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  • 1.
    Alewell, C
    et al.
    Institute of Environmental Geosciences, University of Basel, Switzerland.
    Giesler, Reiner
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Klaminder, Jonatan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Leifeld, J
    Agroscope Reckenholz-Tanikon Research Station ART, Switzerland.
    Rollog, M
    Institute of Environmental Geosciences, University of Basel, Switzerland.
    Stable carbon isotopes as indicators for environmental change inpalsa peats2011Ingår i: Biogeosciences, ISSN 1726-4170, E-ISSN 1726-4189, Vol. 8, s. 1769-1778Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Palsa peats are unique northern ecosystems formed under an arctic climate and characterized by a high biodiversity and sensitive ecology. The stability of the palsas are seriously threatened by climate warming which will change the permafrost dynamic and induce a degradation of the mires.

    We used stable carbon isotope depth profiles in two palsa mires of Northern Sweden to track environmental change during the formation of the mires. Soils dominated by aerobic degradation can be expected to have a clear increase of carbon isotopes (δ13C) with depth, due to preferential release of 12C during aerobic mineralization. In soils with suppressed degradation due to anoxic conditions, stable carbon isotope depth profiles are either more or less uniform indicating no or very low degradation or depth profiles turn to lighter values due to an enrichment of recalcitrant organic substances during anaerobic mineralisation which are depleted in 13C.

    The isotope depth profile of the peat in the water saturated depressions (hollows) at the yet undisturbed mire Storflaket indicated very low to no degradation but increased rates of anaerobic degradation at the Stordalen site. The latter might be induced by degradation of the permafrost cores in the uplifted areas (hummocks) and subsequent breaking and submerging of the hummock peat into the hollows due to climate warming. Carbon isotope depth profiles of hummocks indicated a turn from aerobic mineralisation to anaerobic degradation at a peat depth between 4 and 25 cm. The age of these turning points was 14C dated between 150 and 670 yr and could thus not be caused by anthropogenically induced climate change. We found the uplifting of the hummocks due to permafrost heave the most likely explanation for our findings. We thus concluded that differences in carbon isotope profiles of the hollows might point to the disturbance of the mires due to climate warming or due to differences in hydrology. The characteristic profiles of the hummocks are indicators for micro-geomorphic change during permafrost up heaving.

  • 2.
    Alewell, C
    et al.
    Institute of Environmental Geosciences, University of Basel, Switzerland.
    Giesler, Reiner
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Klaminder, Jonatan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Leifeld, J
    Agroscope Reckenholz-Tänikon Research Station ART, Switzerland.
    Rollog, M
    Institute of Environmental Geosciences, University of Basel, Switzerland.
    Stable carbon isotopes as indicators for micro-geomorphic changes in palsa peats2011Ingår i: Biogeoscience Discussions, ISSN 1810-6277, Vol. 8, nr 1, s. 527-548Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Palsa peats are unique northern ecosystems formed under an arctic climate and characterizedby an unique biodiversity and ecology. The stability of the palsas are seriouslythreatened by climate warming which will change the permafrost dynamic and5 results in degradation of the mires. We used stable carbon isotope depth profiles intwo palsa mires of Northern Sweden to track environmental change during the formationof the mires. Carbon isotope (13C) depth profile of the yet undisturbed mireStorflaket indicated very low to no degradation of the peat in the water saturated depressions(hollows) but increased rates of anaerobic degradation at the Stordalen site.10 The latter might be induced by degradation of the permafrost cores in the uplifted areas(hummocks) and subsequent braking and submerging of the hummock peat intothe hollows due to climate warming. Carbon isotope depth profiles of hummocks indicateda turn from aerobic mineralisation to anaerobic degradation at a peat depthbetween 4 to 25 cm. The age of these turning point was 14C dated between 150 and15 670 years and could thus not be caused by anthropogenically induced climate change.We found the uplifting of the hummocks due to permafrost heave the most likely explanationfor our findings. We thus concluded that differences in carbon isotope profiles ofthe hollows might point to the disturbance of the mires due to climate warming or dueto differences in hydrology. The characteristic profiles of the hummocks are indicators20 for micro-geomorphic change during permafrost up heaving.

  • 3.
    Becher, Marina
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Börlin, Niclas
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Klaminder, Johan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    The use of terrestrial photogrammetry to estimate soil motion rates in non-sorted circlesManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Soil motion induced by cryogenic processes is known for creating soil surface structures (patterned ground) and redistributing carbon within Arctic soils. Lateral and vertical soil motion created by cryogenic processes proceeds over annual to millennial time-scales and is difficult to quantify without adopting disruptive soil sampling techniques. In this study, we evaluate the use of terrestrial close range photogrammetry to calculate soil motion rates within a patterned ground system (non-sorted circles). The measured rates of lateral and vertical motion were estimated and used to infer the importance of physical soil transport for the formation of non-sorted circles as well as the trajectories of soil carbon. Soil experiencing significant vertical displacement between years covered approximately 65% of the non-sorted circles and had surface levels fluctuating between 4 and -2.1 cm. Systematic lateral motion of surface stones allowed detection of lateral motion working outwards from the centre towards the sides, at rates ranging between 0.1 and 6.3 cm yr-1. We conclude that terrestrial close range photogrammetry can be used to identify the main soil movements within non-sorted circles and that this transport is an important factor controlling the trajectories of soil carbon over centennial to millennial timescales. 

  • 4.
    Becher, Marina
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Börlin, Niclas
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Klaminder, Jonatan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Measuring soil motion with terrestrial close range photogrammetry in periglacial environments2014Ingår i: EUCOP 4: Book of Abstracts / [ed] Gonçalo Vieira, Pedro Pina, Carla Mora and António Correia, University of Lisbon and the University of Évora , 2014, s. 351-351Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Cryoturbation plays an important role in the carbon cycle as it redistributes carbon deeper down in the soil where the cold temperature prevents microbial decomposition. This contribution is also included in recent models describing the long-term build up of carbon stocks in artic soils. Soil motion rate in cryoturbated soils is sparsely studied. This is because the internal factors maintaining cryoturbation will be affected by any excavation, making it impossible to remove soil samples or install pegs without changing the structure of the soil. So far, mainly the motion of soil surface markers on patterned ground has been used to infer lateral soil motion rates. However, such methods constrain the investigated area to a predetermined distribution of surface markers that may result in a loss of information regarding soil motion in other parts of the patterned ground surface.

    We present a novel method based on terrestrial close range (<5m) photogrammetry to calculate lateral and vertical soil motion across entire small-scale periglacial features, such as non-sorted circles (frost boils). Images were acquired by a 5-camera calibrated rig from at least 8 directions around a non-sorted circle. During acquisition, the rig was carried by one person in a backpack-like portable camera support system. Natural feature points were detected by SIFT and matched between images using the known epipolar geometry of the calibrated rig. The 3D coordinates of points matched between at least 3 images were calculated to create a point cloud of the surface of interest. The procedure was repeated during two consecutive years to be able to measure any net displacement of soil and calculate rates of soil motion. The technique was also applied to a peat palsa where multiple exposures where acquired of selected areas.

    The method has the potential to quantify areas of disturbance and estimate lateral and vertical soil motion in non-sorted circles. Furthermore, it should be possible to quantify peat erosion and rates of desiccation crack formations in peat palsas. This tool could provide new information about cryoturbation rates that could improve existing soil carbon models and increase our understanding about how soil carbon stocks will respond to climate change.

  • 5.
    Becher, Marina
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Olid, Carolina
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Klaminder, Jonatan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Buried soil organic inclusions in non-sorted circles fields in northern Sweden: Age and Paleoclimatic context2013Ingår i: Journal of Geophysical Research, ISSN 0148-0227, E-ISSN 2156-2202, Vol. 118, nr 1, s. 104-111Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Although burial of surface organic soil horizons into deeper mineral soil layers helps drive the long-term buildup of carbon in arctic soils, when and why buried horizons formed as result of cryoturbation in northern Sweden remain unclear. In this study, we used C-14 and Pb-210 dating to assess when organic matter was buried within non-sorted circles fields near Abisko in northern Sweden. In addition, we used aerial photos from 1959 and 2008 to detect eventual trends in cryogenic activities during this period. We found that organic matter from former organic horizons (stratigraphically intact or partly fragmented) corresponds to three major periods: 0-100 A. D., 900-1250 A. D., and 1650-1950 A. D. The latter two periods were indicated by several dated samples, while the extent of the oldest period is more uncertainty (indicated by only one sample). The aerial photos suggest a net overgrowth by shrub vegetation of previously exposed mineral soil surfaces since 1959. This overgrowth trend was seen in most of the studied fields (92 out of 137 analyzed fields), indicating that the cryogenic activity has mainly decreased in studied non-sorted circles fields since the 1950s. This latter interpretation is also supported by the absence of buried organic layers formed during the last decades. We suggest that the organic matter was buried during the transition from longer cold periods to warmer conditions. We believe these climatic shifts could have triggered regional scale burial of soil organic matter and thus affected how these soils sequestered carbon.

  • 6.
    Becher, Marina
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Olofsson, Johan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Berglund, Louise
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Klaminder, Jonatan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Decreased cryogenic disturbance: one of the potential mechanisms behind the vegetation change in the Arctic2018Ingår i: Polar Biology, ISSN 0722-4060, E-ISSN 1432-2056, Vol. 41, nr 1, s. 101-110Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    During the last few decades, the Arctic has experienced large-scale vegetation changes. Understanding the mechanisms behind this vegetation change is crucial for our ability to predict future changes. This study tested the hypothesis that decreased cryogenic disturbances cause vegetation change in patterned ground study fields (non-sorted circles) in Abisko, Sweden during the last few decades. The hypothesis was tested by surveying the composition of plant communities across a gradient in cryogenic disturbance and by reinvestigating plant communities previously surveyed in the 1980s to scrutinise how these communities changed in response to reduced cryogenic disturbance. Whereas the historical changes in species occurrence associated with decreased cryogenic disturbances were relatively consistent with the changes along the contemporary gradient of cryogenic disturbances, the species abundance revealed important transient changes highly dependent on the initial plant community composition. Our results suggest that altered cryogenic disturbances cause temporal changes in vegetation dynamics, but the net effects on vegetation communities depend on the composition of initial plant species.

