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  • 1.
    Almstedt, Åsa
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Lundmark, Linda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Pettersson, Örjan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Public spending on rural tourism in Sweden2016In: Fennia, E-ISSN 1798-5617, Vol. 194, no 1, p. 18-31Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tourism is an important part of rural policies in European countries. An increased demand for rural amenities is seen as creating a more diversified labour market and contributing to the restructuring of the economy, from primary sectors and manufacturing to a more service-oriented economy, which has been termed a "new rural economy". As a result, and as often presented in many policy documents, tourism is now seen as a universal tool for rural development. The purpose of this study is to investigate the distribution of public spending on tourism in rural areas in Sweden. It focuses on public spending on the main programme for rural development, the Swedish rural development programme, but also on the regional structural funds programmes, from 2000 to 2013. Another subject of interest is how policy makers understand rural tourism as presented in policy documents since these documents, to a great extent, direct programme spending in terms of projects and their content. This study is based on register data on programme spending, policy documents and programme evaluation reports. Results show that a relatively small amount of total public spending targets tourism – mainly going to accommodation, activities and marketing efforts – indicating that tourism is still not a prioritised area despite policy makers’ understanding of rural tourism as expressed in policy documents. Thus, although public efforts target adequate parts of the tourism industry, they cannot be expected to contribute significantly to the restructuring of the rural economy.

  • 2.
    Bergstén, Sabina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Stjernström, Olof
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History. Faculty of Social Sciences, Nord University, Steinkjer, Norway.
    Pettersson, Örjan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Experiences and emotions among private forest owners versus public interests: why ownership matters2018In: Land use policy, ISSN 0264-8377, E-ISSN 1873-5754, Vol. 79, p. 801-811Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    By adopting a qualitative approach and considering the case of Sweden, the aim of the paper is to investigate and analyse how private forest owners' experiences and emotions related to their private forest ownership manifest themselves in their relationship to public use of their forests and public planning for recreation and biodiversity on their land. The study incorporates and elaborates upon a conceptual framework related to the dimensions of property rights, feelings of ownership, and sense of place in its analysis of the private forest ownership context. Fifty-one semi-structured interviews were conducted with forest owners owning land in two geographically different areas. The results demonstrate the important role of the 'social contract' of rights and responsibilities, which are associated with the concept of property rights, and are embedded in the relationship between private ownership and the Swedish custom of the Right of Public Access to nature in the broad acceptance of public use of private forestland. The forest owners' relationships with public planning are diverse and complex, illustrating the various dimensions of private forest ownership, the heterogeneous forest owner corps, and the different geographical contexts. The dimensions of ownership feelings and sense of place, and the interplay between them, are shown to contribute to enhanced sentiments linked to forest ownership, expressed in ambivalence or lack of conviction about public planning. An important point of resistance to public interests is owners' identity as stewards or long-term custodians of their particular forestland. The article ends with a set of recommendations for public policy and planning processes regarding public interests related to private forest ownership.

  • 3.
    Garli, Fredrik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Pettersson, Örjan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Befolkningsutveckling och -prognoser: teori och tillämpning för Västerbottens län2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna rapport behandlar befolkningsutvecklingen i Västerbottens län under perioden 1970-2025 vilket innebär att den dels gör en historisk tillbakablick över demografiska förhållanden samt prognostiserar den framtida befolkningsutvecklingen. Prognoserna har utformats med det regionala Analys och prognosprogrammet rAps 3.2. Utförandet av prognoserna är en preliminär studie av rAps partiella befolkningsmodell varpå en redovisning av den fulla modellkörningen inte skett. Utöver detta ges en översiktlig genomgång av några vanliga angreppssätt vid utförandet av befolkningsprognoser generellt. 

