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  • 1.
    Bystrom, Julia Wigren
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Infectious Diseases.
    Näslund, Jonas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, European CBRNE Center.
    Trulsson, Fredrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, European CBRNE Center. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Infectious Diseases.
    Evander, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Virology.
    Wesula Lwande, Olivia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Virology.
    Ahlm, Clas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Infectious Diseases.
    Bucht, Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, European CBRNE Center.
    Quantification and kinetics of viral RNA transcripts produced in Orthohantavirus infected cells2018In: Virology Journal, ISSN 1743-422X, E-ISSN 1743-422X, Vol. 15, p. 1-7, article id 18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Rodent borne viruses of the Orthohantavirus genus cause hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome among people in Eurasia, and hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome in the Americas. At present, there are no specific treatments or efficient vaccines against these diseases. Improved understanding of viral transcription and replication may instigate targeted treatment of Orthohantavirus infections. For this purpose, we investigated the kinetics and levels of viral RNA transcription during an ongoing infection in-vitro. Methods: Vero E6 cells were infected with Puumala Orthohantavirus (strain Kazan) before cells and supernatants were collected at different time points post infection for the detection of viral RNAs. A plasmid containing primer binding sites of the three Orthohantavirus segments small (S), medium (M) and large (L) was constructed and standard curves were generated to calculate the copy numbers of the individual transcripts in the collected samples. Results: Our results indicated a rapid increase in the copy number of viral RNAs after 9 h post infection. At peak days, 2-6 days after infection, the S- and M-segment transcripts became thousand and hundred-fold more abundant than the copy number of the L-segment RNA, respectively. The presence of viral RNA in the cell culture media was detected at later time-points. Conclusions: We have developed a method to follow RNA transcription in-vitro after synchronous infection of Vero cells. The obtained results may contribute to the understanding of the viral replication, and may have implications in the development of antiviral drugs targeting transcription or replication of negative stranded RNA viruses.

  • 2.
    Evander, Magnus
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Virology.
    Putkuri, Niina
    Eliasson, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Lwande, Olivia Wesula
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Virology.
    Vapalahti, Olli
    Ahlm, Clas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Infectious Diseases.
    Seroprevalence and Risk Factors of Inkoo Virus in Northern Sweden2016In: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, ISSN 0002-9637, E-ISSN 1476-1645, Vol. 94, no 5, p. 1103-1106Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The mosquito-borne Inkoo virus (INKV) is a member of the California serogroup in the family Bunyaviridae, genus Orthobunyavirus These viruses are associated with fever and encephalitis, although INKV infections are not usually reported and the incidence is largely unknown. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of anti-INKV antibodies and associated risk factors in humans living in northern Sweden. Seroprevalence was investigated using the World Health Organization Monitoring of Trends and Determinants in Cardiovascular Disease study, where a randomly selected population aged between 25 and 74 years (N = 1,607) was invited to participate. The presence of anti-INKV IgG antibodies was determined by immunofluorescence assay. Seropositivity for anti-INKV was significantly higher in men (46.9%) than in women (34.8%; P < 0.001). In women, but not in men, the prevalence increased somewhat with age (P = 0.06). The peak in seropositivity was 45-54 years for men and 55-64 years for women. Living in rural areas was associated with a higher seroprevalence. In conclusion, the prevalence of anti-INKV antibodies was high in northern Sweden and was associated with male sex, older age, and rural living. The age distribution indicates exposure to INKV at a relatively early age. These findings will be important for future epidemiological and clinical investigations of this relatively unknown mosquito-borne virus.

  • 3.
    Lwande, Olivia Wesula
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Virology.
    Bucht, Goran
    Ahlm, Clas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Infectious Diseases.
    Ahlm, Kristoffer
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Infectious Diseases.
    Naslund, Jonas
    Evander, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Virology.
    Mosquito-borne Inkoo virus in northern Sweden - isolation and whole genome sequencing2017In: Virology Journal, ISSN 1743-422X, E-ISSN 1743-422X, Vol. 14, article id 61Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Inkoo virus (INKV) is a less known mosquito-borne virus belonging to Bunyaviridae, genus Orthobunyavirus, California serogroup. Studies indicate that INKV infection is mainly asymptomatic, but can cause mild encephalitis in humans. In northern Europe, the sero-prevalence against INKV is high, 41% in Sweden and 51% in Finland. Previously, INKV RNA has been detected in adult Aedes (Ae.) communis, Ae. hexodontus and Ae. punctor mosquitoes and Ae. communis larvae, but there are still gaps of knowledge regarding mosquito vectors and genetic diversity. Therefore, we aimed to determine the occurrence of INKV in its mosquito vector and characterize the isolates.

    Methods: About 125,000 mosquitoes were collected during a mosquito-borne virus surveillance in northern Sweden during the summer period of 2015. Of these, 10,000 mosquitoes were processed for virus isolation and detection using cell culture and RT-PCR. Virus isolates were further characterized by whole genome sequencing. Genetic typing of mosquito species was conducted by cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) gene amplification and sequencing (genetic barcoding).