  • 7.
    Becher, Marina
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Olofsson, Johan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Klaminder, Jonatan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Cryogenic disturbance and its impact on carbon fluxes in a subarctic heathland2015Ingår i: Environmental Research Letters, ISSN 1748-9326, E-ISSN 1748-9326, Vol. 10, nr 11, artikel-id 114006Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Differential frost heave, along with the associated cryogenic disturbance that accompanies it, is an almost universal feature of arctic landscapes that potentially influences the fate of the soil carbon (C) stored in arctic soils. In this study, we quantify how gross ecosystem photosynthesis (GEP), soil respiration (Re) and the resulting net ecosystem exchange (NEE) vary in a patterned ground system (non-sorted circles) at plot-scale and whole-patterned ground scales in response to cryogenic disturbances (differential heave and soil surface disruption). We found that: (i) all studied non-sorted circles (n=15) acted as net CO2 sources (positive NEE); (ii) GEP showed a weaker decrease than Re in response to increased cryogenic disturbance/decreased humus cover, indicating that undisturbed humus-covered sites are currently the main source of atmospheric CO2 in the studied system. Interestingly, Re fluxes normalized to C pools indicated that C is currently respired more rapidly at sites exposed to cryogenic disturbances; hence, higher NEE fluxes at less disturbed sites are likely an effect of a more slowly degrading but larger total pool that was built up in the past. Our results highlight the complex effects of cryogenic processes on the C cycle at various time scales. 

  • 8.
    Bergknut, Magnus
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Wiberg, Karin
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Klaminder, Jonatan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Vertical and lateral redistribution of POPs in soils developed along a hydrological gradient2011Ingår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 45, nr 24, s. 10378-10384Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Study of the dispersion of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) throughout the environment is necessitated by their toxicological properties and propensity to accumulate in biota. In this study, we use data from the analysis of three (210)Pb dated soil profiles collected along a 30-m hydrological gradient to demonstrate postdepositional mobility of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). We found that (i) humus originating from litter exposed to surface fallout during the 1960-1970s contains the highest concentrations of PCDD/Fs and PCBs in the O-horizon of the soils; (ii) accumulation rates of PCDD/Fs and PCBs in the O-horizon (similar to 5.0 and similar to 210 mu g m(-2) yr(-1)) constituted only 9.1% and 3.5%, respectively, of the measured annual input, demonstrating that a minor fraction of the deposited material is retained within the O-horizon; (iii) POP inventories in the upper 0.5-0.9 m of the mineral soil constituted a considerable part (40-70%) of the total pool stored in the soil, implying significant vertical translocation of atmospheric derived POPs; and (iv) increasing downslope inventories of POPs suggest a lateral downward transport of POPs from uphill soils. The findings challenge the commonly accepted view that POPs fallout is effectively retained within O-horizons.

  • 9.
    Berglund, Åsa
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Klaminder, Jonatan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Nyholm, Erik
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Effects of reduced lead deposition on Pied flycatcher (Ficedula hypoleuca): tracing exposure routes using stable lead Isotopes2009Ingår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 43, nr 1, s. 208-213Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    To what extent the lead burden of birds living in strongly contaminated ecosystems is responding to decreased atmospheric lead deposition is not well known. In this study, we measured lead concentrations and stable lead isotope ratios (206Pb/207Pb and 208Pb/207Pb) in liver and feces from pied flycatcher nestlings (Ficedula hypoleuca) along a 90 km pollution gradient from the Rönnskär smelter in northern Sweden. Changes in lead concentration in the birds from 1984 to 2006 were used for assessing the recovery of the environment following reduced lead emissions at the smelter. The 206Pb/207Pb and 208Pb/207Pb ratios were used to identify lead sources to the birds. Lead concentrations in liver and feces have decreased since the 1980s, typically by 9−15% (liver) and 18−40% (feces) as a result of a 98% emission reduction. This relatively weak recovery is explained by a transfer of old lead contaminants accumulated in soil to the birds via their prey, which was evident by a 206Pb/207Pb ratio in liver tissue (1.15 ± 0.01) that overlapped with the ratio in ants (1.16 ± 0.01) and organic soil horizon (1.17 ± 0.01) rather than the current atmospheric lead pollution (1.11 ± 0.01). Our findings suggest that insectivorous birds living around smelters may remain contaminated decades after ceased emissions.

  • 10.
    Bindler, Richard
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Klaminder, Jonatan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Beyond the peat: synthesizing peat, lake sediments and soils in studies of the Swedish environment2006Ingår i: Peatlands: basin evolution and depository of records on global environmental and climatic changes / [ed] I.P. Martini, A. Martínez Cortizas and W. Chesworth, Elsevier, 2006, s. 431-448Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter illustrates on comparing peat and lake sediment records and linking the quantitative record of metals in peat to contemporary environmental problems. Quantifying metal records in peat has been an important step, but new research needs to move beyond this and consider how to apply these data. Lead analyses, including stable isotopes, are now fairly routine and based on these analyses the historical trends of lead deposition are now well established in peat, lake sediments and even glacial ice. The biogeochemical cycling of lead has also been well researched, which allows making this link between the historical lead record and soil biogeochemistry. Because peat and lake sediments seem to record the same changes in mercury deposition, there is similar promise in linking the long-term peat record of mercury and other metals with biogeochemical cycling of mercury and other important metals in forests and soils.

  • 11.
    Bindler, Richard
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet, Ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Klaminder, Jonatan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet, Ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Reply to comment by William Shotyk on "Does within-bog spatial variability of mercury and lead constrain reconstructions of absolute deposition rates from single peat records? The example of Store Mosse, Sweden"2006Ingår i: Global Biogeochemical Cycles, Vol. 20Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 12.
    Bindler, Richard
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet, Ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Klarqvist, M
    Klaminder, Jonatan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet, Ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Förster, J
    Does within-bog spatial variability of mercury and lead constrain reconstructions of absolute deposition rates from single peat records? The example of Store Mosse, Sweden2004Ingår i: Global Biogeochemical Cycles, Vol. 18Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 13.
    Bindler, Richard
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet, Ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Renberg, Ingemar
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet, Ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Klaminder, Jonatan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet, Ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Bridging the gap between ancient metal pollution and contemporary biogeochemistry2008Ingår i: Journal of Paleolimnology, Vol. 40, nr 3, s. 755-770Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Paleolimnology provides long-term data that are often essential for understanding the current state of the environment. Even though there is great potential, paleolimnology is rarely used together with process-related studies to solve issues regarding cycling of elements in the environment. Clearly, this is a drawback because the cycling of many elements, which cause great concern in the present-day environment, was altered long before the advent of monitoring programs. The pioneering work of C.C. Patterson and his colleagues emphasized the importance of a long-term perspective for understanding the current cycling of metals, with a focus on lead, and in particular for estimating background concentrations and human-related impacts in the environment. In Sweden the first traces of atmospheric lead pollution are found in lake sediments dated to about 3500 years ago. The long-term changes in the pollution lead record in lake sediments led us to consider how lead biogeochemistry has changed over time in response to this historical deposition‹where has this lead gone, and how much does this lead contribute to the present-day biogeochemical cycling of lead? How was lead distributed in Œpre-industrial¹ soils or more properly in natural soils not impacted by atmospheric pollution? There are many studies that have examined the effects of increased metal concentrations on soil biota, but what are the appropriate background conditions for comparison? Using lake sediments as our foundation we have analyzed lead, including its stable isotopes, in other environmental compartments, including peat, soil, and a range of boreal forest plant species, to develop a better understanding of the fate of lead derived from long-term pollution. Three important conclusions from our studies in Sweden are: (1) atmospheric lead deposition rates during the 20th century were 100 to as much as 1000 times higher than natural deposition rates a few thousand years ago. Even with stricter emission standards during the past three decades and the resultant reductions in deposition, lead deposition rates today are still 10­100 times greater than natural rates. This increase in deposition rates modeled from sediment and peat records is of a similar scale to estimated changes in body burdens of lead in modern versus ancient humans. (2) In Europe about half of the cumulative burden of atmospherically deposited lead was deposited before industrialization. In southern Sweden the cumulative burden of pollution lead during the past 3500 years is 2­5 g Pb m-2 and in the Œpristine¹ northern parts of the country there is about 1 g Pb m-2. (3) Predicted recovery rates for soils are slow; in the cold climate of Scandinavia, we find that the soil surface (O horizon), where most soil biota reside, retains lead deposited over the past 150­500 years. Therefore, although lead deposition rates in Europe, as well as N. America, are only 10% of those a few decades ago, it will take several decades or longer for lead concentrations in soils to respond appreciably. The slow turnover rates for lead in the environment and gradual immobilization of lead in deeper soil mineral horizons also inhibits a loss of lead to surface waters in areas removed from point sources.