  • 4.
    Habteselassie, Dawit
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Pettersson, Örjan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Wiberg, Ulf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Restructuring in sparse regional structures: a swedish case2006In: Social capital and development trends in rural areas / [ed] Katasuhisa Ito, Hans Westlund, Kiyoshi Kobayashi, Tsuyoshi Hatori, Kyoto: University, MARG , 2006, p. 85-102Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Habteselassie, Dawit
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Pettersson, Örjan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Wiberg, Ulf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Restructuring in sparse regional structures: a Swedish case2006In: Endogenous factors stimulating rural development / [ed] Zbigniew Floriańczyk, Konrad Czapiewski, Warsaw: Institute of Agricultural and Food Econmics : Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization , 2006Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Keskitalo, E. Carina H.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Karlsson, Svante
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Lindgren, Urban
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Pettersson, Örjan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Lundmark, Linda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Slee, Bill
    Villa, Mariann
    Feliciano, Diana
    Rural-urban policies: changing conceptions of the human-environment relationship2017In: Globalisation and change in forest ownership and forest use: natural resource management in transition / [ed] E. Carina H. Keskitalo, London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2017, p. 183-224Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter describes how understandings of the "rural" have progressed from a focus on either decline or amenity, whereby these more simplified understandings can be seen to have had an impact on rural policy development. The chapter argues that rural areas, including forests, need to be understood in relation to both production and integration with urban landscapes. It thus illustrates the role of both historical processes and policy in creating current understandings of the rural: drawing upon an example from the Swedish case, it amongst others shows that a redistributive tax system has played a larger and more crucial role than rural policy in retaining active rural areas in Sweden.

  • 7.
    Keskitalo, E Carina H
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Malmberg, Gunnar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Westin, Kerstin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Wiberg, Ulf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Müller, Dieter K
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Pettersson, Örjan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Contrasting arctic and mainstream Swedish descriptions of Northern Sweden: the view from established domestic research2013In: Arctic, ISSN 0004-0843, E-ISSN 1923-1245, Vol. 66, no 3, p. 351-365Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2011, Sweden released its first-ever Arctic strategy, in preparation for taking over the chairmanship of the Arctic Council, an eight-state cooperation organization. The recent political development that will include Sweden more extensively in Arctic regional cooperation makes it relevant to review and comment on the image of the areas involved from a Swedish viewpoint and to improve the often very brief descriptions of northernmost Sweden in Arctic literature. In this paper, we contrast descriptions of the Arctic in the Arctic Human Development Report (AHDR) with descriptions of northern Sweden in established domestic demographic and regional development research. The study shows that many of the assumptions in the first AHDR to the effect that the eight "Arctic" regions are rather directly comparable in fact reveal substantial differences between areas, with northern Sweden standing in sharp contrast to many of the descriptions. Instead of having a population that is very small, young, and rapidly growing because of a high birth rate, northern Sweden is characterized by relatively dense habitation with a stable and aging population of long-term residents. Moreover, it has a very small and relatively integrated indigenous population with largely the same health situation as in Sweden overall. While depopulation and urbanization are evident in its less populated areas, migration from the region is partly directed at the larger regional centres in the area, following a pattern seen in the Western world at large.

  • 8.
    Knobblock, Erika
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Pettersson, Örjan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Restructuring and risk-reduction in mining: employment implications for northern Sweden2010In: Fennia, ISSN 0015-0010, Vol. 188, no 1, p. 61-75Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the past, employment in northern Sweden has been largely dependent on natural resources. Shifting demands and price fluctuations for raw materials have caused boom periods as well as times of crisis in local communities. During the first decade of the 21st century, increasing global demand for minerals resulted in substantial investments in the Swedish mining industry. The purpose of this article is to assess the importance of mining for employment in the county of Västerbotten, northern Sweden, by focusing on the time period after 1990. Mining employment constitutes a rather small part of all employment in the study area, due to a restructuring process that started in the 1960s. However, results show that mining employment has increased slightly, especially after 2002. Global demand for minerals and related technology and services make it reasonable to believe that this change will have a deeper significance for employment opportunities in the study area. Restructuring in mining generates new business opportunities in subcontracting, consultancy and equipment production, but also creates new challenges. Consequently, it is important to make strategic decisions on regional and local levels concerning how to make use of the development in the mining industry to stimulate long-term regional employment growth.

