market power of public bodies is exerted through Green Public Procurement (GPP) policies. In this paper we assess whether GPP is a cost-efficient policy tool, and if so whether its implementation can, from a welfare perspective, deter or stimulate entry to procurement markets.

  • 7.
    Brännlund, Runar
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Lundberg, Sofia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Marklund, Per-Olov
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Assessment of green public procurement as a policy tool: Cost-efficiency and competition considerations2009Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Brännlund, Runar
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE).
    Lundgren, Tommy
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE). Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå.
    Marklund, Per-Olov
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Carbon intensity in production and the effects of climate policy – evidence from Swedish industry2014In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 67, p. 844-857Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We analyze carbon intensity performance at firm level and the effectiveness of the Swedish CO2 tax. Carbon intensity performance is derived from a production technology and measured as changes in the CO2 emission-output production ratio. As one of the first countries to introduce a CO2 tax in 1991, Sweden serves as an appropriate "test bench" for analyzing the effectiveness of climate policy in general. Firm level data from Swedish manufacturing spanning over the period 1990-2004 is used for the analysis. Results show that EP has improved in all the sectors and there is an evidence of decoupling of output production growth and CO2 emissions. Firms' carbon intensity performance responds both to changes in the CO2 tax and fossil fuel price, but is more sensitive to the tax.

  • 9.
    Brännlund, Runar
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Marklund, Per-Olov
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Sjöström, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Evaluating market efficiency without price data: The Swedish market for wood fuel2004In: Applied Economics, ISSN 0003-6846, E-ISSN 1466-4283, Vol. 36, no 1, p. 31-39Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall objective of this paper is to analyse the price development and price formation for wood fuel used by the Swedish district heating sector. According to Lnner et al., there is a significant potential for increasing the use of wood fuel in Sweden, at a fairly moderate cost. The basic question raised in this paper is then why this potential is not realized. Specifically, a methodology is proposed for testing whether the reason is that market imperfections are present. As a first step the shape of the technology in the Swedish district heating sector is estimated for the period 1989 to 1996. In the second step the estimated technology and the assumption of cost-minimizing firms are combined to calculate shadow prices, i.e. marginal valuation of wood fuel in this sector. If the average shadow price significantly deviates from the average observed price one may conclude that this market is functioning inefficiently due to imperfections. According to constructed bootstrap confidence intervals this difference is significant only for three out of eight years, implying that the quantities of wood fuel traded are too small. For the other years the difference is not significant, implying that one cannot, on statistical grounds, reject the efficient market hypothesis for all years.

  • 10.
    Forslund, Johanna
    et al.
    Konjunkturinstitutet/National Institute of Economic Research.
    Marklund, Per-Olov
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Samakovlis, Eva
    Konjunkturinstitutet/National Institute of Economic Research.
    Samhällsekonomiska värderingar av luft- och bullerrelaterade hälsoproblem: En sammanställning av underlag för konsekvensanalyser2007Report (Other academic)
  • 11. Färe, Rolf
    et al.
    Grosskopf, Shawna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE). Department of Economics, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR, USA.
    Lundgren, Tommy
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE).
    Marklund, Per-Olov
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Wechao, Zhou
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Pollution-generating technologies and environmental efficiency2014In: Journal of Chinese Economic and Business Studies, ISSN 1476-5284, E-ISSN 1476-5292, Vol. 12, no 3, p. 233-251Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we study environmental efficiency (EE) within a pollution-generating technology. Good output and bad output (pollution) are explicitly modeled by imposing technology properties of disposability and null-jointness. With data on firms from Swedish manufacturing, we investigate the potential to reduce emissions, and we take a closer look at the pulp and paper sector. Dividing the firms into ‘brown’ and ‘green’ firms, we find that there is significant potential, in both categories, to improve EE, and hence lower emissions, of three air pollutants (CO2, SO2, NOx). Generally, the methods and results encourage similar and comparative studies on the manufacturing sector in other countries. If there is a comparable potential elsewhere, such as in major polluting countries like China, there is potential to promote a sustainable society by conducting effective energy and climate policies. We also suggest that treating biofuels as completely carbon neutral, as is common practice when constructing emission data in Sweden (Statistics Sweden), may lead to incorrect EE scores and consequently misleading policy implications.