  • 14.
    Bindler, Richard
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet, Ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Renberg, Ingemar
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet, Ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Klaminder, Jonatan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet, Ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Emteryd, Ove
    Tree rings as Pb pollution archives? A comparison of 206Pb/207Pb isotope ratios in pine and other environmental media.2004Ingår i: Sci Total Environ, ISSN 0048-9697, Vol. 319, nr 1-3, s. 173-83Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 15.
    Brodin, Tomas
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Jonsson, Micael
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Klaminder, Jonatan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Dilute concentrations of a psychiatric drug alter behavior of fish from natural populations2013Ingår i: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 339, nr 6121, s. 814-815Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental pollution by pharmaceuticals is increasingly recognized as a major threat to aquatic ecosystems worldwide. A variety of pharmaceuticals enter waterways by way of treated wastewater effluents and remain biochemically active in aquatic systems. Several ecotoxicological studies have been done, but generally, little is known about the ecological effects of pharmaceuticals. Here we show that a benzodiazepine anxiolytic drug (oxazepam) alters behavior and feeding rate of wild European perch (Perca fluviatilis) at concentrations encountered in effluent-influenced surface waters. Individuals exposed to water with dilute drug concentrations (1.8 micrograms liter–1) exhibited increased activity, reduced sociality, and higher feeding rate. As such, our results show that anxiolytic drugs in surface waters alter animal behaviors that are known to have ecological and evolutionary consequences.

  • 16.
    Brodin, Tomas
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Nordling, Johanna
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Lagesson, Annelie
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Klaminder, Jonatan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Hellström, Gustav
    Christensen, Bent
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Environmental relevant levels of a benzodiazepine (oxazepam) alters important behavioral traits in a common planktivorous fish, (Rutilus rutilus)2017Ingår i: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, ISSN 1528-7394, E-ISSN 1087-2620, Vol. 80, nr 16–18, s. 963-970Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental pollution by pharmaceuticals is increasingly recognized as a major threat to aquatic ecosystems worldwide. A complex mix of pharmaceuticals enters waterways via treated wastewater effluent and many remain biochemically active after the drugs reach aquatic systems. However, to date little is known regarding the ecological effects that might arise following pharmaceutical contamination of aquatic environments. One group of particular concern is behaviorally modifying pharmaceuticals as seemingly minor changes in behavior may initiate marked ecological consequences. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of a benzodiazepine anxiolytic drug (oxazepam) on key behavioral traits in wild roach (Rutilus rutilus) at concentrations similar to those encountered in effluent surface waters. Roach exposed to water with high concentrations of oxazepam (280 mu g/L) exhibited increased boldness, while roach at low treatment (0.84 mu g/L) became bolder and more active compared to control fish. Our results reinforce the notion that anxiolytic drugs may be affecting fish behavior in natural systems, emphasizing the need for further research on ecological impacts of pharmaceuticals in aquatic systems and development of new tools to incorporate ecologically relevant behavioral endpoints into ecotoxicological risk assessment.

  • 17.
    Brodin, Tomas
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Piovano, Susanna
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Klaminder, Jonatan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Heynen, Martina
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Jonsson, Micael
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Ecological effects of pharmaceuticals in aquatic systems-impacts through behavioural alterations2014Ingår i: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8436, E-ISSN 1471-2970, Vol. 369, nr 1656, s. 20130580-Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The study of animal behaviour is important for both ecology and ecotoxicology, yet research in these two fields is currently developing independently. Here, we synthesize the available knowledge on drug-induced behavioural alterations in fish, discuss potential ecological consequences and report results from an experiment in which we quantify both uptake and behavioural impact of a psychiatric drug on a predatory fish (Perca fluviatilis) and its invertebrate prey (Coenagrion hastulatum). We show that perch became more active while damselfly behaviour was unaffected, illustrating that behavioural effects of pharmaceuticals can differ between species. Furthermore, we demonstrate that prey consumption can be an important exposure route as on average 46% of the pharmaceutical in ingested prey accumulated in the predator. This suggests that investigations of exposure through bioconcentration, where trophic interactions and subsequent bioaccumulation of exposed individuals are ignored, underestimate exposure. Wildlife may therefore be exposed to higher levels of behaviourally altering pharmaceuticals than predictions based on commonly used exposure assays and pharmaceutical concentrations found in environmental monitoring programmes.

  • 18.
    Fahlman, Johan
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Karlsson, Jan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Jonsson, Micael
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Brodin, Tomas
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap. Department of Wildlife, Fish, and Environmental Studies, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Klaminder, Jonatan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Using laboratory incubations to predict the fate of pharmaceuticals in aquatic ecosystems2018Ingår i: Environmental Chemistry, ISSN 1448-2517, E-ISSN 1449-8979, Vol. 15, nr 8, s. 463-471Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental contextEnvironmental persistence of excreted pharmaceuticals in aquatic ecosystems is usually predicted using small-scale laboratory experiments assumed to simulate natural conditions. We studied five pharmaceuticals comparing their removal rates from water under laboratory conditions and under natural environmental conditions existing in a large pond. We found that the laboratory conditions did not fully capture the complexity within the pond, which led to different removal rates in the two systems. AbstractEnvironmental persistence is a key property when evaluating risks with excreted pharmaceuticals in aquatic ecosystems. Such persistence is typically predicted using small-scale laboratory incubations, but the variation in aquatic environments and scarcity of field studies to verify laboratory-based persistence estimates create uncertainties around the predictive power of these incubations. In this study we: (1) assess the persistence of five pharmaceuticals (diclofenac, diphenhydramine, hydroxyzine, trimethoprim and oxazepam) in laboratory experiments under different environmental conditions; and (2) use a three-month-long field study in an aquatic ecosystem to verify the laboratory-based persistence estimates. In our laboratory assays, we found that water temperature (TEMP), concentrations of organic solutes (TOC), presence of sediment (SED), and solar radiation (SOL) individually affected dissipation rates. Moreover, we identified rarely studied interaction effects between the treatments (i.e. SOLxSED and TEMPxSOL), which affected the persistence of the studied drugs. Half-lives obtained from the laboratory assays largely explained the dissipation rates during the first week of the field study. However, none of the applied models could accurately predict the long-term dissipation rates (month time-scale) from the water column. For example, the studied antibioticum (trimethoprim) and the anti-anxiety drug (oxazepam) remained at detectable levels in the aquatic environment long after (similar to 150 days) our laboratory based models predicted complete dissipation. We conclude that small-scale laboratory incubations seem sufficient to approximate the short-term (i.e. within a week) dissipation rate of drugs in aquatic ecosystems. However, this simplistic approach does not capture interacting environmental processes that preserve a fraction of the dissolved pharmaceuticals for months in natural water bodies.

  • 19.
    Feng, Wenting
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Boily, Jean-Francois
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Erhagen, Bjoern
    Nilsson, Mats B.
    Klaminder, Jonatan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Millennia-old organic carbon in a boreal paleosol: chemical properties and their link to mineralizable carbon fraction2016Ingår i: Journal of Soils and Sediments, ISSN 1439-0108, E-ISSN 1614-7480, Vol. 16, nr 1, s. 85-94Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Little is known about the biogeochemical properties of millennia-old soil organic matter (SOM) in boreal forest paleosols and whether these properties contribute to the persistence of several millennia-old SOM. In this study, we assessed the physicochemical properties of a well-drained paleosol and looked for links between these properties and the mineralizable carbon (C) fraction. We studied a well-drained paleosol located under a typical forest podzol in Northern Sweden, in which up to 7-kyr-old SOM was preserved according to C-14 dating. We assessed the elemental compositions of the outermost 2-mu m and 10-nm soil particle surfaces by using energy-dispersive X-ray scanning electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, respectively. We also conducted a 5-week laboratory incubation of samples from both the paleosol and the podzol to quantify their mineralizable C fractions and analyzed the thermal stability of soil samples before and after incubation by using temperature-programmed desorption coupled with mass spectrometry techniques. Proxies for weathering (i.e., total mineral surface area and Al/Si and Fe/Si ratios of particle surfaces) suggested that the paleosol was at the same weathering stage as the contemporary forming podzol. Mineral soil particle surfaces of both the paleosol and podzol were dominated by aliphatic and ether/alcohol C functional groups. The incubation and thermal analysis showed that the mineralizable C fraction of the paleosol was smaller than that of the podzol, and losses of thermally labile SOM due to microbial degradation during the incubations were only detected in the mineral free O horizon of the podzol. Moreover, the mineralizable C fraction of the sampled podzol-paleosol sequence was correlated to the proportion of ether/alcohol C functional groups at the outermost 10-nm soil particle surfaces. Based on the links between microbial decomposition and the chemistry of soil particle surfaces and the thermal stability difference between organic and mineral soils induced by microbial decomposition, we conclude that the intrinsic chemical properties of SOM and its chemical surroundings is important for SOM preservation over a millennia timescale in the studied soil.

  • 20.
    Feng, Wenting
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Klaminder, Jonatan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Boily, Jean-Francois
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Thermal Stability of Goethite-Bound Natural Organic Matter Is Impacted by Carbon Loading2015Ingår i: Journal of Physical Chemistry A, ISSN 1089-5639, E-ISSN 1520-5215, Vol. 119, nr 51, s. 12790-12796Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Dissolved natural organic matter (NOM) sorption at mineral surfaces can significantly affect the persistence. of organic carbon in soils and sediments. Consequently, determining the mechanisms that stabilize sorbed NOM is crucial for predicting the persistence of carbon in nature. This study determined the effects of loadings and pH on the thermal stability of NOM associated: With synthetic goethite (alpha-FeOOH) particle surfaces, as a proxy for NOM mineral interactions taking place in nature.. NOM thermal stability was investigated using temperature programmed desorption (TPD) in the 30-700 degrees C range to collect vibration spectra of thermally decomposing goethite NOM assemblages, and to concomitantly analyze evolved gases using mass spectrometry Results showed that NOM thermal stability, indicated by the range of temperatures in which CO2 evolved during thermal decomposition, was greatest in unbound NOM and lowest when NOM was bound to goethite. NOM thermal Stability was also loading dependent. It decreased:when loadings were in increased the 0.01 to 042 mg C m(-2) range, where the upper value corresponds to a Langmuirian adsorption maximum. Concomitant Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy measurement showed that these lowered stabilities could be ascribed to direct NOM-goethite interactions that dominated the NOM binding environment. Mineral surface interactions at larger loadings involved, on the contrary, a smaller fraction of the sorbed NOM, thus increasing thermal stability toward that of its unbound counterpart. This study thus identifies a sorption threshold below which NOM sorption to goethite decreases NOM thermal stability, and above which no strong effects are Manifested. This should likely influence the fate of organic carbon exposed to thermal gradients in natural environments.

