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  • 1.
    Adman, Per
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet.
    Bergquist, Ann-Kristin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Unit of Economic History.
    Bonnedahl, Karl Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Eckerberg, Katarina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Eimermann, Marco
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    Enlund, Desirée
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    Eriksson, Madeleine
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    Helmersson, Linnea
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies.
    Nilsson, Bo
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies.
    Nordlund, Annika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nordlund, Christer
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Simonsson, Märit
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies.
    Örestig, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    DN Debatt. 171 forskare: ”Vi vuxna bör också klimatprotestera”2019In: Dagens Nyheter, ISSN 1101-2447, , p. 1Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Vuxna bör följa uppmaningen från ungdomarna i Fridays for future-rörelsen och protestera eftersom det politiska ledarskapet är otillräckligt. Omfattande och långvariga påtryckningar från hela samhället behövs för att få de politiskt ansvariga att utöva det ledarskap som klimatkrisen kräver, skriver 171 forskare i samhällsvetenskap och humaniora.

  • 2.
    Andersson, Lars-Fredrik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic history.
    Bergquist, Ann-Kristin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic history.
    Eriksson, Rikard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Profits, dividends and industry restructuring: the Swedish paper and pulp industry between 1945 and 19772016In: Scandinavian Economic History Review, ISSN 0358-5522, E-ISSN 1750-2837, Vol. 64, no 3, p. 278-296Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores the role of profit distribution in the restructuring of the Swedish paper and pulp industry between 1945 and 1977. In addressing this issue, we will draw on the life-cycle theory and market imperfection arguments to examine whether the less profitable firms shared more of their profits as dividends, or remained on the market longer by reinvesting the majority of the profits. Our study shows that an increasing share of the profits was distributed to owners over time, and thus less profit was reinvested in industrial renewal. We find that the observed general upward trend in dividends can be attributed to the decline in profit and firm legacy, as firms in the Swedish pulp and paper industry kept dividends up while reducing reinvestment as their profit margins decreased over time. Our study shows that the market imperfections related to capital taxation and investment funds increased rather than decreased dividends.

  • 3.
    Ann-Kristin, Bergquist
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Kristina, Söderholm
    Sustainable Energy Transition: the Case of the Swedish Pulp and Paper Industry 1973-19902016In: Energy Efficiency, ISSN 1570-646X, E-ISSN 1570-6478, Vol. 9, no 5, p. 1179-1192Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    By employing historical case study methodology, this paper examines the transition towards renewable energy and increased energy efficiency in the Swedish pulp and paper industry (PPI) during the 1970s and 1980s. Between 1973 and 1990, CO2 emissions were cut by 80 % in this sector, and this was mainly achieved by substituting away from oil to biofuels in the form of byproducts from the pulp manufacturing process. The CO2 reduction was also a result of energy efficiency improvements and increased internal production of electricity through back-pressure turbine power generation. Sweden was highly dependent on oil at the advent of the first Oil Crisis in 1973, and the increased oil prices put pressure on the Swedish government and the energy-intensive PPI to reduce this oil dependency. Of central importance for the energy transition was the highly collaborative strategy of the PPI, both internally among pulp mills as well as between the sector as a whole and the corporatist Swedish state administration. The Swedish government chose a proactive strategy by emphasizing knowledge management and collaboration with the industry along with the substitution of internal biofuels for oil. The transition was also characterized by a strong focus on unutilized potentials in the PPI; a previous waste problem now could be transformed into energy savings and improved energy efficiency. Energy taxes and fees also played an important role in Swedish energy policy during the 1970s and the 1980s. All in all, the study illustrates the central role of governments and their ability to push industrial sectors into new technological pathways through a wide palette of mutually reinforcing policy instruments. The results further point at the importance of a more holistic understanding of the interplay between different policies and their impacts in the longer run.

  • 4.
    Bergquist, Ann-Kristin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Unit of Economic History.
    Business and sustainability2019In: The Routledge companion to the makers of global business / [ed] Teresa Da Silva Lopes, Christina Lubinski and Heidi J.S. Tworek, Routledge, 2019, p. 546-563Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter provides a long-term business history perspective on sustainability. The twentieth century is unique in history, not only because of its enormous technological progress and rise in the standard of living, but because no other century in human history can be compared with the twentieth century for its growth in energy use, depletion of natural resources and an overall growth of problems related to global environmental sustainability (McNeill, 2000; UNEP, 2016). It has often been asserted that industrial capitalism, globalization and multinational companies have been central actors in this development (Wright and Nyberg, 2015).