  • 12.
    Färe, Rolf
    et al.
    Dept. of Agriculture and Resource Economics, Dept. of Economics, Oregon State University.
    Grosskopf, Shawna
    Dept. of Economics, Oregon State University.
    Lundgren, Tommy
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE). SLU.
    Marklund, Per-Olov
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE).
    Wenchao, Zhou
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Productivity: should we include bads?2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper studies the interaction between economic and environmental performance. Applying the directional output distance function approach, the purpose is to compare estimates of Luenberger total factor productivity indicators, including and excluding bad outputs. Specifically, based on unique firm level data from Swedish manufacturing covering the period 1990 to 2008, we explore to what extent excluding bad outputs leads to erroneous productivity measurement. The main conclusion is that bad outputs should not only be included in the estimations, but also reduction in bad outputs should be credited. From this point of view the directional output distance function approach and the Luenberger indicator serves as an appropriate basis of productivity measurement.

  • 13.
    Färe, Rolf
    et al.
    Oregon State University.
    Grosskopf, Shawna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE). Oregon State University and SLU.
    Lundgren, Tommy
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE). SLU.
    Marklund, Per-Olov
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM). SLU.
    Wenchao, Zhou
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Which bad is worst?: An application of Johansen's capacity model2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The production of desirable (good) outputs is frequently accompanied by unintended production of undesirable (bad) outputs. If two or more of these undesirable outputs are produced as byproducts, one may ask: ‘Which bad is worst?’ By worst we mean which bad inhibits the production of desirable outputs the most if it is regulated. We develop a model based on Leif Johansen’s capacity framework by estimating the capacity limiting effect of the bads. Our model resembles what is referred to as the von Liebig Law of the Minimum, familiar from the agricultural economics literature. To illustrate our model we apply our approach to a firm level data set from the Swedish paper and pulp industry.

  • 14.
    Huhtala, Anni
    et al.
    Agrifood Research Finland (MTT), Helsinki, Finland .
    Marklund, Per-Olov
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Stringency of environmental targets in animal agriculture: shedding light on policy with shadow prices2008In: European Review of Agricultural Economics, ISSN 0165-1587, E-ISSN 1464-3618, Vol. 35, no 2, p. 193-217Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a framework for deriving shadow prices for regulations on manure-spreading in animal agriculture and demonstrate that these prices can be used as indicators of the stringency of environmental regulation. We illustrate our approach with the case of water protection measures implemented in Finland to restrict the use of phosphorus on livestock farms. The estimated shadow price of the nutrient limit lies in the range 60–125 per kilogram of bioavailable phosphorus in manure, assuming that output reduction is the only option for decreasing the amount of manure in manure-dense areas. However, instead of cutting output, farms may be able to avoid these high abatement costs by more efficient input use or alternative abatement methods.

  • 15.
    Lindgren, Urban
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Marklund, Per-Olov
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Universitetets ekonomiska betydelse för Umeå kommun1995In: Samhällseffekter av Umeå universitet, CERUM, Umeå universitet , 1995, p. 99-108Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 16.
    Lundberg, Sofia
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Marklund, Per-Olov
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Green Public Procurement as an Policy Instrument: Cost effectiveness2013In: Environmental Economics, ISSN 1998-6041, E-ISSN 1998-605X, Vol. 4, no 4, p. 75-83Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Estimates by the European Commission indicate that public authorities within the European Union typically purchase goods and services corresponding to approximately 16 percent of GDP per annum. Hence, it is believed, private firms can be stimulated to invest in less polluting production technologies if the market power of public bodies is exerted through Green Public Procurement (GPP) policies and legislation. It is commonly argued that there are considerable possibilities for cost-effective GPP. The aim of this paper is to scrutinize this argument by specifically answer the question whether GPP can work as a cost-effective environmental policy instrument in terms of leading firms to reducing emissions at least cost to society. Our main finding shows that this is not the case.