  • 21. Ferro-Vazquez, C.
    et al.
    Novoa-Munoz, J. C.
    Costa-Casais, M.
    Klaminder, Jonatan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Martinez-Cortizas, A.
    Metal and organic matter immobilization in temperate podzols: a high resolution study2014Ingår i: Geoderma, ISSN 0016-7061, E-ISSN 1872-6259, Vol. 217, s. 225-234Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Aluminium and Fe fractions were obtained in samples from two temperate podzols by selective extraction with NaOH (Al-n, Fe-n), Na-dithionite-citrate (Al-d, Fe-d), acid NH4-oxalate (Al-o, Fe-o) and Na-pyrophosphate (Al-p, Fe-p) following the traditional fractionation procedures, and also by the use of the chlorides of K (Al-K), La (Al-La) and Cu (Al-cu) as non-buffered extractants for Al. Carbon content was also determined in the Na-pyrophosphate extract (C-p). Soil sampling was done at high-resolution to allow a more detailed characterization of the vertical processes than the traditional sampling by whole soil horizons. Results showed that Al-p and Fe-p make a large proportion of the Alo and Fe-o meaning that organoaluminic complexes dominated in the "active" metal pool instead of inorganic compounds. The degree of metal saturation of soil organic matter (estimated by the (Al-p Fe-p)/C-p molar ratios) increases with depth, especially in the uppermost samples of spodic horizons (Bhs1) where it increases up to 0.1. Aluminium dominates in the adsorption positions of the organic matter in the spodic horizon (Fe-p/Al-p ratios <0.5), except in the Bhs1 horizon (ratios > 1), indicating that the immobilization of Fe containing complexes occurs 10-15 cm above that of Al The highly stable Al-OM complexes accounted on average for 60% of the organoaluminic associations (>70% in the Bhs horizons). The moderately stable complexes predominate in A horizons (57-77% in ACB1 and 37-48% in ACB2) and the largest proportions of low stability complexes were found in the uppermost samples of the spodic horizons (Bhs1) of both soils (9-21%), together with the highest Fep contents and a decrease in pH values. From a stepwise multiple regression model it is suggested that pH is the main variable accounting for the stability of Al-OM compounds together with C and organically bound Fe contents. It is suggested that the illuviation of unsaturated organic acids lower the pH in upper spodic horizons, leading to the complexation of metals from formerly precipitated organometallic complexes and/or leading to their redissolution, enabling their migration to deeper soil layers. Iron complexes would be less soluble at soil pH, resulting in a differentiation of an upper Fe-rich Bhs1 horizon and a lower Bhs2 Al-rich horizon. The depth variation in C accumulation was found to be related to the proportion of highly stable Al-OM fraction.

  • 22. Ferro-Vázquez, Cruz
    et al.
    Pérez-Rodríguez, Marta
    Carlos Nóvoa-Muñoz, Juan
    Klaminder, Jonatan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap. Department of Archaeology, University of York, Kings Manor YO1 7EP York, UK.
    Bindler, Richard
    Martínez Cortizas, Antonio
    Tracing Pb Pollution Penetration in Temperate Podzols2017Ingår i: Land Degradation and Development, ISSN 1085-3278, E-ISSN 1099-145X, Vol. 28, nr 8, s. 2432-2445Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We combine high-resolution soil sampling with lead (Pb) analyses (concentrations and stable isotopes) in two temperate podzols, together with previous data obtained with selective Al and Fe dissolution techniques. We aim to assess how atmospheric Pb is incorporated into the soils during pedogenesis. Partial least squares modelling for Pb concentrations shows that the podzolization process has the largest effect on Pb concentration (803% of the variance). The proportion of inorganic secondary compounds, the input of fresh organic matter from the soil surface and the relative abundance of Fe versus Al are responsible for a small part of the Pb concentration variance. Lead isotopic composition (Pb-206/Pb-207 ratios) depends on soil organic matter content either fresh/poorly humified (573% of the variance) or humified (247% of the variance). The Pb linked to inorganic compounds and the overall podzolization process play a minor role in isotopic signature (53 and 37% of the variance respectively). Soil pH appears to be the controlling variable of the different transport and retention mechanisms. The relatively low isotopic ratios observed in spodic horizons result from geogenic Pb released through the preferential dissolution of the isotopically distinct most weatherable minerals of the parent material in the eluvial horizons, which undergoes downward mobilization. An accurate knowledge of soil reactive components and formation mechanisms is essential to a correct diagnose of the scope of Pb pollution and a more effective design of remediation strategies.

  • 23.
    Fick, Jerker
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Brodin, Tomas
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Heynen, Martina
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Klaminder, Jonatan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Jonsson, Micael
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Grabicova, Katerina
    Randak, Tomas
    Grabic, Roman
    Kodes, Vit
    Slobodnik, Jaroslav
    Sweetman, Andrew
    Earnshaw, Mark
    Caracciolo, Anna Barra
    Lettieri, Teresa
    Loos, Robert
    Screening of benzodiazepines in thirty European rivers2017Ingår i: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 176, s. 324-332Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Pharmaceuticals as environmental contaminants have received a lot of interest over the past decade but, for several pharmaceuticals, relatively little is known about their occurrence in European surface waters. Benzodiazepines, a class of pharmaceuticals with anxiolytic properties, have received interest due to their behavioral modifying effect on exposed biota. In this study, our results show the presence of one or more benzodiazepine(s) in 86% of the analyzed surface water samples (n = 138) from 30 rivers, representing seven larger European catchments. Of the 13 benzodiazepines included in the study, we detected 9, which together showed median and mean concentrations (of the results above limit of quantification) of 5.4 and 9.6 ng L-1, respectively. Four benzodiazepines (oxazepam, temazepam, clobazam, and bromazepam) were the most commonly detected. In particular, oxazepam had the highest frequency of detection (85%) and a maximum concentration of 61 ng L-1. Temazepam and clobazam were found in 26% (maximum concentration of 39 ng L-1) and 14% (maximum concentration of 11 ng L-1) of the samples analyzed, respectively. Finally, bromazepam was found only in Germany and in 16 out of total 138 samples (12%), with a maximum concentration of 320 ng L-1. This study clearly shows that benzodiazepines are common micro-contaminants of the largest European river systems at ng L-1 levels. Although these concentrations are more than a magnitude lower than those reported to have effective effects on exposed biota, environmental effects cannot be excluded considering the possibility of additive and sub-lethal effects.

  • 24. Futter, M. N.
    et al.
    Klaminder, Jonatan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Lucas, R. W.
    Laudon, H.
    Kohler, S. J.
    Uncertainty in silicate mineral weathering rate estimates: source partitioning and policy implications2012Ingår i: Environmental Research Letters, ISSN 1748-9326, E-ISSN 1748-9326, Vol. 7, nr 2, s. 024025-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Precise and accurate estimates of silicate mineral weathering rates are crucial when setting policy targets for long-term forest sustainability, critical load calculations and assessing consequences of proposed geo-engineering solutions to climate change. In this paper, we scrutinize 394 individual silicate mineral weathering estimates from 82 sites on three continents. We show that within-site differences of several hundred per cent arise when different methods are used to estimate weathering rates, mainly as a result of uncertainties related to input data rather than conceptually different views of the weathering process. While different methods tend to rank sites congruently from high to low weathering rates, large within-site differences in estimated weathering rate suggest that policies relying on quantitative estimates based upon a single method may have undesirable outcomes. We recommend the use of at least three independent estimates when making management decisions related to silicate mineral weathering rates.

  • 25.
    Giesler, Reiner
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Karina, E. Clemmensen
    Wardle, David A.
    Klaminder, Jonatan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Bindler, Richard
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Boreal Forests Sequester Large Amounts of Mercury over Millennial Time Scales in the Absence of Wildfire2017Ingår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 51, nr 5, s. 2621-2627Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Alterations in fire activity due to climate change and fire suppression may have profound effects on the balance between storage and release of carbon (C) and associated volatile elements. Stored soil mercury (Hg) is known to volatilize due to wildfires and this could substantially affect the land air exchange of Hg; conversely the absence of fires and human disturbance may increase the time period over which Hg is sequestered. Here we show for a wildfire chronosequence spanning over more than 5000 years in boreal forest in northern Sweden that belowground inventories of total Hg are strongly related to soil humus C accumulation (R-2 = 0.94, p < 0.001). Our data clearly show that northern boreal forest soils have a strong sink capacity for Hg, and indicate that the sequestered Hg is bound in soil organic matter pools accumulating over millennia. Our results also suggest that more than half of the Hg stock in the sites with the longest time since fire originates from deposition predating the onset of large-scale anthropogenic emissions. This study emphasizes the importance of boreal forest humus soils for Hg storage and reveals that this pool is likely to persist over millennial time scales in the prolonged absence of fire.

  • 26.
    Hellström, Gustav
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Klaminder, Jonatan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Finn, Fia
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Persson, Lo
    Alanärä, Anders
    Jonsson, Micael
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Brodin, Tomas
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    GABAergic anxiolytic drug in water increases migration behaviour in salmon2016Ingår i: Nature Communications, ISSN 2041-1723, E-ISSN 2041-1723, Vol. 7, artikel-id 13460Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Migration is an important life-history event in a wide range of taxa, yet many migrations are influenced by anthropogenic change. Although migration dynamics are extensively studied, the potential effects of environmental contaminants on migratory physiology are poorly understood. In this study we show that an anxiolytic drug in water can promote downward migratory behaviour of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in both laboratory setting and in a natural river tributary. Exposing salmon smolt to a dilute concentration of a GABAA receptor agonist (oxazepam) increased migration intensity compared with untreated smolt. These results implicate that salmon migration may be affected by human-induced changes in water chemical properties, such as acidification and pharmaceutical residues in wastewater effluent, via alterations in the GABAA receptor function.