  • 9.
    Liljenfeldt, Johanna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Pettersson, Örjan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Distributional justice in Swedish wind power development – an odds ratio analysis of windmill localization and local residents' socio-economic characteristics2017In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 105, p. 648-657Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With a fast rise in large-scale wind power development in Sweden and other countries in recent years, issues related to energy justice generally and distributional justice specifically have become concerns in windmill siting. Some research, for instance, has indicated that it is easier to build windmills in economically marginalized communities. The evidence for this, however, is still limited. Thus, this study aims to statistically evaluate the extent to which the decisions to approve or reject windmill proposals in Sweden can be explained by factors related to the socio-economic characteristics of people living in the areas surrounding windmill sites. The study is based on an odds ratio analysis of decisions on all windmill proposals in Sweden, in which georeferenced socio-economic data on an individual level for all inhabitants within 3 and 10 km of the windmill sites are studied. The results show skewness in the distribution of windmills, with a higher likelihood of rejection in areas with more highly educated people and people working in the private sector, compared to a higher likelihood of approval in areas with more unemployed people. This skewness, while not necessarily unjust, warrants further policy and research attention to distributional justice issues when developing wind power.

  • 10.
    Lindgren, Urban
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Social and Economic Geography.
    Pettersson, Örjan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Social and Economic Geography.
    Jansson, Bruno
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Social and Economic Geography.
    Nilsagård, Hans
    Skogsbruket i den lokala ekonomin2000Report (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Lundmark, Linda
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Pettersson, Örjan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    The Relevance of Cluster Initiatives in Rural Areas: Regional Policy in Sweden2012In: Urbani Izziv, ISSN 0353-6483, E-ISSN 1855-8399, Vol. 23, no Suppl. 1, p. S42-S52Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The relatively weak performance of sparsely populated areas has been given substantial attention in many regional, national and European Union initiatives. Many rural areas are struggling with development problems such as depopulation, advanced ageing, industrial restructuring and high levels of structural unemployment. In Sweden these issues are mainly associated with the difficulties in the non-metropolitan sparsely populated areas in the northern and southeastern parts. Here, the issue of implementing general cluster policies in sparsely populated regions in order to enhance their economic development is in focus. This research includes an overview of existing Swedish regional growth and development programmes that exemplify the current regional policies. It is found that the concepts of clusters and innovation systems have become important for policy on national and regional levels of government, but the understanding of the concepts is poor. In spite of regional variations in preconditions for cluster development, there are no clear regional modifications in the interpretation of clusters as described in the documents. One conclusion is that regional and local strategies to develop businesses in sparsely populated areas would benefit from using examples from non-metropolitan regions as a point of departure rather than using experiences drawn from high-tech industries located in metropolitan areas usually referenced in the international literature. The routine use of cluster and innovation systems in policy on the regional level underlines the need for more empirically based research on the preconditions for cluster development in sparsely populated areas.

  • 12.
    Mattsson, Madeleine
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Social and Economic Geography.
    Pettersson, Örjan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Social and Economic Geography.
    Cross-border collaboration in the North: Viewpoints of municipal representatives and firm managers on the Bothnian Arc project2005In: Fennia, Vol. 183, no 2, p. 97-107Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Pettersson, Örjan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    An ageing countryside: Successful ageing or just advanced ageing in the rural areas of northern Sweden?2010In: Social capital and development trends in rural areas: Volume 5 / [ed] Hans Westlund och Kiyoshi Kobayashi, Jönköping: RUREG , 2010, p. 151-167Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years the issue of ageing populations has been given high priority on the agenda for politicians, planners and other decision-makers. That people tend to live longer is in most cases perceived as something positive, whereas the society could also face difficulties to handle a situation with a growing share of elderly people. Although many rural areas exposed to ageing processes experience structural net out-migration of young people and depopulation, other rural areas attract people close to retirement age and have rather stable or even increasing number of inhabitants. From these perspectives it is relevant to pinpoint both positive aspects, usually related to the concept of “successful ageing”, and the negative aspects often associated with “advanced ageing”. The paper provides a detailed geographical analysis of the contemporary tendencies within the rural areas of the county of Västerbotten in northern Sweden. Results indicate considerable differences within the county. Rural areas affected by decades of depopulation are also those with a bias towards advanced ageing. However, not all sparsely populated areas follow the general pattern with both depopulation and ageing. First of all, there are some villages in the mountain range with younger populations and a more stable number of inhabitants. Secondly, even in remote rural areas facing depopulation there are parts where the number of elderly is decreasing. This reduction could be due to out-migration of old people or that a substantial part of the population already in the early 1990s had reached such a high age that they where gone by the end of the study period. By contrast, the number of people 75+ in expanding rural areas within commuting distance from Umeå has increased relatively little in comparison to other age groups above 44 years of age. This could indicate either that these areas are not as attractive to elderly people as sometimes assumed or difficulties to manage in these surroundings when becoming aged.