  • 17.
    Lundberg, Sofia
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Marklund, Per-Olov
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE).
    Offentlig upphandling eller gröna nedköp?: En ESO-rapport om miljöpolitiska ambitioner2013Report (Refereed)
  • 18.
    Lundberg, Sofia
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE).
    Marklund, Per-Olov
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Offentlig upphandling som miljöpolitiskt styrmedel2015Report (Other academic)
  • 19. Lundberg, Sofia
    et al.
    Marklund, Per-Olov
    The pivotal nature of award methods in green public procurement2011In: Environmental Economics, ISSN 1998-6041, E-ISSN 1998-605X, Vol. 2, no 3, p. 64-73Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Internationally there is a strong trend of implementing Green Public Procurement (GPP), and it is seen as an environmental policy tool. By its purchasing power public authorities are via environmental concerns in procurement believed to have the power of stimulating firms to reduce emissions, be resource efficient, and developing products proper in line with a sustainable society. In allocating public contracts authorities use award methods and scoring rules. This paper discusses the procedure of allocating contracts when GPP is applied. Departing from previous research on this topic the paper explicitly discusses the pivotal role of using suitable award methods and scoring rules for GPP to functioning as an efficient environmental policy tool. It is most important that GPP matches the preferences of the society (e.g., a municipality or a state authority). Assuming that GPP can be used as an environmental policy tool, the authors present general guidelines for choosing an efficient award method and scoring rule in perspective of welfare and sustainability.The necessity of such guidelines cannot be emphasized enough, partly because previous scientific literature on the topic is very scarce and partly, which is most serious, empirical data (Swedish public procurement data) indicate that scoring rules that violates necessary conditions for efficient outcomes are commonly used. It cannot be ruled out that this unfortunate circumstance causes the society substantial costs. In this perspective it is also noteworthy that Sweden is regarded as a frontrunner in successfully implementing GPP (Kahlenborn et al., 2011).

  • 20.
    Lundberg, Sofia
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Marklund, Per-Olov
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Brännlund, Runar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Miljöhänsyn i offentlig upphandling: Samhällsekonomisk effektivitet och konkurrensbegränsande överväganden2009Report (Other academic)
  • 21.
    Lundberg, Sofia
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Marklund, Per-Olov
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE).
    Strömbäck, Elon
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Is Environmental Policy by Public Procurement Effective?2016In: Public Finance Review, ISSN 1091-1421, E-ISSN 1552-7530, Vol. 44, no 4, p. 478-499Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Advocates of green public procurement (GPP) argue that the public sector can use its purchasing power to influence producers and consumers to reduce their negative impact on the environment. Our aim is to assess GPP as an environmental policy instrument and its ability to lead to the achievement of environmental objectives. Central to our analysis is the extent to which polluting firms choose to adapt to the public sector’s environmental requirements and to invest in greener technologies. Our theoretical finding is that the potential of GPP to function as an objective effective instrument of environmental policy is limited and can actually be counterproductive. From an environmental policy point of view, it is crucial that the GPP aims for an environmental standard beyond the technology of the polluting firms and is designed with reference to defined environmental objectives.

  • 22.
    Lundberg, Sofia
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Marklund, Per-Olov
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Strömbäck, Elon
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Sundström, David
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Using public procurement to implement environmental policy: an empirical analysis2015In: Environmental Economics and Policy Studies, ISSN 1432-847X, E-ISSN 1867-383X, Vol. 17, no 4, p. 487-520Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Politicians expect Green public procurement (GPP) to serve as an environmental policy instrument. However, in order for GPP to work as an effective policy instrument it is important to take into consideration potential suppliers’ decisions to participate in the procurement process, the total number of bidders, and the screening of bidders with respect to mandatory green criteria. The aim of this paper is to empirically study GPP in this respect. The analysis presented here is based on data from Swedish cleaning services procurements that are unique in that they contain very detailed information on various environmental standards set by the contracting authorities. We find at best only a weak effect on supplier behavior, and this suggests that the use of GPP in this situation does not live up to its political expectations. 