  • 27.
    Hellström, Gustav
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Klaminder, Jonatan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Jonsson, Micael
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Brodin, Tomas
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Upscaling behavioural studies to the field using acoustic telemetry2016Ingår i: Aquatic Toxicology, ISSN 0166-445X, E-ISSN 1879-1514, Vol. 170, s. 384-389Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Laboratory-based behavioural assays are often used in ecotoxicological studies to assess the environmental risk of aquatic contaminants. While results from such laboratory-based risk assessments may be difficult to extrapolate to natural environments, technological advancements over the past decade now make it possible to perform risk assessments through detailed studies of exposed individuals in natural settings. Acoustic telemetry is a technology to monitor movement and behaviour of aquatic organism in oceans, lakes, and rivers. The technology allows for tracking of multiple individuals simultaneously with very high temporal and spatial resolution, with the option to incorporate sensors to measure various physiological and environmental parameters. Although frequently used in fisheries research, aquatic ecotoxicology has been slow to adopt acoustic telemetry as a tool in field-based studies. This mini-review intends to introduce acoustic telemetry to aquatic ecotoxicologists, focusing on the potential of the technology to bridge the gap between laboratory assays and natural behaviours when making toxicological risk assessments.

  • 28.
    Heynen, Martina
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap. Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Backstrom, Tobias
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Jonsson, Micael
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Klaminder, Jonatan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Brodin, Tomas
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Home alone: the effects of isolation on uptake of a pharmaceutical contaminant in a social fish2016Ingår i: Aquatic Toxicology, ISSN 0166-445X, E-ISSN 1879-1514, Vol. 180, s. 71-77Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A wide range of biologically active pharmaceutical residues is present in aquatic systems worldwide. As uptake potential and the risk of effects in aquatic wildlife are directly coupled, the aim of this study was to investigate the relationships between stress by isolation, uptake and effects of the psychiatric pharmaceutical oxazepam in fish. To do this, we measured cortisol levels, behavioral stress responses, and oxazepam uptake under different stress and social conditions, in juvenile perch (Percafluviatilis) that were either exposed (1.03 mu gl(-1)) or not exposed to oxazepam. We found single exposed individuals to take up more oxazepam than individuals exposed in groups, likely as a result of stress caused by isolation. Furthermore, the bioconcentration factor (BCF) was significantly negatively correlated with fish weight in both social treatments. We found no effect of oxazepam exposure on body cortisol concentration or behavioral stress response. Most laboratory experiments, including standardized bioconcentration assays, are designed to minimize stress for the test organisms, however wild animals experience stress naturally. Hence, differences in stress levels between laboratory and natural environments can be one of the reasons why predictions from artificial laboratory experiments largely underestimate uptake of oxazepam, and other pharmaceuticals, in the wild.

  • 29.
    Heynen, Martina
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap. Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Brodin, Tomas
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Klaminder, Jonatan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Jonsson, Micael
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Tissue-specific uptake of the benzodiazepine oxazepam in adult Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis)2016Ingår i: Environmental Chemistry, ISSN 1448-2517, E-ISSN 1449-8979, Vol. 13, nr 5, s. 849-853Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Psychoactive substances are used worldwide and constitute one of the common groups of pharmaceutical contaminants in surface waters. Typically, in field surveys and laboratory studies, muscle or whole - body homogenates are used to quantify pharmaceutical concentrations in biota, although uptake of pharmaceuticals may be tissue - specific. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the tissue - specific (muscle, liver, brain and blood plasma) uptake of the anxiolytic oxazepam in adult Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis). In laboratory experiments, perch were exposed to four different concentrations (2, 4, 12 and 20 mu g L-1) of oxazepam for 6 days, and muscle, liver, brain tissue and blood plasma were sampled to determine tissue - specific bioconcentration. We found that the tissue - specific bioconcentration was independent of oxazepam concentration. However, among tissue types, bioconcentration was significantly different, with the concentration in muscle, liver = brain, blood plasma. Hence, it is important to consider the type of tissue used to quantify pharmaceutical uptake in fish, for predictions of species - specific sensitivity and comparisons across studies. Furthermore, our results indicate a somewhat lower transportability (brain/plasma ratio 0.54) of oxazepam from blood to brain in fish compared with in mammals, which should be kept in mind when employing 'read - across' approaches.

  • 30.
    Heynen, Martina
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Jonsson, Micael
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Klaminder, Jonatan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Brodin, Tomas
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Effect of bioconcentration and trophic transfer on realized exposure to oxazepam in 2 predators, the dragonfly larvae (Aeshna grandis) and the Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis)2016Ingår i: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, ISSN 0730-7268, E-ISSN 1552-8618, Vol. 35, nr 4, s. 930-937Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Psychoactive substances are used worldwide and constitute one of the most common groups of pharmaceutical contaminants in surface waters. Although these pharmaceuticals are designed to be efficiently eliminated from the human body, very little is known about their trophic-transfer potential in aquatic wildlife. Therefore, the goal of the present study was to quantify and compare uptake of an anxiolytic (oxazepam) from water (bioconcentration) and via the consumption of contaminated diet (trophic transfer) in 2 common freshwater predators: Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis) and the dragonfly larvae Aeshna grandis. Bioconcentration and trophic transfer of oxazepam were found in both predator species. However, higher bioconcentrations were observed for perch (bioconcentration factor [BCF], 3.7) than for dragonfly larvae (BCF, 0.5). Perch also retained more oxazepam from consumed prey (41%) than dragonfly larvae (10%), whereas the relative contribution via prey consumption was 14% and 42% for perch and dragonflies, respectively. In addition, bioconcentration was negatively correlated with perch weight, indicating that exposure levels in natural contaminated environments differ between individuals of different size or between different developmental stages. Hence, trophic transfer of pharmaceuticals may indeed occur, and estimates of environmental exposures that do not consider intake via food or size-dependent bioconcentration may therefore lead to wrongful estimations of realized exposure levels in natural contaminated ecosystems. (C) 2016 SETAC

  • 31.
    Hotchkiss, E. R.
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Hall, R. O., Jr.
    Sponseller, R. A.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Butman, D.
    Klaminder, J.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Laudon, H.
    Rosvall, Martin
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysik.
    Karlsson, J.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Sources of and processes controlling CO2 emissions change with the size of streams and rivers2015Ingår i: Nature Geoscience, ISSN 1752-0894, E-ISSN 1752-0908, Vol. 8, nr 9, s. 696-699Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) evasion from streams and rivers to the atmosphere represents a substantial flux in the global carbon cycle(1-3). The proportions of CO2 emitted from streams and rivers that come from terrestrially derived CO2 or from CO2 produced within freshwater ecosystems through aquatic metabolism are not well quantified. Here we estimated CO2 emissions from running waters in the contiguous United States, based on freshwater chemical and physical characteristics and modelled gas transfer velocities at 1463 United States Geological Survey monitoring sites. We then assessed CO2 production from aquatic metabolism, compiled from previously published measurements of net ecosystem production from 187 streams and rivers across the contiguous United States. We find that CO2 produced by aquatic metabolism contributes about 28% of CO2 evasion from streams and rivers with flows between 0.0001 and 19,000 m(3) s(-1). We mathematically modelled CO2 flux from groundwater into running waters along a stream-river continuum to evaluate the relationship between stream size and CO2 source. Terrestrially derived CO2 dominates emissions from small streams, and the percentage of CO2 emissions from aquatic metabolism increases with stream size. We suggest that the relative role of rivers as conduits for terrestrial CO2 efflux and as reactors mineralizing terrestrial organic carbon is a function of their size and connectivity with landscapes.

  • 32. Jelinski, Nicolas A.
    et al.
    Yoo, Kyungsoo
    Klaminder, Jonatan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Utilising a suite of isotopic and elemental tracers to constrain cryoturbation rates and patterns in a non-sorted circle2017Ingår i: Permafrost and Periglacial Processes, ISSN 1045-6740, E-ISSN 1099-1530, Vol. 28, nr 4, s. 634-648Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The empirical quantification of rates of material movement in cryoturbated soils has lagged behind the physical and chemical characterisation of these materials. We applied a novel suite of elemental (C, Hg), stable isotope (C-13) and radioisotope (Cs-137, Pb-210, C-14, Be-10) tracers in conjunction with analytical and numerical models to constrain the rates and patterns of soil movement due to cryoturbation in a non-sorted circle (NSC) near Abisko, Sweden. We present the first observations of the variability of Be-10 across a patterned-ground feature, which facilitate the interpretation of subsurface peaks in soil organic carbon, Hg and C-13 and provide constraints on the surficial histories of cryoturbated materials. Apparent rates of surficial lateral movement across the NSC estimated from Cs-137 and Pb-210 (0-2.55cm year(-1)) decreased with distance from its centre and were an order of magnitude greater than rates of subduction and subsurface movement estimated from C-14 (0.04-0.27cm year(-1)). Novel estimates of the original surficial residence times of cryoturbated parcels based on excess Be-10 and Hg inventories ranged from 238 to 3940years. Our results demonstrate the utility of the spatially explicit application of elemental and radioisotopic tracer suites to constrain cryoturbation rates in Arctic patterned ground.