  • 5.
    Bergquist, Ann-Kristin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History. Umeå University.
    Business and Sustainability: New Business History Perspectives2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This working paper provides a long-term business history perspective on sustainability. For a long time, the central issues in business history concerned how business enterprises innovated and created wealth, and patterns of success and failure in that process. There now exists, after a lag, a compelling stream of research focused on the environmental consequences of that growth. This working paper reviews this new stream of research which focuses on two related but distinct themes. The earliest theme to be explored, in a literature dating from the 1990s, is the story of how and why some conventional industries sought to become less polluting. Research has dated this phenomenon back to the late nineteenth century, showed it gained momentum from the 1960s, and resulted in a mainstreaming of sustainability rhetoric , and sometimes practice, in large corporations from 1980s, primarily in Western developed countries. A more recent research theme is the story of how for-profit entrepreneurs developed new product categories such as organic food, and wind and solar energy, which were explicitly focused on sustainability. Again this process has been traced back to the nineteenth century.  With the rise in green consumerism and public policy support in some Western countries for sustainability during the 1990s, these two historical trends met, as the concept of sustainable development spread to large conventional corporations and visionary green firms scaled or were acquired by conventional big businesses. The problem was that concept of sustainability became socially constructed in a sufficiently broad fashion as to permit even the most unstainable and dirty industries to firms claim to be sustainable. The working paper concludes that the emergent business history needs to be more fully incorporated in wider management and economics literatures on sustainability, while calling for the mainstreaming of the subject in the discipline of business history.

  • 6.
    Bergquist, Ann-Kristin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Claes Bernes & Lars J. Lundgren, Bruk och missbruk av naturens resurser, anm. av Ann-Kristin Bergquist2011In: Historisk Tidskrift (S), ISSN 0345-469X, no 3, p. 695-697Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Bergquist, Ann-Kristin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic history.
    Dilemmas of going green: environmental strategies in the Swedish mining company Boliden, 1960-20002017In: Green capitalism?: business and the environment in the twentieth century / [ed] Hartmut Berghoff and Adam Rome, Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2017, p. 149-171Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Bergquist, Ann-Kristin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Guld och gröna skogar?: miljöanpassningen av Rönnskärsverken 1960-20002007Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this thesis is to reach further understanding of the development of environmental adaptation in Swedish heavy industry by studying the case of the Rönnskär Smelter 1960-2000. More specifically, the aim of the thesis is to investigate the interplay between firm level environmental adaptation and national environmental politics and economic development. To fulfil this aim, the following questions are asked: How have company activities such as production processes, organisation and company strategies been developed and adopted in order to meet environmental demands with maintained competitiveness? How have company activities been framed by environmental policies and the specific environmental regulations, relevant for this case? What other factors, beside environmental regulations, have driven and framed the environmental adaptation process of the firm?

    The study concludes that a long-range competitive environmental adaptation was reached by a combination of investments in environmental technology with an overall rationalisation and modernisation of the enterprise. The study suggests that the environmental adaptation process of the Rönnskär Smelter became part of an overall process of industrial modernisation during the period, which reflects a wider context than the environmental issue itself. It mirrors technological development on other fields than the environment, and an increasing competition on a global scale that called for lower unit costs of production. This led to a modernisation for pollution reduction strategy that enabled the firm to increase production but still cutting its pollution levels considerably over time. The result is partly consistent with the Porter hypothesis that suggests that strict environmental regulation can strengthen firms’ and nations’ competitiveness. Time series data shows that emissions from the Rönnskär factory have radically declined since the 1960s. For these changes, process technology has proven to be most important. Technological adjustments came about through a step-by-step adaptation. It is clear that internal solutions, developed by the companies’ own engineers were more important at an early stage, when the supply of external solutions was limited. The study also concludes that environmental regulation has strongly influenced the environmental adaptation at the Rönnskär Smelter. Of most importance is the Environmental Protection Act (EPA: Miljöskyddslagen) implemented in 1969. In the economic historian Nathan Rosenberg’s terminology, this study suggests that the EPA model of individual testing promoted long-term innovative and cost-effective technical solutions, because it was consistent with decentralised experimental activity and the specific conditions that characterise the dynamics of technological development. However, not much can be said before comparative studies within the Swedish system have been conducted, or perhaps most fruitful, between various national systems of environmental protection. This study also concludes that the environmental issue became of strategic dignity at the very beginning of the 1970s, mainly as a consequence of the implementation of the EPA. Even though environmental issues did not become important for market strategies until the 1990s, the environmental issue called already in the 1970s for adjustments that required financial and personnel resources that demanded priorities and strategic decisions at the highest level of the organisation. The study also concludes that even though the technological dimension has played the most decisive role for lowering emissions, the significance of organisation has increased over time. While the 1960s, and especially the 1970s, brought about substantial pollution reductions through new technology, organisational aspects became relatively more important when the costs of abatement were rising in the 1980s. Organisational co-ordination, division of local responsibilities and education of personnel became a supplement to technology to obtain further pollution reductions. The technician as the “environmental hero” of the firm was successively replaced by the organisational co-ordinator.