  • 23.
    Lundgren, Tommy
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE).
    Marklund, Per-Olov
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE).
    Assessing the welfare effects of promoting biomass growth and the use of bioenergy2013In: Climate Change Economics, ISSN 2010-0078, E-ISSN 2010-0086, Vol. 4, no 1, p. 1350003-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using a growth model that accounts for environmental and climate externalities, we take a closer look at the welfare effects of promoting biomass growth and the use of bioenergy, and especially the role of carbon neutrality. As an illustration, a hypothetical intensive forest cultivation project is simulated. Costs and benefits of the project show that only determining the postive effects of promoting biomass growth and the use of bioenergy, such as substitution away from fossil fuels and carbon sequestration is not sufficient. But more importantly, to achieve a balanced measure of the effects on the climate, we must also incorporate all carbon emissions that are associated with bioenergy. Not doing so will over-estimate the positive climate effects of increasing the use of bioenergy.Read 

  • 24.
    Lundgren, Tommy
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE).
    Marklund, Per-Olov
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Bioenergy and carbon neutrality2012In: Journal of Forest Economics, ISSN 1104-6899, E-ISSN 1618-1530, Vol. 18, no 3, p. 175-176Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 25.
    Lundgren, Tommy
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE). Department of Forest Economics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå.
    Marklund, Per-Olov
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE).
    Climate Policy and Profit Efficiency2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    As widely recognized, human mankind stands before the most challenging problem of preventing anthropogenic climate change. As a response to this, the European Union advocates an ambitious climate policy mix. However, there is no consensus concerning the impact of stringent environmental policy on firms’ competitiveness and profitability. From the traditional ‘static’ point of view there are productivity losses to be expected. On the other hand, the so called Porter hypothesis suggests the opposite; i.e., due to ‘dynamic’ effects, ambitious climate and energy policies within the EU could actually be beneficial to firms in terms of enhanced profitability and competitiveness. Based on Sweden’s manufacturing industry, our main purpose is to specifically assess the impact of the CO2 tax scheme of Sweden on firms’ profit efficiency. The empirical methodology is based on stochastic frontier estimations and, in general, the results suggest we can neither reject nor confirm the Porter hypothesis across industry sectors. Therefore, we do not generally confirm the argument of stringent environmental policies having positive dynamic effects that potentially offset costs related to environmental policy.

  • 26.
    Lundgren, Tommy
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE).
    Marklund, Per-Olov
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Climate policy, environmental performance, and profits2015In: Journal of Productivity Analysis, ISSN 0895-562X, E-ISSN 1573-0441, Vol. 44, no 3, p. 225-235Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study we investigate how firm level environmental performance (EP) affects firm level economic performance measured as profit efficiency (PE) in a stochastic profit frontier setting. Analyzing firms in Swedish manufacturing 1990–2004, results show that EP induced by environmental policy is not a determinant of PE, while voluntary or market driven EP seem to have a significant and positive effect on firm PE in most sectors. The evidence generally supports the idea that good EP is also good for business, as long as EP is not brought on by policy measures, in this case a CO2 tax. Thus, the results provide no general support for the Porter hypothesis.