  • 33. Johansson, Karin S. L.
    et al.
    Luhrig, Katharina
    Klaminder, Jonatan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Rengefors, Karin
    Development of a quantitative PCR method to explore the historical occurrence of a nuisance microalga under expansion2016Ingår i: Harmful Algae, ISSN 1568-9883, E-ISSN 1878-1470, Vol. 56, s. 67-76Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A number of marine and freshwater harmful algal bloom (HAB) species have colonized new areas and expanded their habitat range in recent years. Nevertheless it is notoriously difficult to establish when colonization first occurred, what the dispersal routes are, and to separate recent invasion from increases in existent but small populations. The freshwater raphidophyte Gonyostomum semen is a nuisance species that has expanded its habitat range and increased in abundance in northern Europe during the past decades. To evaluate to what extent sediments can be used for determining historic occurrence of G. semen, a quantitative real-time PCR method for detecting cysts of this algae was developed. This paper presents a qPCR protocol with a set of primers that are specific to Gonyostomum and with PCR conditions optimized for sediment samples from humic lakes, which are the common habitat of G. semen. With this sensitive method as few as 1.6 cysts per PCR reaction could be reliably quantified, corresponding to 320 cysts per g wet weight sediment Cysts were present in sediments with ages ranging from years to decades and their persistence allows detection of historic populations up to at least 50 years old. With this qPCR assay it will be possible to trace the presence of G. semen in environments prior to the onset of algae-specific monitoring programs as well as for quantification in water column samples.

  • 34.
    Jonsson, Micael
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Andersson, Magnus
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysik.
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Brodin, Tomas
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap. Department of Wildlife, Fish, and Environmental Studies, SLU, Umeå, Sweden.
    Klaminder, Jonatan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Piovano, Susanna
    School of Marine Studies, The University of the South Pacific, Suva, Fiji.
    High-speed imaging reveals how antihistamine exposure affects escape behaviours in aquatic insect prey2019Ingår i: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 648, s. 1257-1262Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Aquatic systems receive a wide range of pharmaceuticals that may have adverse impacts on aquatic wildlife. Among these pharmaceuticals, antihistamines are commonly found, and these substances have the potential to influence the physiology of aquatic invertebrates. Previous studies have focused on how antihistamines may affect behaviours of aquatic invertebrates, but these studies probably do not capture the full consequences of antihistamine exposure, as traditional recording techniques do not capture important animal movements occurring at the scale of milliseconds, such as prey escape responses. In this study, we investigated if antihistamine exposure can impact escape responses in aquatic insect, by exposing damselfly (Coenagrion hastulatum) larvae to two environmentally relevant concentrations (0.1 and 1 μg L−1) of diphenhydramine. Importantly, we used a high-speed imaging approach that with high-time resolution captures details of escape responses and, thus, potential impacts of diphenhydramine on these behaviours. Our results show overall weak effects of antihistamine exposure on the escape behaviours of damselfly larvae. However, at stage 2 of the C-escape response, we found a significant increase in turning angle, which corresponds to a reduced swimming velocity, indicating a reduced success at evading a predator attack. Thus, we show that low concentrations of an antihistamine may affect behaviours strongly related to fitness of aquatic insect prey – effects would have been overlooked using traditional recording techniques. Hence, to understand the full consequences of pharmaceutical contamination on aquatic wildlife, high-speed imaging should be incorporated into future environmental risk assessments.

  • 35.
    Jonsson, Micael
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Ershammar, Ellen
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Brodin, Tomas
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Klaminder, Jonatan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Effects of an antihistamine on carbon and nutrient recycling in streams2015Ingår i: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 538, s. 240-245Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In stream ecosystems, microbes and macroinvertebrates consume leaf litter deposited from the riparian vegetation, and thereby recycle resources tied up in the litter. Several environmental variables influence rates of this recycling, but it is not well known if common pharmaceuticals, such as antihistamines, originating from waste-water effluent, have additional impacts. Exposure to dilute concentrations of antihistamines may adversely influence aquatic detritivorous invertebrates, because invertebrates use histamines for neurotransmission, resulting in hampered recycling of resource tied up in leaf detritus. In this study, we therefore investigated if the antihistamine fexofenadine, at a concentration of 2000 ng l(-1), alters rates of leaf litter decomposition in stream microcosms. Stonefly larvae (n = 10, per microcosm), together with natural microbial communities, served as main decomposer organisms on alder leaf litter. First, we used 30 microcosms containing fexofenadine, while the other 30 served as non-contaminated controls, and of each 30 microcosms, 14 contained stonefly larvae and microbes, while the remaining 16 contained only microbes. We found, in contrast to our hypothesis, that fexofenadine had no effect on leaf litter decomposition via impacts on the stonefly larvae. However, independent on if stoneflies were present or not, concentrations of organic carbon (TOC) and nitrogen (N) were strongly affected, with 20-26 and 24-31% lower concentrations of TOC and N, respectively, in the presence of fexofenadine. Second, in a scaled down follow-up experiment we found that microbial activity increased by 85%, resulting in a 10% decrease in pH, in the presence of fexofenadine. While the antihistamine concentration we used is higher than those thus far found in the field (1-10 ng l(-1)), it is still 100 times lower than the predicted no-effect concentration for fexofenadine. As such, our results indicate that low mu g l(-1) levels of antihistamines can have an effect on carbon and nutrient recycling in aquatic system. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 36.
    Jonsson, Micael
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Klaminder, Jonatan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Brodin, Tomas
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Antihistamines and aquatic insects: Bioconcentration and impacts on behavior in damselfly larvae (Zygoptera)2014Ingår i: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 472, s. 108-111Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Because aquatic insects use histamines as neurotransmitters, adverse impacts on aquatic insects living in aquatic environments that receive antihistamines with wastewater effluent are plausible. In this study, we exposed damselfly larvae to low concentrations of two commonly used antihistamines (Hydroxyzine and Fexofenadine, 360 +/- 42 and 2200 +/- 43 ng 1(-1), respectively), and recorded damselfly larvae behavior before and after exposure. Further, after the second set of behavioral assays was performed, we quantified bioconcentration of the antihistamines in the damselfly bodies. Our results showed significant changes in damselfly behavior following antihistamine exposure. After Hydroxyzine exposure, the damselfly larvae became less active, and they showed reduced fleeing response (i.e. increased boldness) after being exposed to Fexofenadine, the latter also being significantly different from the non-exposed (control) individuals. Further, we found high levels of bioconcentration in the damselflies; Hydroxyzine showed an average bioconcentration factor (BCF) of 2000. As such, our results indicate that low concentrations of antihistamines can have sub-lethal effects on aquatic insects manifested as behavioral changes, and that bioconcentration of these substances can be high. Therefore, the need to investigate the impact of emergent aquatic contaminants also on aquatic insects, and on behaviors that are of ecological importance, is further highlighted. (c) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 37.
    Klaminder, J
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet, Ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Yoo, K
    Giesler, R
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet, Ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Soil carbon accumulation in the dry tundra: Important role played by precipitation2009Ingår i: Journal of Geophysical Research, ISSN 0148-0227, E-ISSN 2156-2202, Vol. 114, s. G04005-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A positive relationship between the mean annual precipitation (MAP) and soil organic carbon (SOC) is found in most surveys covering the subarctic and boreal region. In this paper we assess mechanisms behind variable SOC pools in dry tundra soils developed along a 50 km long subarctic precipitation (snow) gradient in northern Sweden. Lead 210 is used to infer SOC accumulation rates in the O horizon. Despite an unchanged or even slightly decreasing accumulation rate of SOC in the O horizon (range 0.02–0.06 kg C m−2 yr−1) along with increasing MAP and a relative constant litter input (∼0.04 kg C m−2 yr−1), the SOC pool in the upper 1 m increase significantly with increasing MAP. This trend is mainly due to a progressively buildup of SOC in the mineral soil and argued to be the result of an accelerated vertical translocation of SOC at sites overlain by a thick snowpack. Furthermore, the loss of SOC from the O horizon through wind erosion appears to be more pronounced at snow-poor sites. We estimate that vegetated heath soil may loose >0.02 kg C m−2 yr−1 (∼half of the annual litter fall) due to wind erosion in snow-poor areas. We stress that lateral and vertical translocation processes inherent by precipitation regimes may be of fundamental importance for the long-term SOC accumulation in tundra soil.

  • 38.
    Klaminder, Jonatan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    The fate of airborne lead pollution in boreal forest soils2005Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Lead has a more than three-millennia-long pollution history in Europe. Metal production, burning of coal and use of leaded petrol resulted in a significant pollution of the atmosphere. As a consequence of atmospheric fallout, the Swedish boreal forest is strongly contaminated by airborne lead pollution. High levels of lead in the soil and soil pore water are of concern because the soil fauna, plants and aquatic biota may respond negatively to this toxic element. The fate of the accumulated pool of pollution in the soil is not well known.

    In this thesis, I determine four variables of importance for increasing our knowledge about the past, present and future lead levels in the boreal forest soil: 1) the pre-pollution atmospheric deposition rate of lead; 2) the upward flux of lead from deeper soil layers to near-surface horizons as a result of plant uptake; 3) the mean residence time of lead in the mor layer (the organic horizon at the surface of forest soils); and 4) the vertical and lateral transport of pollution lead within the mineral soil and to streams. Lead concentration measurements and stable lead isotope analyses were used for distinguishing pollution lead from natural lead in cores from ombrotrophic bogs, forest soil profiles, forest mosses, soil-water and stream-water samples.

    The results clearly stress that the boreal forest ecosystem is totally dominated by pollution lead. This is proved by low 206Pb/207Pb ratios (mainly between 1.14 and 1.20) in the mor layer, forest plants and stream water, while the local geogenic lead of the mineral soil (C-horizon) has high ratios (> 1.30). The dominance of pollution in the mor layer is caused by high deposition rates of airborne lead pollution, minute transport rates of lead from the mineral soil by forest plants (about 0.02 mg lead m-2 year-1) and a long mean residence time of the deposited lead (~250 years for mature forest). In the pristine pre-pollution environment, lead was a rare element due to low atmospheric deposition rates (0.001 to 0.01 mg m-2 year-1). It is estimated that the present lead inventory in the mor layer is up to 100 times higher than in the pristine environment where ≤ 8 mg m-2 was present in the mor. The levels in this biologically important horizon will decrease at a very slow rate and it will take centuries for the deeper part of the mor layer to fully respond to decreasing atmospheric inputs. In a hypothetic scenario with a ceased atmospheric lead deposition, the pool of pollution lead will ultimately be redistributed to deeper water-saturated soil layers from where a lateral transport to surface waters occurs. In the studied catchment, the export of pollution lead from the soil to the stream is estimated to peak slightly about one thousand years from now.