  • 9.
    Bergquist, Ann-Kristin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Managing industrial environmental protection: the Swedish case 1970-19802011In: Business history in Sweden: näringslivshistoria i Sverige / [ed] Mikael Lönnborg & Paulina Rytkönen, Vilnius: Gidlunds förlag, 2011, p. 453-456Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Bergquist, Ann-Kristin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Profits and Sustainability. A History of Green Entrepreneurship2017In: Business History, ISSN 0007-6791, E-ISSN 1743-7938Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Bergquist, Ann-Kristin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Unit of Economic History. 19720206-8982.
    Renewing Business History in the Era of the Anthropocene2019In: Business history review, ISSN 0007-6805, E-ISSN 2044-768X, Vol. 93, no 1, p. 3-24Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Bergquist, Ann-Kristin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Strålande forskningsutsikter?: en översikt om kärnavfallsfrågor inom samhällsvetenskaplig forskning2007Report (Other academic)
  • 13.
    Bergquist, Ann-Kristin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History. Umeå University.
    The Swedish nonferrous mining industry and the environmental issue: The case of Boliden business archives2017In: Entreprises et Histoire, ISSN 1161-2770, E-ISSN 2100-9864, Vol. 1, no 86, p. 157-159Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 14.
    Bergquist, Ann-Kristin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Arnberg, Klara
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Eriksson, Liselotte
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Ottosson, Jan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Business collaboration as a prerequisite for learning and innovation?: A study of structural fund projects2009In: Learning through ongoing evaluation / [ed] Svensson, Lennart et.al., Lund: Studentlitteratur , 2009, 1, p. 217-230Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 15.
    Bergquist, Ann-Kristin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Arnberg, Klara
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Eriksson, Liselotte
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Ottosson, Jan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Näringslivssamverkan som förutsättning för lärande och innovation? En studie av strukturfondsprojekt2009In: Lärande utvärdering genom följeforskning / [ed] Svensson, Lennart et al, Lund: Studentlitteratur , 2009, 1:1, p. 209-221Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 16.
    Bergquist, Ann-Kristin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Cole, Shawn A.
    Ehrenfeld, John
    King, Andrew A.
    Schendler, Auden
    Understanding and Overcoming Roadblocks to Environmental Sustainability: Past Roads and Future Prospects2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This working paper examines key barriers to business sustainability discussed at a multidisciplinary conference held at the Harvard Business School in 2018. Drawing on perspectives from both the historical and business literatures, speakers debated the historical success and future opportunities for voluntary business actions to advance sustainability. Roadblocks include misaligned incentives, missing institutions, inertia of economic systems, and the concept of sustainability itself. It appears that overcoming these roadblocks will require systematic interventions and alternative normative concepts.

  • 17.
    Bergquist, Ann-Kristin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Unit of Economic History. 19720206-8982.
    Cole, Shawn A
    Ehrenfeld, John
    King, Andrew A
    Schendler, Auden
    Understanding and Overcoming Roadblocks to Environmental Sustainability: Past Roads and Future Prospects2019In: Business history review, ISSN 0007-6805, E-ISSN 2044-768X, Vol. 93, no 1, p. 127-148Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article examines key barriers to business sustainability discussed at a multidisciplinary conference held at the Harvard Business School in 2018. Drawing on perspectives from both the historical and business literatures, speakers debated the historical success of and future opportunities for voluntary business actions to advance sustainability. Roadblocks include misaligned incentives, missing institutions, inertia of economic systems, and the concept of sustainability itself. Overcoming these roadblocks will require systematic interventions and alternative normative concepts.

  • 18.
    Bergquist, Ann-Kristin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History. Harvard Business School.
    Eriksson, Liselotte
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Sober business: shared value creation between the insurance industry and the temperance movement2019In: Business History, ISSN 0007-6791, E-ISSN 1743-7938, Vol. 61, no 2, p. 322-342Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines how the Swedish insurance company Ansvar established and expended an international business from the 1930s to the 1990s with the motives to insure total abstainers while battling against alcohol abuse in society. Anvar represented a for-profit business that aimed at addressing social issues. The case provides a historical example of how shared value was created between the company and the temperance movement for the joint goal of improving society through temperance. The article argues that the company’s decline was due to changing values, where alcohol was no longer seen as a threat to society.