  • 27.
    Lundgren, Tommy
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE). SLU.
    Marklund, Per-Olov
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE). SLU.
    Economics of biofuels: an overview2013In: Encyclopedia of energy, natural resources and environmental economics: Volume 1 / [ed] Jason F Shogren, Elsevier, 2013, p. 184-187Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Biofuels are regarded as energy sources with the potential to solve a series of problems related to the climate and sustainability. Expectations are that pursuing policies supporting biofuels will be beneficial for welfare and sustainability in societies. It is convenient to divide the effects of such policies into four categories: Climate effects, other environmental effects, energy security effects, and net economic effects. Reviewing the literature to date reveals that the effects of converting from fossil fuels to biofuels do not necessarily have positive net welfare effects, and the argument to substitute biofuels for fossil fuels is not as obvious as it initially appears to be. Short-run stringent climate policy objectives are proposed to counteract global warming, and increasing the use of biofuels is promoted as an adequate strategy. One important conclusion drawn from recent studies is that biofuels are not entirely carbon neutral, as is commonly assumed. Therefore, the use of biofuels as an instrument in climate policy must be carefully scrutinized before set into play on a global scale.

  • 28.
    Lundgren, Tommy
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business.
    Marklund, Per-Olov
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Brännlund, Runar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Kriström, Bengt
    Institutionen för skogsekonomi, Sveriges Lantbruksuniversitet/Department of Forest Economics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    The Economics of Biofuels2008In: International Review of Environmental and Resource Economics, ISSN 1932-1465, Vol. 2, no 3, p. 237-280Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Biofuels are increasingly regarded as energy sources with the potential to solve diverse problems related to serious concerns, including climate change, environmental degradation, energy supply, and energy security. Here we examine biofuels, primarily biofuels used for transportation (e.g., ethanol and biodiesel),

    through the lens of modern resource economics and address fundamental questions, such as: Why biofuels?We then review some of the relevant literature and present a framework for analysis drawn mainly from the green accounting literature.

    The literature reviewed indicates that the effects of policies promoting conversion from fossil fuels to biofuels do not necessarily promote welfare. Our theoretical framework provides indications of possible reasons for this. Based on findings obtained using the framework we propose policies that not only penalize

    emissions of CO2 from all sources, but also stimulate biomass growth. Finally, we identify issues for further research.

  • 29.
    Lundgren, Tommy
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE).
    Marklund, Per-Olov
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE).
    Samakovlis, Eva
    National Institute of Economic Research, Stockholm.
    Wenchao, Zhou
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Carbon prices and incentives for technological development2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    How to significantly decrease carbon dioxide emissions has become one of the largest challenges faced by modern society. The standard recipe prescribed by most economists is to put a price on carbon, either through a tax or through emissions trading. Such measures can reduce emissions cost-effectively and create incentives for technological development. There is, however, a growing concern that the carbon prices generated through the European Union emission trading system (EU ETS) have been too low to create the incentives necessary to stimulate technological development. This paper empirically analyzes how the Swedish carbon dioxide tax and the EU ETS have affected productivity development in the Swedish pulp and paper industry 1998-2008. A Luenberger total factor productivity (TFP) indicator is computed using data envelopment analysis. How the policy measures affect TFP is assessed using a system generalized method of moments estimator. The results show that climate policy had a modest impact on technological development in the pulp and paper industry, and if significant it has been negative. The price on fossil fuels, on the contrary, seems to have created important incentives for technological development. Hence, results suggest that the carbon prices faced by the industry through EU ETS and the carbon dioxide tax have been too low.