  • 14.
    Pettersson, Örjan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Contemporary population changes in north Swedish rural areas2001In: Fennia, ISSN 0015-0010, Vol. 179, no 2, p. 159-173Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During the 1990s most municipalities and rural areas in northern Sweden have experienced renewed depopulation. At the same time, many regional centres (mainly university cities), but also some rural areas, have shown significant population growth. This article focuses on the latter rural areas and describes their geographical location and the socio-demographic characteristics of their populations. Three types of rural areas with population growth have been identified. Firstly, there are the rural areas within daily commuting distance from regional centres. Secondly, there is a group of rural areas that has benefited from the tourist industry. Most of these tourist resorts are mountain villages close to the border with Norway. Finally, there are also a few rural areas characterised by attractive residential environments and leisure housing.

  • 15.
    Pettersson, Örjan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Ingen ko på isen!: En analys av mejerinäringen i Västerbottens län2009Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 16.
    Pettersson, Örjan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Microregional fragmentation in a Swedish county2001In: Papers in regional science (Print), ISSN 1056-8190, E-ISSN 1435-5957, Vol. 80, no 4, p. 389-409Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study of the county of Västerbotten in northern Sweden reveals significant differences in socio-economic conditions between populations living in different residential environments. A cluster analysis was performed in order to classify the nearly 500 microregions into a manageable number of groups with distinctive profiles. A seven-cluster solution contains groups ranging from remote and sparsely populated areas with poor socio- economic conditions and a large proportion of elderly to the most prosperous residential environments within the major centers. Besides high disposable incomes, the relatively wealthy areas also show high educational levels and better-than-average health status. In this way the county could be broken down into a mosaic of local housing environments with very different prerequisites for consumption and economic development. Increasingly, we find socio-economic marginality problems even within densely populated regions. The complex and dispersed pattern of disadvantaged and underprivileged residential areas all over Västerbotten indicates the difficulty in treating counties and municipalities as homogeneous regions. Our findings may have major implications for regional planning and regional policy.

  • 17.
    Pettersson, Örjan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Population Changes in Rural Areas in Northern Sweden 1985-19951999Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    During the 1990s most municipalities and rural areas in northern Sweden have experienced renewed depopulation. At the same time, many regional centres (mainly university towns), but also some rural areas, have shown significant population growth. This paper focuses on the latter rural areas and describes their geographical location and the socio-demographic characteristics of their populations. Three types of rural areas with population growth have been identified. Firstly, there are the rural areas within daily communing distance from a few regional centres. Secondly, there is a group of rural areas that has benefited from the tourist industry. Most of these tourist resorts are mountain villages close to the border with Norway. Finally, there are also a few rural areas characterised by attractive residential environments and leisure housing.

  • 18.
    Pettersson, Örjan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Socio-economic dynamics in sparse regional structures2002Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the thesis is to describe and analyse socio-economic changes in northern Sweden. Focus is on the period 1985-2000. Population development, restructuring of economic activities, political and cultural changes are related to a theoretical discussion on the transformation of sparsely populated areas as an outcome of multi-dimensional and interrelated processes. Besides an introductory and concluding section, the thesis contains four papers.

    The first paper deals with forestry's changed role in the local economy of four municipalities located in the inland areas of upper Norrland. The changes within forestry have been driven by adaptation to global competition and rapid technical development. Even though timber production has increased in some of the municipalities, job losses have greatly reduced the importance of forestry in the local economies. Many employees have left forestry for work in other branches, unemployment or retirement However, relatively few have moved from the area. A multiplier model was employed in order to analyse the impact on the local economy.

    The second paper deals with population changes in the six northernmost counties. During the 1990s, most municipalities and rural areas in northern Sweden have experienced renewed depopulation. At the same time, some rural areas have shown significant population growth. Three types of rural areas with population growth have been identified. Firstly, there are rural areas within daily commuting distance from regional centres. Secondly, there is a group of rural areas, mainly a number of mountain villages close to the border with Norway, which has benefited from the tourist industry. Finally, there are a few rural areas characterised by attractive residential environments and leisure housing.