  • 19.
    Bergquist, Ann-Kristin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Keskitalo, E. Carina H.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Regulation versus deregulation: Policy divergence between Swedish forestry and the Swedish pulp and paper industry after the 1990s2016In: Forest Policy and Economics, ISSN 1389-9341, E-ISSN 1872-7050, Vol. 73, p. 10-17Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article reviews the divergence of environmental regulatory arrangements in the Swedish forestry sector in relation to the closely-linked Swedish pulp and paper industry. The study finds that while the Swedish forestry sector was deregulated in 1993, with decreased state intervention in forest management, the pulp and paper sector has remained controlled by strong national mandatory requirements which have been further strengthened by European Union Directives after the 1990s. We suggest that one reason for the persistent, strict mandatory regulation of the pulp and paper sector is that conflicting goals between environmental protection and production growth have been aligned through technological change, while such a strong alignment of conflicting interests has not been possible to achieve in the forestry sector. Thus, policy divergence between the forestry and the pulp and paper industries may be explained by the success of established regulatory paths in the case of the pulp and paper industry, while in forestry deregulation has instead been used to, at least formally, increase focus on protection of the environment while maintaining a high level of productivity. Further studies in other sectors and countrieswill be necessary to clarify the specific role of, for example, discourses of deregulation and concepts of competitive advantage concerning e.g. particular actor's roles in specific elements of regulative change.

  • 20.
    Bergquist, Ann-Kristin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Satsa på radikal teknikförändring – inte på biobränslen!2007In: Bioenergi: till vad och hur mycket? / [ed] Birgitta Johansson, Forskningsrådet Formas, 2007Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 21.
    Bergquist, Ann-Kristin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Sustainability and Shared Value in the Interwar Swedish Copper Industry2016In: Business history review, ISSN 0007-6805, E-ISSN 2044-768X, Vol. 90, no 2, p. 197-225Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study of the Swedish-based mining company Boliden examines the proactive strategies it adopted to deal with the potential for severe environmental problems associated with the establishment of its large copper smelter in the 1920s. The article demonstrates how international networks, personal experience, and knowledge transfer from the U.S. copper industry help to explain the importance given to environmental issues by the Swedish industrialists. It is suggested that the main explanation for the proactive stance of the Swedish managers is that they perceived excessive pollution as working against creating a profitable and sustainable business. This case provides compelling evidence that firms pursuing an agenda focused on earning profits can still deliver environmental innovation and value to the local community, compatible with the concept of creating shared value.

  • 22.
    Bergquist, Ann-Kristin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Marklund, Per-Olov
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Erfarenheter av styrmedel på miljöområdet: en forskningsöversikt2011Report (Refereed)
  • 23.
    Bergquist, Ann-Kristin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Sabo, Josefin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Söderholm, Kristina
    LTU.
    Energiomställning och teknisk omvandling i svensk massa- och pappersindustri 1970-19902014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This research report examines the driving forces and strategies in the Swedish pulp and paper industry to phase-out of oil and accomplishing energy savings in the 1970s - and '80s. The purpose of this report is to provide an overview of development and contribute to a further understanding of the knowledge building that took shape in the Swedish pulp and paper industry on the energy area in the awake of the oil crises. During the investigated period, the use of fossil fuels dropped with more than 70 per cent, and this was mainly achieved by substituting oil by internal biofuels. This transition started as response to the first oil crisis in 1973, but was further reinforced by the energy policy, which expanded from the mid 1970s and onwards. The replacement of oil was achieved trough short-term measures to improve the energy efficiency and to increase the use of biofuels, while the use of external electricity played a minor role. It was soon recognized that also long-term investments in R&D was needed. Collaborations between companies through trade associations and committees came to be a characteristic strategy employed by the industry to advance knowledge and new technology on the energy area. This report demonstrates the central role that the changing prices of oil had on the pulp and paper industry to explore the possibilities of a more efficient use of internal biofuels, which previously not had been utilised. In this sense, the oil crisis forced the industry sector into a more sustainable path. It also demonstrates the central role that the government played, and can play, to support and enhance the development of new technological development paths. As for the oil crises, a big part of the energy policy objectives i.e. to phase out oil from the Swedish energy system, coincided with the industry’s needs to lower the costs and risks from being dependent on oil. 