  • 39.
    Klaminder, Jonatan
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Appleby, P
    Crook, P
    Renberg, Ingemar
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Post-deposition diffusion of 137Cs in lake sediment: implications for radiocaesium dating2012Ingår i: Sedimentology, ISSN 0037-0746, E-ISSN 1365-3091, Vol. 59, nr 7, s. 2259-2267Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Peak activities of radiocaesium (137Cs) in lake sediments have frequently been used to infer the ages of sediments deposited in the 1960s (137Cs derived from nuclear bomb testing) or in 1986 (Chernobyl derived 137Cs). Records of the vertical distribution of 137Cs in sediments can thus be used to provide accurate dates for a critical period in which palaeoecological reconstructions often overlap contemporary monitoring data. However, knowledge regarding how the distribution of 137Cs in sediments is affected by post-depositional processes is limited to interpretations based on the 137Cs distribution in sediments sampled at a single given date. This study assesses the extent to which the 137Cs record in annually laminated (varved) lake sediments is affected by post-depositional diffusion, using 11 archived sediment cores sampled between 1986 and 2007. The sediment record reveals how Chernobyl 137Cs incorporated into the 1986 varve diffused downwards in the core at a decreasing rate over time, whereas the surface sediments continued to receive inputs of 137Cs mobilized from the catchment soils or lake margin. In spite of these processes, all cores post-dating the Chernobyl accident had a clear and well-resolved peak in the 1986 varve, justifying the use of this feature as a fixed chronostratigraphic feature. Because of the very high levels of Chernobyl fallout at this site, downwards migration of Chernobyl 137Cs has, however, completely masked the nuclear weapons 137Cs fallout peak that had been clearly preserved in the 1964 varve of a pre-Chernobyl core sampled just three weeks before the Chernobyl accident. In consequence, the weapons fallout marker is likely to be of little use for determining 137Cs dates in areas strongly affected by high levels of Chernobyl fallout.

  • 40.
    Klaminder, Jonatan
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Bindler, Richard
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Emteryd, Ove
    Appleby, Peter
    Grip, Harald
    Estimating the mean residence time of lead in the organic horizon of boreal forest soils using 210-lead, stable lead and a soil chronosequence2006Ingår i: Biogeochemistry, ISSN 0168-2563, E-ISSN 1573-515X, Vol. 78, nr 1, s. 31-49Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Knowledge about the residence time of lead in the organic horizon (mor layer; O-horizon) overlaying forest mineral soils is important for the prediction of past and future lead levels in the boreal environment. To estimate the mean residence time (MRT) of lead in the mor layer, we use in this study from Northern Sweden three different approaches: (1) lead-210 is applied as a tracer of lead migration; (2) estimations of loss rates of stable lead (concentrations and 206Pb/207Pb ratios) from the mor layer at an undisturbed forest setting, and (3) a study of lead in a soil series with sites of different age (a chronosequence of 20–220 years). In the last two approaches we compared measured inventories in the soil with estimated inventories derived using analyses of lake sediments. The results suggested a MRT of about 250 years in the mor layer in the mature forest and in the older parts of the chronosequence it was at least >170 years. The agreement between the three different approaches gives good credibility to this estimate. It is also supported by a modeling of trends in the 206Pb/207Pb ratio both between single cores and with depth in the mor layer. Our results suggest that it will take centuries for the deeper parts of the mor layer of undisturbed boreal forest soils to fully respond to decreased atmospheric lead pollution. However, data from the chronosequence indicate that the response could be much faster (MRT<50 years) in the mor layer at early stages of forest succession where graminoid and broadleaved litter fall dominates over conifer litter.

  • 41.
    Klaminder, Jonatan
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet, Ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Bindler, Richard
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet, Ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Emteryd, Ove
    Renberg, Ingemar
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet, Ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Uptake and recycling of lead by boreal forest plants: Quantitative estimates from a site in northern Sweden2005Ingår i: Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, Vol. 69, s. 2485-2496Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 42.
    Klaminder, Jonatan
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet, Ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Bindler, Richard
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet, Ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Laudon, Hjalmar
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet, Ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Bishop, Kevin
    Emteryd, Ove
    Renberg, Ingemar
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet, Ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Flux rates of atmospheric lead pollution within soils of a small catchment in northern Sweden and their implications for future stream water quality2006Ingår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 40, nr 15, s. 4639-45Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    It is not well-known how the accumulated pool of atmospheric lead pollution in the boreal forest soil will affect the groundwater and surface water chemistry in the future as this lead migrates through the soil profile. This study uses stable lead isotopes (206Pb/207Pb and 208Pb/ 207Pb ratios) to trace the transport of atmospheric lead pollution within the soil of a small catchment and predict future lead level changes in a stream draining the catchment. Low 206Pb/207Pb and 208Pb/207Pb ratios for the lead in the soil water (1.16 ± 0.02; 2.43 ± 0.03) and streamwater (1.18 ± 0.03; 2.42 ± 0.03) in comparison to that of the mineral soil (>1.4; >2.5) suggest that atmospheric pollution contributes by about 90% (65−100%) to the lead pool found in these matrixes. Calculated transport rates of atmospheric lead along a soil transect indicate that the mean residence time of lead in organic and mineral soil layers is at a centennial to millennial time scale. A maximum release of the present pool of lead pollution in the soil to the stream is predicted to occur within 200−800 years. Even though the uncertainty of the prediction is large, it emphasizes the magnitude of the time lag between the accumulation of atmospheric lead pollution in soils and the subsequent response in streamwater quality.

  • 43.
    Klaminder, Jonatan
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet, Ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Bindler, Richard
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet, Ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Renberg, Ingemar
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet, Ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    The biogeochemistry of atmospherically derived Pb in the boreal forest of Sweden2008Ingår i: Applied Geochemistry, Vol. 23, nr 10, s. 2922-2931Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of stable Pb isotopes for tracing Pb contamination within the environment has strongly increased our understanding of the fate of airborne Ph contaminants within the boreal forest. This paper presents new stable Pb isotope (Pb-206/Pb-207 ratio) measurements of solid soil samples, stream water (from a mire outlet and a stream draining a forest dominated catchment) and components of Picea abies (roots, needles and stemwood), and synthesizes some of the authors' recent findings regarding the biogeochemistry of Ph within the boreal forest. The data clearly indicate that the biogeochemical cycling of Pb in the present-day boreal forest ecosystem is dominated by pollution Pb from atmospheric deposition. The Pb-206/Pb-207 ratios of the mor layer (O-horizon), forest plants and stream water (mainly between 1.14 and 1.20) are similar to atmospheric Pb pollution (1.14-1.19), while the local geogenic Pb of the mineral soil (C-horizon) has high ratios (>1.30). Roots and basal stemwood of the analyzed forest trees have higher Pb-206/Pb-207 ratios (1.15-1.30) than needles and apical stemwood (1.14-1.18), which indicate that the latter components are more dominated by pollution derived Pb. The low Pb-206/Pb-207 ratios of the mor layer suggest that the upward transport of Ph as a result of plant uptake is small (<0.04 mg m(-2) a(-1)) in comparison to atmospheric inputs (similar to 0.5 mg m(-2) a(-1)) and annual losses with percolating soil-water (similar to 2 mg m(-2) a(-1)); consequently, the Ph levels in the mor layer are now decreasing while the pool of Pb in the mineral soil is increasing. Streams draining mires appear more strongly affected by pollution Ph than streams from forested catchments, as indicated by Pb concentrations about three times higher and lower Pb-206/Pb-207 ratios (1.16 +/- 0.01 in comparison to 1.18 +/- 0.02). To what extent stream water Pb levels will respond to the build-up of Ph in deeper mineral soil layers remains uncertain. (c) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 44.
    Klaminder, Jonatan
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet, Ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Bindler, Richard
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet, Ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Rydberg, Johan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet, Ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Renberg, Ingemar
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet, Ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Is there a chronological record of atmospheric mercury and lead deposition preserved in the mor layer (O-horizon) of boreal forest soils2008Ingår i: Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, Vol. 72, s. 703-712Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The organic horizon (the mor layer) of podzolized boreal forest soils has accumulated atmospheric fallout of mercury and lead over centuries, resulting in current concentrations close to levels where negative effects on soil biota are thought to occur. To what extent the pollution history is preserved in the stratigraphy of this horizon is not well known. In this study we asses whether the chronology of a large historic pulse of atmospheric pollution emitted from the Ronnskar smelter in northern Sweden, particularly between 1950 and 1980, is preserved within the stratigraphy of the mor layer, which is typically 5-cm thick. Vertical sub-sampling (<= 5 mm) of five mor profiles sampled along a 100-km pollution gradient away from the smelter are analyzed for mercury and lead concentrations, spheroidal carbonaceous particles from fossil fuel combustion (SCPs) and stable lead isotopes (Pb-206/Pb-207 and Pb-208/Pb-207). Their vertical distribution is compared with the temporal variations in atmospheric inputs reconstructed for the last similar to 100 years from analyses of an ombrotrophic peat core and a varved take sediment core sampled within a distance of 50 km of the smelter. The mor profiles situated <= 12 km from the smelter record the pollution history of the smelter. There is a 20 to 40-times enrichment of Hg, Pb and SCP at the transition in the O-horizon from the F- to H-layer compared to the basal part and a distinct peak in the Pb-206/Pb-207 ratio (similar to 1.22) in the F-layer. The mor profiles situated outside the historical contamination range of the smelter (80 and 100 km away) record no obvious influence from the Ronnskar smelter, instead their vertical Pb-206/Pb-207 profiles follow the general regional pollution history in northern Sweden. We conclude that the mor layer preserves a record of atmospheric Hg, Pb and SCP inputs and due to low leaching rates this organic horizon serves as a semi-archive of atmospheric Hg and Pb pollution. We stress the need of including this property in the existing 'black-box' models predicting the fate of Hg and Pb within contaminated boreal forest soils.