    The third paper is based on a classification of 500 residential areas and villages in the county of Västerbotten into seven types of housing environments. In this way, the county is broken down into a mosaic of housing environments characterised by very different prerequisites for consumption and economic development A complex and dispersed pattern of disadvantaged residential areas all over the county indicates the difficulty in treating counties and municipalities as homogeneous regions.

    In the fourth paper, focus is on young peoples' attitudes towards staying in or moving to small communities within a local labour market region in northern Sweden. The study is based on telephone interviews with 400 young men and women in the Umeå region. Half the interviewees lived in the university city of Umeå while the others were residents in five rural municipalities surrounding Umeå. In general, the males and females aged 19-25 had a much more positive attitude towards living in rural communities than did those aged 15-18. Nevertheless, only half of the young people already living in the rural municipalities wanted to stay there. Among the young people living in the city, slightly less than 50% showed an interest in moving to the surrounding rural areas, mainly the countryside within commuting distance from the city. The connection between higher education and out-migration of young people from rural areas is also highlighted.

  • 19.
    Pettersson, Örjan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Young Swedes' attitudes towards rural areasManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This article deals with young people's attitudes towards living in rural communities. The study is based on standardised interviews with 400 males and females aged 15-25 years. Half the population lived in the university city of Umeå while the others were residents in five rural minicipalities surrounding Umeå. In general, the males and females aged 19-25 had a much more positive attitude towards living in rural communities than did those aged 15-18. Nevertheless, only half of the young people already living in the rural municipalities wanted to stay there. Among the young people living in the city, slightly less than 50% showed an interest in moving to the surrounding rural areas, mainly the countryside within commuting distance from the city. The connection between the need for higher education and out-migration of young people from rural areas is also highlighted. 

  • 20.
    Pettersson, Örjan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Andersson, Kjell
    Åbo Akademi.
    Havet som kommunal angelägenhet: Planeringsförutsättningar i kommunerna kring Kvarken2014Report (Other academic)
  • 21.
    Pettersson, Örjan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Lindgren, Urban
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Jansson, Bruno
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Forestry restructuring in northern Sweden2002Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 22.
    Pettersson, Örjan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Nordberg, Kenneth
    Åbo Akademi i Vasa.
    Att sätta kurs mot framtiden: planeringsförutsättningar och målbilder för hållbar blå tillväxt i Kvarkenområdet2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Havsmiljön står inför stora utmaningar. Samtidigt finns en utvecklingspotential baserat på de möjligheter som haven erbjuder. Blå tillväxt avser en långsiktig strategi för att stödja en hållbar tillväxt via havsrelaterade näringar och samtidigt hantera de miljömässiga utmaningarna. Syftet med denna rapport har varit att undersöka förutsättningar för blå tillväxt i Kvarkenområdet. Med Kvarkenområdet menas i denna rapport Västerbottens och Västernorrlands län på svensk sida och landskapen Österbotten och Mellersta Österbotten på finsk sida. Följande frågeställningar har varit i fokus: Vilka övergripande och sektorspecifika ambitioner och mål finns för blå tillväxt på internationell nivå (främst inom EU), samt på nationell och regional nivå i Sverige och Finland respektive de berörda områdena runt Kvarken? Vilka utmaningar för och möjligheter till blå tillväxt ser olika typer av aktörer verksamma i området? Vilka konkreta förslag på åtgärder, målsättningar och projekt kopplade till blå tillväxt, särskilt genom olika former av gränsöverskridande samverkan, ser dessa aktörer?

    Frågeställningarna har besvarats utifrån en sammanställning av policydokument, samt en serie av dialogmöten och kompletterande intervjuer. Tyngdpunkten i denna rapport ligger på de dialogmöten som arrangerades i Umeå, Vasa och Örnsköldsvik. Till dessa möten inbjöds aktörer från en rad organiserade intressen såsom myndigheter, företag och organisationer, vilka bedömdes vara kopplade till kust- och havsmiljön i området. Genomförandet baserades på en metodik utvecklad av det svenska Trafikverket, en sk åtgärdsvalsstudie (ÅVS), men anpassades till just detta sammanhang. Projektgenomförandet kan på så sätt sägas ha varit innovativt. Avsikten med mötena var dels att informera om projektet och blå tillväxt mer allmänt, dels att fånga upp kunskap om situationen i området (behov, möjligheter, utmaningar etc), samt visioner och förslag på åtgärder kopplade till kust och hav i Kvarkenområdet. Ett särskilt intresse riktades mot att inventera idéer vilka skulle kunna bidra till gränsöverskridande erfarenhetsutbyte, samarbeten och utveckling i regionen.