  • 24.
    Bergquist, Ann-Kristin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Söderholm, Kristina
    Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Green innovation systems in Swedish industry: 1960-19892011In: Business history review, ISSN 0007-6805, E-ISSN 2044-768X, Business History Review, Vol. 85, no 4, p. 677-698Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Organizational networks had a strong influence on the diffusion of green knowledge within the Swedish pulp-and-paper industry from the mid-1960s to the 1980s. The environmental adaptations made by this industrial sector were not merely the result of a corporate initiative or of the response by firms or industries to environmental regulation. An examination of the innovation-system approach that was used to further the industry's environmental goals reveals that the knowledge and technology development underpinning the project depended on a network of diverse actors. Within this network, the semi-governmental Institute for Water and Air Protection, working with a consulting company, was a critical generator and intermediary of knowledge. Thus, the success of the project was largely due to the Institute's balanced relations with government and industry.

  • 25.
    Bergquist, Ann-Kristin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Söderholm, Kristina
    Luleå Tekniska Universitet.
    Industry Strategies for Energy Transition in the Wake of the Oil Crisis2014In: Business and Economic History On-Line, ISSN 0894-6825, E-ISSN 1941-7349, Vol. 12, p. 1-18Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper employs the Swedish pulp and paper sector in the 1970s and 1980s as a case study to explore industry strategies for accomplishing energy transition in the wake of the 1973 oil crisis. Over this period, the use of fossil fuels was reduced by 70 percent within the sector. The lion’s share of the reduction was achieved by the substitution of biofuels for oil. Besides cutting the cost of energy production, this substitution also resulted in significant environmental improvements. Substituting biofuels for oil proved to be the most reasonable way to decrease the use of oil, even though alternatives such as coal were considered. Initially, reductions in oil consumption and improvements in energy conservation were accomplished by relatively small measures, but there was a great need for long-term R&D to push technology development further. Inter-firm and state-firm collaborations therefore became strategically important. The strategies for substitution further interacted strongly with institutional changes in the energy policy field, the ongoing “greening” of the industry, as well as an urgent need to enhance international competitiveness. Our study concludes that the oil crises enforced more sustainable production in a dynamic way, where government strategies to support and push technology development further played a central role.

  • 26.
    Bergquist, Ann-Kristin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Söderholm, Kristina
    Institutionen för Industriell ekonomi och samhällsvetenskap, Enheten för Teknikhistoria, Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Miljöforskning i statens och industrins tjänst: Institutet för Vatten och Luftvårdsfrågor (IVL) 1960-tal till 1980-tal 2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In 1966, the Institute of Water and Air Protection (IVL) was established and became the first institute in Sweden focusing on industrial environmental problems. At the same time the business company IVL AB was founded. Due to the collaborative form of organisation – including representation of all core industries and the environmental authorities – the IVL organisation came to represent a unique set up, even seen from an international perspective.

    In this paper we explore the driving forces behind the formation of IVL and IVL AB and their contribution to the environmental adaptation of the manufacturing Swedish industry during the 1960s to 1980s. We specifically focus on the direction of its research activities and the flow knowledge between IVL and its interested partners. By doing so we seek to further understand its role and function within the Swedish environmental protections system in general as well as its role for environmental adaptation of the industry more specifically. 

    We find that IVL formed an important basis for knowledge generation and diffusion within the Swedish environmental protection system, foremost during the 1960s and the 1970s.  It was essentially through applied research on the environmental effects of emissions that IVL supported the process of environmental adaptation of industry. Besides this, IVL was also involved in developing technical measures aiming for lowering the hazardous emissions. The assignments of the business company, IVL AB, were mostly focused on mapping the emissions from industrial plants, i.e. identifying discharges and their effects in the recipients. In this regard, the development works of IVL on the standardisation of methods of analysis and measurement instruments constituted important prerequisites.

    The knowledge mobilized within IVL and IVL AB was also of importance to the environmental authorities. Generated information concerning levels and effects of discharges formed partly the basis for the so called individual emission permits that was granted by the authorities to polluting plants, with start in 1969. Adequate knowledge can in this regard be seen as a surety for giving correct priorities, i.e. to direct resources towards those problems that were most urgent.

    Besides knowledge on pollution matters related to the manufacturing industry, IVL did obtain a role as national expert organisation. To a certain degree, IVL was also acknowledged abroad, and established a unique competence on effects of oil spill and mercury. IVL were for instance employed by international organisations, such as WHO and UNESCO in the 1970s.

    We find that the role and the form of IVL and IVLAB changed in the beginning of the 1980s. IVLAB was sold to the competing company ÅF and the research institute IVL was converted from a foundation into a company. We believe that these organizational changes reflected shifts within the pallet of environmental problems facing industry and the society in large, which in turn had effects on the functions of IVL and IVLAB. Much of the rough mapping- and clean-up work had been completed while also previous services by IVL and IVLAB increasingly were handled by the companies themselves.