  • 30.
    Lundgren, Tommy
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE).
    Marklund, Per-Olov
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Samakovlis, Eva
    Zhou, Wenchao
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Carbon prices and incentives for technological development2015In: Journal of Environmental Management, ISSN 0301-4797, E-ISSN 1095-8630, Vol. 150, p. 393-403Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is concern that the carbon prices generated through climate policies are too low to create the incentives necessary to stimulate technological development. This paper empirically analyzes how the Swedish carbon dioxide (CO2) tax and the European Union emission trading system (EU ETS) have affected productivity development in the Swedish pulp and paper industry 1998-2008. A Luenberger total factor productivity (TFP) indicator is computed using data envelopment analysis. The results show that climate policy had a modest impact on technological development in the pulp and paper industry, and if significant it was negative. The price of fossil fuels, on the contrary, seems to have created important incentives for technological development. Hence, the results suggest that the carbon prices faced by the industry through EU ETS and the CO2 tax have been too low. Even though the data for this study is specific for Sweden, the models and results are applicable internationally. When designing policy to mitigate CO2 emissions, it is vital that the policy creates a carbon price that is high enough otherwise the pressure on technological development will not be sufficiently strong. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 31.
    Lundgren, Tommy
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE).
    Marklund, Per-Olov
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    zhang, shanshan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE).
    Energy Efficiency in Swedish Industry: a Stochastic Frontier Approach2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper estimates firm level energy efficiency and its determinants in 14 sectors of Swedish manufacturing by using stochastic frontier analysis (SFA). We derive energy demand frontiers both from cost minimizing and profit maximizing perspectives. To account for firms’ heterogeneity, Greene’s true random effects model is adopted. Results show that, from both firm behavior perspectives, there is room to improve energy efficiency in all sectors of Swedish manufacturing. The EU ETS seem to have had a moderate or no effect on Swedish firms’ efficient use of energy. Moreover, we found that energy intensity or energy productivity (energy use over production value) is not an appropriate proxy for energy efficiency.

  • 32. Lundgren, Tommy
    et al.
    Marklund, Per-Olov
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM). CERE, Centre for Environmental and Resource Economics, Umeå University and Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Umeå, Sweden.
    Zhang, Shanshan
    Industrial energy demand and energy efficiency - Evidence from Sweden2016In: Resources and Energy Economics, ISSN 0928-7655, E-ISSN 1873-0221, Vol. 43, p. 130-152Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper estimates firm level energy demand and energy efficiency for 14 sectors in Swedish manufacturing using stochastic frontier analysis (SFA). We derive sector level energy demand frontiers that account for firm specific heterogeneity. Results show that there is potential to improve energy efficiency for fuel and electricity use in all sectors; energy intensity is not an appropriate proxy for energy efficiency; the EU ETS had a modest or no effect on Swedish firms' efficient use of energy during the first trading phase and the beginning of the second, indicating that the carbon permit price was too low to generate the necessary incentives for energy efficiency investments.

  • 33.
    Löfgren, Karl-Gustaf
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Marklund, Per-Olov
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    The regional output from human capital: Do universities matter?1996Report (Other academic)
  • 34.
    Marklund, Per-Olov
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Analyzing Interplant Marginal Abatement Cost Differences: A Directional Output Distance Function Approach2003Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to compute and evaluate producers’ marginal abatement costs (MACs). These costs are obtained by calculating shadow prices of bad outputs from the production technology, which is represented by the estimated directional output distance function. To be more specific, this paper considers the Swedish pulp industry when the regulatory authority has granted each producing plant a maximally allowed emission level. In each case, area residents and other parties concerned have been allowed to express their views, which possibly prepared the way for other factors than prescribed by environmental law, to influence the stringency of the finally allowed emission levels and, therefore, the MACs. The main focus is on whether the calculated MACs reveal that differences between counties in, e.g., economical characteristics, were influential when the authority, during 1983-1990, restricted 12 geographically scattered pulp plants regarding emissions. The result indicates that the MACs vary between many of the plants and that county differences were taken into account when imposing environmental restrictions on the plants.

  • 35.
    Marklund, Per-Olov
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Den svenska utbildningssektorns produktion: ett regionalt perspektiv1995In: Samhällseffekter av Umeå universitet, CERUM, Umeå universitet , 1995, p. 185-196Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 36.
    Marklund, Per-Olov
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Environmental Regulation and Firm Efficiency1999Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study is entitled Environmental Regulation and Firm Efficiency. It provides an empirical analysis of how environmental policy may have affected the Swedish pulp industry. The main purpose is to test the Porter hypothesis concerning the impacts of environmental regulation on producer efficiency. To do that, a 2-stage method is adopted, which fundamentally is based on Shepards´s multi-output distance function. In fulfilling the purpose, three main issues are discussed. First, different types of deterministic and stochastic approaches are described and empirically compared. Theoretically, this is mainly about how producer inefficiency is defined. Empirically, it reveals that the results should be viewed as tentative, largely because of the difficulties associated with calculations or estimation techniques. Second, a simplified environmental regulatory index, suitable when the firm technology is characterized by an output distance function, is promoted. Finally, shadow prices of bad outputs are considered i order to investigate the extent to which pulp plants are restrainde by environmental restrictions.