    De strategier som finns för utveckling kopplad till kust och hav i Kvarkenområdet följer i stor utsträckning det som lyfts fram inom EU och på nationell nivå i Finland och Sverige. Det gäller bland annat de verksamheter och aspekter vilka pekas ut som relevanta i sammanhanget, såsom sjöfart, fiske, energiproduktion och naturvård. På regional nivå finns dock få konkreta och tydliga mål direkt kopplade till blå tillväxt, men det kan i viss mån förklaras av att begreppet som sådant är relativt nytt. I styrdokument om blå tillväxt på internationell och nationell nivå finns det av förklarliga skäl verksamheter som ter sig mindre aktuella i projektområdet, antingen på grund av naturgivna förhållanden eller att de utgör tämligen marginella företeelser, åtminstone i dagsläget. Till de senare hör t ex musselodling, mineral- och sandutvinning, samt kryssningsturism. Havsbaserad vindkraft, liksom vattenbruk i form av t ex fiskodlingar ute på öppet hav, framhålls som möjligheter men för närvarande är de tekniska och ekonomiska svårigheterna för stora. I de dialogmöten och intervjuer som genomförts framkommer liknande behov, möjligheter och utmaningar som de som lyfts fram i styrdokument på internationell, nationell och regional nivå. Däremot har det lokala nyttjandet av närområdet och lokal­befolkningens syn på sin egen näromgivning kommit fram i större utsträckning i diskussionerna än vad som ofta sker på nationell nivå och i olika styrdokument.

    En del av förslagen rörande blå tillväxt bygger på synergier mellan olika intressen och verksamheter. Ett konkret förslag är att öka samarbetet mellan färjetrafiken och be-söksnäringen, främst hotellen i regionen. Besöksnäringen kan också knytas närmare till fisket, t ex genom att yrkesfiskare tar med sig turister ut på havet (sk Pescaturism), att den lokalt fångade fisken serveras på restauranger eller att sportfiske kan ingå som en aktivitet att erbjuda turisterna, t ex uthyrning av fiskeutrustning, trollingfiske eller olika former av paket (resa/transport, boende, mat och aktivitet). Även djärva idéer om att ha plattformar ute till havs för att kombinera t ex energiproduktion och vattenbruk har diskuterats.

    Det stora och breda deltagandet och engagemangen i dialogmötena tyder på att det finns ett stort intresse för att diskutera frågor rörande nyttjandet av kust och hav i regionen. Möten och intervjuer visar dessutom att det finns en potential för blå tillväxt i Kvarkenområdet. Tydligt är att blå tillväxt kan bidra till landsbygdsutveckling vid kusten och i skärgårdarna i form av företagande, sysselsättning, innovationer, förbättrad service, tillgänglighet och kommunikationer, samt attraktivitet för bofasta och besökare. Även om inte fokus har legat på konflikter och motstridiga intressen, så har flera sådana behandlats. I temagrupperna har det ofta varit livliga diskussioner mellan olika aktörer, men samtidigt funnits en förståelse för att det finns andra, ofta motstående, intressen och synsätt. Genom att delge sina uppfattningar har deltagarna också bidragit till en allmänt ökad förståelse för skilda synsätt på problem och möjligheter rörande Kvarkenområdets havs- och kustmiljöer. Även de gränsregionala inslagen med deltagare från både svensk och finsk sida har bidragit till nya perspektiv och kontakter mellan mötesdeltagarna.

    Sammanfattningsvis har dialogmöten och intervjuer bidragit med många idéer och konkreta förslag vilka kan nyttiggöras i fortsatt planering och utvecklingsarbete, t ex myndighetsutövning, fysisk planering och utvecklingsstrategier i skilda geografiska kontexter och administrativa nivåer. Resultaten kan därigenom bidra till det pågående arbetet med havsplanering, samt framtida strategier för lokal och regional utveckling i Kvarkenområdet. Genomförandet av projektet kan dessutom inspirera till andra gränsöverskridande samarbeten avseende blå tillväxt och fungera som en modell för andra liknade områden inom EU. Vidare har de dialogmöten som genomförts, tillsammans med projektets slutkonferens i Vasa, utgjort arenor för att sprida information om projektet och dess resultat, samt erbjudit möjligheter att utbyta erfarenheter, diskutera åtgärder och projekt kopplade till blå tillväxt i regionen.