  • 27.
    Bergquist, Ann-Kristin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Söderholm, Kristina
    IES/Unit for History of technology, Luleå tekniska universitet.
    R&D collaboration and environmental adaptation: A pilot study of the Swedish pulp- and paper industry 1900-19902010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper deals with the importance of inter-firm and state-firm cooperation for environmental adaptation in the Swedish pulp and paper industry during the period 1900-1990. By sharing similar pollution problems, the industry pooled resources to collective R&D activities and could thereby share cost and the economic risks related to environmental adaptation. We conclude that the environmental issue has been a strong driver for industrial renewing in the Swedish pulp and paper industry since the 1960s. The long tradition of collective environmental R&D activities, which stared already at the beginning of the 20th century, facilitated the development and adaptation of cleaner technologies in the sector from the 1960s and onwards. Our findings suggest that environmental policies that support collaborative R&D activities might facilitate innovation processes of cleaner technologies and the speed of their diffusion.

  • 28.
    Bergquist, Ann-Kristin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Söderholm, Kristina
    Svenska skogsindustrins samarbete i miljöfrågan: en framgångssaga?2012In: Nordisk pappershistorisk tidskrift, ISSN 1101-2056, no 4, p. 3-6Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 29.
    Bergquist, Ann-Kristin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Söderholm, Kristina
    Transition to greener pulp: regulation, industry responses and path dependency2015In: Business History, ISSN 0007-6791, E-ISSN 1743-7938, Vol. 57, no 6, p. 862-884Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although the dioxin alarm broke at the same time in Sweden and the US in the mid-1980s, Swedish pulp and paper (P&P) firms led the way towards the new market for low-chlorine and chlorine-free P&P products. This study explores the transition in the Swedish P&P industry and contrasts the Swedish case to the US experience. We highlight the importance of already established technological paths to deal with pollution, paths which were strongly formed by the different national environmental policies since the 1970s. Thus while US P&P firms were technologically locked-in when the dioxin alarm broke, the strategy of Swedish P&P firms to proactively collaborate in environmental research and development (R&D) together with a national policy that favoured process integrated abatement technology, helped Swedish firms take technological leadership. This article particularly stresses the implications of technological path-dependency and different national regulatory styles in understanding the evolution of different modes of corporate environmental strategies.

  • 30.
    Bergquist, Ann-Kristin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Söderholm, Kristina
    Luleå Tekniska Universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle.
    Transition towards renewable energy: Co-ordination and technological strategies in the Swedish pulp and paper industry 1973-19902015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines the transition towards renewable energy in the Swedish pulp and paper industry (PPI) during the 1970s and -80s. In the wake of the first Oil Crisis until the late 1980s, the use of fossil fuels was reduced by 70 percent in this sector. The lion’s share of the reduction was achieved by substituting oil by biofuels in terms of rest products from the pulp manufacturing process. The reduction was made possible also by efficiency improvements and increased internal production of electricity through back-pressure turbine power generation. Sweden was highly dependent on oil when the first Oil Crisis broke, and the run up in oil prices put pressure on the Swedish government and the energy intensive PPI to reduce dependency. Of central importance for the transition to be implemented was a highly collaborative strategy of the sector as well as between the sector and the corporatist Swedish state administration. The Swedish government chose a proactive strategy by emphasizing knowledge management and collaboration with industry along with the substitution of oil with biofuels. The transition was further fueled by the fact that focus was directed towards unutilized potentials in the sector, where a previous waste problem now could be transformed into energy savings, i.e., the strong version of the Porter hypothesis. Also energy taxes and fees played a major role as control agents in the Swedish energy policy of the 1970s and 80s. Thus, the study illustrates the central role of governments and their ability to push industries into new technological paths through a wide palette of interplaying policy instruments. The study further points at the importance of a more holistic understanding of the interplay between different policies and impacts in the longer run.

  • 31.
    Bergquist, Ann-Kristin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic history.
    Söderholm, Kristina
    Kinneryd, Hanna
    Lindmark, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic history.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Command-and-control revisited: environmental compliance and technological change in Swedish industry 1970–19902013In: Ecological Economics, ISSN 0921-8009, E-ISSN 1873-6106, Vol. 85, p. 6-19Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper addresses the issue of environmental policy instrument choice for achieving deep emission reductions in the industrial sector. Specifically, it provides: (a) a theoretical and empirical review of the conditions under which performance standards can provide efficient incentives for deep emission reductions and technology adoption; and (b) an analysis of the design and the outcomes of the standards-based regulation of industrial pollutants in Sweden during the period 1970–1990. Our empirical findings suggest that the Swedish regulatory approach comprised many key elements of an efficient policy-induced transition towards radically lower emissions in the metal smelting and pulp and paper industries. The regulation relied solely on performance standards, thus granting flexibility to firms in terms of selecting the appropriate compliance measures. These standards were implemented in combination with extended compliance periods. R&D projects and the new knowledge that was advanced incrementally in interaction between the company, the environmental authorities and research institutions provided a direct catalyst to the regulatory process. In these ways the Swedish regulatory approach provided scope for creative solutions, environmental innovation, and permitted the affected companies to coordinate pollution abatement measures with productive investments.