  • 37.
    Marklund, Per-Olov
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Environmental Regulation and Firm Efficiency: Studying the Porter Hypothesis using a Directional Output Distance Function2003Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to suggest a procedure to empirically test the Porter hypothesis. This hypothesis argues that environmental regulation not only increases environmental quality, but also brings the polluting producers information that makes them more resource efficient, as well as able to develop new technologies. Specifically, the hypothesis tested is whether there is a positive significant correlation between producers’ technical output efficiency and environmental regulation. Efficiency is first estimated using a methodology where the production technology is represented by a directional output distance function, which credits a simultaneous expansion of market goods and contraction of emissions. Then, by regressing the obtained efficiency scores on an index that approximates environmental regulatory intensity, the Porter hypothesis is explicitly tested. The test procedure is applied on 12 Swedish pulp plants during 1983-1990. The result shows no support for the Porter hypothesis.

  • 38.
    Marklund, Per-Olov
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Essays on Productive Efficiency, Shadow Prices, and Human Capital2004Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis consists of five papers, four of them basically concerning environmental issues, while the fifth paper addresses the issue of measuring output from the educational sector.

    The first paper starts from the fact that industrial activity causes environmental damage. Therefore, public authorities are called upon to regulate the behavior of producers by, e.g., legislating maximally allowed emission levels, which give rise to abatement costs. In this paper, marginal abatement costs (MACs) are estimated and a procedure to empirically analyze why MACs may vary between producers is suggested. The main focus is on whether the MACs in the Swedish pulp industry reveal that differences between counties in, e.g., economical characteristics, were influential when the authority, during 1983-1990, restricted 12 geographically scattered plants regarding emissions. The result indicates that county differences were influential.

    The second paper analyses and suggests a procedure for testing the Porter hypothesis. Part of this hypothesis is based on the argument that increased environmental stringency not only brings a cleaner environment, but also makes the polluting producers aware of the opportunity of using resources more efficiently. The particular test suggested considers whether there is a positive correlation between producers’ technical output efficiency and environmental stringency, approximated by a regulatory intensity index. It is empirically applied on 12 Swedish pulp plants during 1983-1990. No support for the Porter hypothesis is found in this particular case.

    The third paper deals with the climate policy issue. Under the Kyoto Protocol, the European Union agreed to reduce its emission of greenhouse gases by 8 percent in comparison with the level in 1990. The Burden-Sharing Agreement (BSA) further redistributes the 8 percent reduction target among the member states. This paper evaluates the BSA both from an economical and a political perspective, i.e., whether cost-efficiency and equity, respectively, were considered when the BSA was settled. The empirical result indicates that both efficiency and equity were considered as important to the BSA.

    The fourth paper evaluates the Swedish Producer Responsibility Ordinance (PRO), fully implemented in 1994, which states that sorted out, domestically collected waste paper, must be recycled by the paper industry and, therefore, cannot be incinerated by the heating industry in purpose of recovering energy. The result indicates that this policy has contributed to inefficient waste paper allocation among some of the paper producers. The result further indicates that the priority made by the PRO, i.e., that waste paper recycling is preferable to incineration, should be reconsidered.

    The fifth paper relates the empirical attempts of measuring output from the educational sector to theoretical results about the welfare significance of a comprehensive Net National Product (NNP) measure. It is shown that economic theory provides a more focused way of interpreting such output estimates. The paper also contains estimates of the output from the Swedish educational sector. Among the results, it is shown that the private gross output value produced by higher education is approximately 2 percent of GDP. Furthermore, the private rate of return on investments in higher education in Sweden is calculated to 8.6 percent.