  • 45.
    Klaminder, Jonatan
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Brodin, Tomas
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Sundelin, Anna
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Anderson, N. J.
    Fahlman, J.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Jonsson, M.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Long-Term Persistence of an Anxiolytic Drug (Oxazepam) in a Large Freshwater Lake2015Ingår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 49, nr 17, s. 10406-10412Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Production and human consumption of pharmaceuticals result in contamination of surface waters worldwide. Little is known about the long-term (i.e., over decades) fate of pharmaceuticals in aquatic systems. Here, we show that the most prescribed anxiolytic in Sweden (oxazepam) persists in its therapeutic form for several decades after being deposited in a large freshwater lake. By comparing sediment cores collected in 1995 and 2013, we demonstrate that oxazepam inputs from the early 1970s remained in the sediments until sampling in 2013, despite in situ degradation processes and sediment diagenesis. In laboratory and pond experiments, we further reveal that therapeutic forms of oxazepam can persist over several months in cold (5 degrees C) lake water free from UV light. We conclude that oxazepam can persist in lakes over a time scale much longer than previously realized and that levels can build up in lakes due to both a legacy of past inputs and a growing urban population.

  • 46.
    Klaminder, Jonatan
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Farmer, John G
    School of GeoSciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, EH9 3JN, Scotland, UK.
    Mackenzie, Angus B
    Scottish Universities Environmental Research Centre, East Kilbride, G75 0QF, Scotland, UK.
    The origin of lead in the organic horizon of tundra soils: Atmospheric deposition, plant translocation from the mineral soil or soil mineral mixing?2011Ingår i: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 409, nr 20, s. 4344-50Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Knowledge of the anthropogenic contribution to lead (Pb) concentrations in surface soils in high latitude ecosystems is central to our understanding of the extent of atmospheric Pb contamination. In this study, we reconstructed fallout of Pb at a remote sub-arctic region by using two ombrotrophic peat cores and assessed the extent to which this airborne Pb is able to explain the isotopic composition ((206)Pb/(207)Pb ratio) in the O-horizon of tundra soils. In the peat cores, long-range atmospheric fallout appeared to be the main source of Pb as indicated by temporal trends that followed the known European pollution history, i.e. accelerated fallout at the onset of industrialization and peak fallout around the 1960s-70s. The Pb isotopic composition of the O-horizon of podzolic tundra soil ((206)Pb/(207)Pb=1.170±0.002; mean±SD) overlapped with that of the peat ((206)Pb/(207)Pb=1.16±0.01) representing a proxy for atmospheric aerosols, but was clearly different from that of the parent soil material ((206)Pb/(207)Pb=1.22-1.30). This finding indicated that long-range fallout of atmospheric Pb is the main driver of Pb accumulation in podzolic tundra soil. In O-horizons of tundra soil weakly affected by cryoturbation (cryosols) however, the input of Pb from the underlying mineral soil increased as indicated by (206)Pb/(207)Pb ratios of up to 1.20, a value closer to that of local soil minerals. Nevertheless, atmospheric Pb appeared to be the dominant source in this soil compartment. We conclude that Pb concentrations in the O-horizon of studied tundra soils - despite being much lower than in boreal soils and representative for one of the least exposed sites to atmospheric Pb contaminants in Europe - are mainly controlled by atmospheric inputs from distant anthropogenic sources.

  • 47.
    Klaminder, Jonatan
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Giesler, Reiner
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Makoto, Kobayashi
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Physical mixing between humus and mineral matter found in cryoturbated soils increases short-term heterotrophic respiration rates2013Ingår i: Soil Biology and Biochemistry, ISSN 0038-0717, E-ISSN 1879-3428, Vol. 57, s. 922-924Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Cryoturbation is an important mechanism in the most recent large-scale model describing the build-up of soil organic carbon (SOC) in arctic soils. In this paper, we hypothesize that the physical mixing of humus and mineral soil generated by this process causes previously unconsidered effects on respiration rates. Through laboratory incubations we found that mixing of humus into mineral soil from cryoturbated soils primed heterotrophic respiration rates by about 40%, which was of the same magnitude as the effect generated by a rise in soil temperature from 5 degrees C to 10 degrees C. Our result indicates that cryogenic mixing, if complete, may generate short-term positive effects on heterotrophic respiration rates as long as the mixing does not translocate carbon into much colder soil layers. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 48.
    Klaminder, Jonatan
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Grip, H
    Department of Forest Ecology and Management, SLU, SE-901 83 Umeå, Sweden.
    Mörth, C.-M.
    Department of Geological Sciences, Stockholm University, 106 91 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Laudon, H
    Department of Forest Ecology and Management, SLU, SE-901 83 Umeå, Sweden.
    Carbon mineralization and pyrite oxidation in groundwater: importance for silicate weathering in boreal forest soils and stream base-flow chemistry2011Ingår i: Applied Geochemistry, ISSN 0883-2927, E-ISSN 1872-9134, Vol. 26, nr 3, s. 319-325Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    What role does mineralized organic C and sulfide oxidation play in weathering of silicate minerals in deep groundwater aquifers? In this study, how H2CO3, produced as a result of mineralization of organic matter during groundwater transport, affects silicate weathering in the saturated zone of the mineral soil along a 70 m-long boreal hillslope is demonstrated. Stream water measurements of base cations and δ18O are included to determine the importance of the deep groundwater system for downstream surface water. The results suggest that H2CO3 generated from organic compounds being mineralized during the lateral transport stimulates weathering at depths between 0.5 and 3 m in the soil. This finding is indicated by progressively increasing concentrations of base cations-, silica- and inorganic C (IC) in the groundwater along the hillslope that co-occur with decreasing organic C (OC) concentrations. Protons derived from sulfide oxidation appear to be an additional driver of the weathering process as indicated by a build-up of in the groundwater during lateral transport and a δ34S‰ value of +0.26–3.76‰ in the deep groundwater indicating S inputs from pyrite. The two identified active acids in the deep groundwater are likely to control the base-flow chemistry of streams draining larger catchments (>1 km2) as evident by δ18O signatures and base cation concentrations that overlap with that of the groundwater.

  • 49.
    Klaminder, Jonatan
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Hammarlund, Dan
    Kokfelt, Ulla
    Vonk, Jorien E.
    Bigler, Christian
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Lead contamination of subarctic lakes and its response to reduced atmospheric fallout: can the recovery process be counteracted by the ongoing climate change?2010Ingår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 44, nr 7, s. 2335-2340Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Can a climate-triggered export of old contaminants from the soil alter the lead (Pb) contaminant burden of subarctic lakes? To address this question, we reconstructed the pollution history of three high latitude lakes situated in a region where a recent climatic shift has occurred. Dated sediment records were used as archives of past Pb inputs to the lakes, where the difference in the 206Pb/207Pb ratio between atmospheric contaminants (206Pb/207Pb ratio <1.16) and geogenic Pb in the catchment soil (206Pb/207Pb ratio >1.22) were used to trace fluxes of Pb contaminants. Lead contaminants were found in sediments deposited since Roman times. A significant export of Pb from the soil contaminant pool is indicated in two of the lakes surrounded by near-shore permafrost soils. Here, levels of Pb contaminants and 206Pb/207Pb ratios of sediments deposited after the 1970s appear not to have been strongly affected by the ≥90% reduction in atmospheric deposition rates and increasing 206Pb/207Pb ratios of atmospheric Pb since the 1990s. We concluded that soil processes stimulated by the ongoing climate change at high latitudes might work counteractive to efforts to reduce contaminant levels in subarctic lakes.

  • 50.
    Klaminder, Jonatan
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Hellström, Gustav
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Fahlman, Johan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Jonsson, Micael
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Lagesson, Annelie
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Bergman, Eva
    Brodin, Tomas
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Drug-Induced Behavioral Changes: Using Laboratory Observations to Predict Field Observations2016Ingår i: Frontiers in Environmental Science, E-ISSN 2296-665X, Vol. 4, artikel-id 81Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Behavioral assays constitute important research tools when assessing how fish respond to environmental change. However, it is unclear how behavioral modifications recorded in laboratory assays are expressed in natural ecosystems, a limitation that makes it difficult to evaluate the predictive power of laboratory-based measurements. In this study, we hypothesized that exposure to a benzodiazepine (i.e., oxazepam) increases boldness and activity in laboratory assays as well as in field assays – that is, laboratory results can be used to predict field results. Moreover, we expected the modified behavior to affect other important ecological measures such as habitat selection and home range. To test our hypothesis, we exposed European perch (Perca fluviatilis) to oxazepam and measured subsequent changes in behavioral trials both in laboratory assays and in a lake ecosystem populated with a predatory fish species, pike (Esox lucius). In the lake, the positions of both perch and pike were tracked every three minutes for a month using acoustic telemetry. In the laboratory assay, the oxazepam-exposed perch were bolder and more active than the non-exposed perch. In the lake assay, the oxazepam-exposed perch were also more bold and active, had a larger home range, and used pelagic habitats more than the non-exposed perch. We conclude that ecotoxicological behavioral assays are useful for predicting the effects of exposure in natural systems. However, although individual responses to exposure were similar in both the laboratory and field trials, effects were more obvious in the field study, mainly due to reduced variability in the behavior measures from the lake. Hence, short-term behavioral assays may fail to detect all the effects expressed in natural environments. Nevertheless, our study clearly demonstrates that behavior modifications observed in laboratory settings can be used to predict how fish perform in aquatic ecosystems. 

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