  • 32.
    Berguist, Ann-Kristin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Arnberg, Klara
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Eriksson, Liselotte
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Ottosson, Jan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Lärande i fokus? Näringslivssamverkan och kunskapsspridning i initieringsfasen av strukturfondsprojekt2008Report (Other academic)
  • 33. Ducoing, Cristián
    et al.
    Peres-Cajias, José
    Badia-Miró, Marc
    Bergquist, Ann-Kristin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Contreras, Carlos
    Ranestad, Kristin
    Torregrosa, Sara
    Natural Resources Curse in the Long Run? Boliva, Chile and Peru in the Nordic Countries´Mirror2018In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 10, no 4, article id 965Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The new estimates of the Maddison Project show that GDP per capita ratio at purchasing power parity (ppp) between Bolivia and Finland has changed from 0.68 ca. 1850 to 0.16 in 2015; similarly, that between Chile and Norway from 0.65 to 0.28. The aim of this article is to present a review of the literature and available quantitative evidence to understand how these extreme differences became possible between countries with similarly enormous natural resource endowments. Specifically, the article seeks to: (a) identify some stylized facts that may help understand the divergence between Andean and Nordic countries; (b) identify key historical processes that explain the divergent effect of natural resource abundance in Andean and Nordic economies. In order to achieve these objectives, four topics are covered: GDPpc, population, trade and taxation. The analysis comprises three Nordic countries (Finland, Norway and Sweden) and three Andean countries (Bolivia, Chile and Peru) from the mid-Nineteenth Century to present day. The sample size, time span covered and thematic approach provide new evidence regarding previous work.

  • 34.
    Levin, Mikael
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Andersson, Lars-Fredrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Bergquist, Ann-Kristin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Determinants of energy consumption: the Swedish residential sector 1920-2010Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Household energy consumption is an important aspect of mitigating climate change and the overall use of energy on a global scale. Energy consumed by households, excluding transportation uses, accounted for about 14% of delivered world energy consumption in 2008. In this paper, we examine the development of energy consumption in the Swedish residential sector during the period 1920 to 2010. We show that the growing residential building stock has contributed to higher energy consumption per household over time. Since the 1970s, however, higher real energy prices have put pressure on households to reduce their energy consumption. We find that a combination of higher market prices and taxes on energy contributed to the reduction of energy per household, causing a 10% reduction in aggregated final energy consumption.

  • 35.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Economic History. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Economic History.
    Bergquist, Ann-Kristin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Economic History. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Economic History.
    Expansion for pollution reduction? Environmental adaption of a Swedish and a Canadian metal smelter, 1960-20052008In: Business History, ISSN 0007-6791, Vol. 50, no 4, p. 530-546Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We examine the historical developments of the environmental adaptation process at one Swedish metal smelting firm, contrasting the result with cases in Canada. The findings suggest that the Swedish system in excluding stakeholders, focusing on plant emissions and stipulating pollution reduction at economically feasible costs mitigated risk which resulted in long-term contracts in a cooperative framework in which engineers were given a high degree of discretion. This enabled an 'expansion-for-emission-reduction' strategy which is consistent with the so-called Porter and van der Linde hypothesis. Moreover, the findings suggest that environmental management systems should be considered in the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) research.

  • 36.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Bergquist, Ann-Kristin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Andersson, Lars Fredrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Technical change, carbon dioxide reduction and energyconsumption in the Swedish pulp and paper industry 1973-20062010Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines the historical relation between carbon dioxide emission and output growth in the Swedish pulp and paperindustry 1973-2006. We find that the industry achieved an 80 per cent reduction in CO2 emission. Foremost energy substitution but also efficiently improvement contributed to the reduction. Growing prices of fossil fuel due to market price change and taxes and subvention, explains most of the efficiency improvements and substitution. Taxes on energy explain 40 per cent of the total reduction in CO2 active climate policy in 1991. Co2 intensity. Most of the reduction took place before the implementation of