  • 39.
    Marklund, Per-Olov
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Miljöpolitiska styrmedel och konkurrenskraft: En litteraturgenomgång1997Report (Other academic)
  • 40.
    Marklund, Per-Olov
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Samakovlis, Eva
    Konjunkturinstitutet, National Institute of Economic Research.
    What is driving the EU burden-sharing agreement: Efficiency or equity?2007In: Journal of Environmental Management, ISSN 0301-4797, E-ISSN 1095-8630, Vol. 85, no 2, p. 317-329Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Under the Kyoto Protocol the European Union agreed to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases by 8 percent. The Burden-Sharing Agreement (BSA) redistributes the reduction target among the member states. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the BSA. To determine if cost efficiency was considered, marginal abatement costs (MACs) are first calculated based on an estimation of the directional output distance function using country production data for 1990–2000. MACs, together with equity indicators, are then regressed on the emission change targets. The main conclusion is that both efficiency and equity were important aspects considered in the settlement.

  • 41.
    Marklund, Per-Olov
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Samakovlis, Eva
    Konjunkturinstitutet/ National Institute of Economic Research.
    What is Driving the EU Burden-Sharing Agreement: Efficiency or Equity?2003Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Under the Kyoto Protocol the European Union (EU) agreed to reduce the emissions of greenhouse gases by 8 percent in comparison with the level in 1990. The Burden-Sharing Agreement (BSA) further redistributes the overall 8 percent reduction target among the EU Member States. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the BSA from both an economical and a political perspective, which means performing hypothesis tests of whether cost-efficiency and equity respectively, were considered in the BSA settlement. Variables used to perform the equity tests are chosen on the basis of the Triptych study. However, the cost-efficiency test is made possible by first calculating marginal abatement costs from the directional output distance function, which is estimated on country production data for 1990-2000. The function is estimated using both corrected ordinary least squares and linear programming techniques. The main conclusion drawn from this study is that both efficiency and equity were considered important to the BSA.

  • 42.
    Marklund, Per-Olov
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Samakovlis, Eva
    Konjunkturinstitutet/National Institute of Economic Research.
    Hammar, Henrik
    Konjunkturinstitutet/National Institute of Economic Research.
    Does Environmental Leadership Pay Off for Swedish Industry?: Effects of Environmental Investmentments on Efficiency2007Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 43.
    Rudholm, Niklas
    et al.
    Dalarna University, Department of Economics.
    Nordmark, Arvid
    Norrtälje Municipality.
    Marklund, Per-Olov
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Does Competition Increase Economic Efficiency in Swedish County Councils?2011In: Advances in Management and Applied Economics, ISSN 1792-7544, Vol. 1, no 2, p. 77-91Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish health care system is to a large extent publicly managed by 21 local county councils. During recent years there has been a movement were local county councils have opted to allow more of the production to be performed by alternative producers (i.e., private firms, cooperatives etc.). The purpose of this paper is thus to study if local county councils who has a large proportion of health care performed by alternative producers are more economically efficient than other county councils. The results indicate that county councils with more alternative caregivers are supplying their services more efficiently.

  • 44.
    Rudholm, Niklas
    et al.
    institutionen för ekonomi, Högskolan i Gävle, Department of Economics, University of Gävle.
    Nordmark, Arvid
    Norrtälje kommun, Norrtälje Municipality.
    Marklund, Per-Olov
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Does Competition Increase Economic Efficiency in Swedish County Councils?2007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish health care system is to a large extent publicly managed by 21 local county councils. During recent years there has been a movement were local county councils have opted to allow more of the production to be performed by alternative producers (i.e. private firms, cooperatives etc.). The purpose of this paper is thus to study if local county councils who has a large proportion of health care performed by alternative producers are more economically efficient than other county councils. The results indicate that county councils with more alternative caregivers are supplying their services more efficiently.

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