  • 23.
    Pettersson, Örjan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Nordström, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Rislund, Linda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Utvärdering av LEADER II Stad och Land - Hand i Hand2000Report (Other academic)
  • 24.
    Pettersson, Örjan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Westerberg, Pernilla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Vägar för samverkan: Storumanföretagares inställning till planeringssamarbete över kommungränsen2003Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Rapporten belyser hur företagare i inlandskommunen Storuman ser på samarbetssträvanden över kommungränser längs väg E12, vilken bildar ett dominerande transportstråk i Västerbottens län som sammanbinder kustens största stad Umeå med den västerbottniska fjällvärldens mest utvecklade turistmiljö Tärnaby/Hemavan. E12:an som även benämns den Blå vägen fortsätter både i Norge mot Mo i Rana och i Finland närmast mot Vasa. Detta kommunövergripande samarbetssammanhang som kan bygga på många olikheter ställs mot den traditionella samarbetsriktningen i inlandet, d v s med de närliggande kommunerna som har många likheter i sin struktur och problembilder.

  • 25.
    Stjernström, Olof
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Karlsson, Svante
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Pettersson, Örjan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Skogen och den kommunala planeringen2013In: Plan, ISSN 0032-0560, no 1, p. 42-45Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 26.
    Stjernström, Olof
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography. Faculty of Social Sciences, Nord University, Steinkjer, Norway.
    Pettersson, Örjan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    Skogslandskapets markanvändning och konflikter2019In: Samhällsplaneringens teori och praktik / [ed] Gunnel Forsberg, Stockholm: Liber, 2019, p. 255-264Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med kapitlet är att beskriva skogens nyttjande och hur synen på den har förändrats över tid, samt kopplingen till fysisk planering och relaterad lagstiftning. 

  • 27.
    Stjernström, Olof
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History. Faculty of Social Sciences, Nord University, Kongens Gate 42, 7713 Steinkjer, Norway.
    Pettersson, Örjan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Karlsson, Svante
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    How can Sweden deal with forest management and municipal planning in the system of ongoing land-use and multilevel planning?2018In: European Countryside, ISSN 1803-8417, E-ISSN 1803-8417, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 23-37Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article studies the relation between territorial and functional planning by investigating the Swedish local comprehensive planning system and the forest management. The former is locally based and the latter is functionally based or sector-orientated. By interviewing planners from the County Administrative Boards responsible for monitoring the national interests in the Swedish municipalities and forest managers from the Regional Forest Agency Administration, we found out that forest- and municipality related issues that coincide or interact with each other is normally considered in the collaborative planning process based on consultations and cooperation between the involved stakeholders. Weaknesses in the collaborative planning system consists of lack of coordination between the involved legal frameworks as well as lack of local planning resources and in some cases competences. 

  • 28.
    Tano, Sofia
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Pettersson, Örjan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Stjernström, Olof
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Labour income effects of the recent "mining boom" in northern Sweden2016In: Resources policy, ISSN 0301-4207, E-ISSN 1873-7641, Vol. 49, p. 31-40Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During the early 21st century, the world market prices for minerals increased dramatically. As a consequence of this development, large investments were made in mining all around the world. Increased exploration activities, the opening of new mines and large investment schemes in already operating mines and related physical infrastructure also gave rise to a “mining boom” in the remote and sparsely populated areas of northern Sweden. New jobs were generated in the mining sector, but the question of whether the “mining boom” also has stimulated economic development in a broader sense in these areas has been more open. The present article investigated whether labour incomes have increased not only in sectors clearly connected to mining, but also in other parts of the local and regional economy. This was done by following the income changes of residents in the mining areas of northern Sweden over the time period 2004–2010 and by using a propensity score matching estimator method (PSM). The results show rapid income growth for employees in the mining industry and construction sectors, but also some growth in several other sectors, indicating spread effects to the rest of the local and regional economies. The impact, however, is much stronger in the largest mining towns than in communities where mining is of less significance.

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