  • 37.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Bergquist, Ann-Kristin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Andersson, Lars-Fredrik
    Energy transition, carbon dioxide reduction and output growth in the Swedish pulp and paper industry: 1973-20062011In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 39, no 9, p. 5449-5456Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines the historical relation between carbon dioxide emission and output growth in the Swedish pulp and paper industry from 1973 to 2006. We find that the industry achieved an 80 percent reduction in carbon dioxide emission, where most of the reduction took place before the implementation of active climate policy in 1991. Foremost energy substitution and also efficiency improvements contributed to the reduction. Growing prices of fossil fuel due to market price change and taxes and subsidies, explains most of the efficiency improvements and substitution. The study finds that energy transformation was coinciding with ongoing structural change in the industry during the 1970s and 1980s as well as a strong period of environmental adaption. We therefore suggest that the oil reduction was reinforced through the dynamics between the energy issue and an overall renewing process of the industry. This suggests a need to coordinate climate and environmental policy measures with the long-term industrial dynamics of structural change. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 38. Söderholm, Kristina
    et al.
    Bergquist, Ann-Kristin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Firm-collaboration and environmental adaptation.: the case of the Swedish pulp- and paper industry 1900-19902012In: Scandinavian Economic History Review, ISSN 0358-5522, E-ISSN 1750-2837, Vol. 2, no 60, p. 183-211Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article addresses the importance of research and development (R&D) collaboration for environmental adaptation in the Swedish pulp and paper industry. It reviews the collaborative efforts initiated during the first half of the twentieth century, and investigates in particular how these efforts were influenced by the advent of modern environmental legislation in the late 1960s. We find that during the early period the underlying motives for environmental R&D collaboration were related to the presence of local resistance to pollution, over time turning into increased requirements from tightening environmental regulation. When the Swedish Environmental Protection Act was implemented in 1969, the long-lasting tradition of collaborative R&D activities facilitated the development and the adaptation of cleaner technologies in the sector. The article concludes that in the case of the Swedish pulp and paper industry, the significant environmental improvements witnessed during the 1960s and onwards can only be fully comprehended by acknowledging the role of the industry-wide collaborative activities in R&D. The positive outcomes of this collaboration were in turn reinforced by an environmental regulation system, which facilitated long-term investments in environmental R&D and, in contrast to their Finnish and American counterparts, encouraged internal process changes in the industry.

  • 39.
    Söderholm, Kristina
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Bergquist, Ann-Kristin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic history.
    Growing green and competitive: a case study of a Swedish pulp mill2013In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 5, no 5, p. 1789-1805Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The experiences of past efforts of industrial pollution control while maintaining competitiveness should be of great value to research and policy practice addressing sustainability issues today. In this article, we analyze the environmental adaptation of the Swedish pulp industry during the period 1970–1990 as illustrated by the sulfite pulp producer Domsjö mill. We investigate how this company managed to adapt to heavy transformation pressure from increasing international competition in combination with strict national environmental regulations during the 1960s to the early 1990s. In line with the so-called Porter hypothesis, the company was able to coordinate the problems that were environmental in nature with activities aiming at production efficiency goals and the development of new products. Swedish environmental agencies and legislation facilitated this ―win-win‖ situation by a flexible but still challenging regulatory approach towards the company. From the early 1990s and onwards, the greening of the pulp industry was also a result of increased market pressure for green paper products. 

  • 40. Söderholm, Kristina
    et al.
    Bergquist, Ann-Kristin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    The transition to chlorine free pulp revisited: Nordic heterogeneity in environmental regulation and R&D collaboration2017In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 165, p. 1328-1339Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze the development paths leading to the transition to cleaner bleaching technologies in the pulp industry. It devotes particular attention to the key features of the Swedish transition, but also compares this to the Finnish experiences. The empirical investigation builds on an analytical framework highlighting the conditions under which pollution regulations can provide efficient incentives for deep emission reductions at industrial plants. Existing and new archive material, including not least comprehensive license trial acts for Swedish pulp mills over an extended time period, are studied. Based on this historical analysis our findings contradict previous literature, the latter emphasizing that pressures from consumers and the public were the most significant driving forces behind the adoption ofeand innovation inealternative bleaching technologies during the late 1980s. Instead, this paper asserts, the green pulp transition was characterized by regulation-induced technological change and was made possible by long history of industry-wide cooperation in environmental R&D. Furthermore, while previous research has emphasized the leading role of the Nordic countries in green pulp innovation, we identify a number of profound differences between Finland and Sweden. These emerge from various national contexts in terms of, for instance, industry structures and strategies, political cultures, and regulatory styles. Finally, at a more general level the paper provides a few policy implications for supporting the ongoing transition towards a forest-based bioeconomy.

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