    Results: Several Ae. communis mosquitoes were found positive for INKV RNA and two isolates were obtained. The first complete sequences of the small (S), medium (M), and large (L) segments of INKV in Sweden were obtained. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the INKV genome was most closely related to other INKV isolates from Sweden and Finland. Of the three INKV genome segments, the INKV M segment had the highest frequency of non-synonymous mutations. The overall G/C-content of INKV genes was low for the N/NSs genes (43.8–45.5%), polyprotein (Gn/Gc/NSm) gene (35.6%) and the RNA polymerase gene (33.8%) This may be due to the fact that INKV in most instances utilized A or T in the third codon position.

    Conclusions: INKV is frequently circulating in northern Sweden and Ae. communis is the key vector. The high mutation rate of the INKV M segment may have consequences on virulence

  • 4.
    Lwande, Olivia Wesula
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Section of Virology. Umeå University, Arctic Research Centre at Umeå University.
    Näslund, Jonas
    Lundmark, Eva
    Ahlm, Kristoffer
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Infectious Diseases.
    Ahlm, Clas
    Umeå University, Arctic Research Centre at Umeå University. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Infectious Diseases.
    Bucht, Göran
    Evander, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Section of Virology. Umeå University, Arctic Research Centre at Umeå University.
    Experimental Infection and Transmission Competence of Sindbis Virus in Culex torrentium and Culex pipiens Mosquitoes from Northern Sweden2019In: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases, ISSN 1530-3667, E-ISSN 1557-7759, Vol. 19, no 2, p. 128-133Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Sindbis virus (SINV) is a mosquito-borne Alphavirus known to infect birds and cause intermittent outbreaks among humans in Fenno-Scandia. In Sweden, the endemic area has mainly been in central Sweden. Recently, SINV infections have emerged to northern Sweden, but the vectorial efficiency for SINV of mosquito species in this northern region has not yet been ascertained.

    Objective: Mosquito larvae were sampled from the Umea region in northern Sweden and propagated in a laboratory to adult stage to investigate the infection, dissemination, and transmission efficiency of SINV in mosquitoes.

    Materials and Methods: The mosquito species were identified by DNA barcoding of the cytochrome oxidase I gene. Culex torrentium was the most abundant (82.2%) followed by Culex pipiens (14.4%), Aedes annulipes (1.1%), Anopheles claviger (1.1%), Culiseta bergrothi (1.1%), or other unidentified species (1.1%). Mosquitoes were fed with SINV-infected blood and monitored for 29 days to determine the viral extrinsic incubation period. Infection and dissemination were determined by RT-qPCR screening of dissected body parts of individual mosquitoes. Viral transmission was determined from saliva collected from individual mosquitoes at 7, 14, and 29 days. SINV was detected by cell culture using BHK-21 cells, RT-qPCR, and sequencing.

    Results: Cx. torrentium was the only mosquito species in our study that was able to transmit SINV. The overall transmission efficiency of SINV in Cx. torrentium was 6.8%. The rates of SINV infection, dissemination, and transmission in Cx. torrentium were 11%, 75%, and 83%, respectively.

    Conclusions: Cx. torrentium may be the key vector involved in SINV transmission in northern Sweden.

  • 5.
    Lwande, Olivia Wesula
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Virology.
    Obanda, Vincent
    Bucht, Göran
    Mosomtai, Gladys
    Otieno, Viola
    Ahlm, Clas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Infectious Diseases.
    Evander, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Virology.
    Global emergence of Alphaviruses that cause arthritis in humans2015In: Infection Ecology & Epidemiology, ISSN 2000-8686, E-ISSN 2000-8686, Vol. 5, article id 29853Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) may cause severe emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases, which pose a significant threat to human and animal health in the world today. These infectious diseases range from mild febrile illnesses, arthritis, and encephalitis to haemorrhagic fevers. It is postulated that certain environmental factors, vector competence, and host susceptibility have a major impact on the ecology of arboviral diseases. Presently, there is a great interest in the emergence of Alphaviruses because these viruses, including Chikungunya virus, O'nyong'nyong virus, Sindbis virus, Ross River virus, and Mayaro virus, have caused outbreaks in Africa, Asia, Australia, Europe, and America. Some of these viruses are more common in the tropics, whereas others are also found in temperate regions, but the actual factors driving Alphavirus emergence and re-emergence remain unresolved. Furthermore, little is known about the transmission dynamics, pathophysiology, genetic diversity, and evolution of circulating viral strains. In addition, the clinical presentation of Alphaviruses may be similar to other diseases such as dengue, malaria, and typhoid, hence leading to misdiagnosis. However, the typical presence of arthritis may distinguish between Alphaviruses and other differential diagnoses. The absence of validated diagnostic kits for Alphaviruses makes even routine surveillance less feasible. For that purpose, this review describes the occurrence, genetic diversity, clinical characteristics, and the mechanisms involving Alphaviruses causing arthritis in humans. This information may serve as a basis for better awareness and detection of Alphavirus-caused diseases during outbreaks and in establishing appropriate prevention and control measures.

  • 6.
    Lwande, Olivia Wesula
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Section of Virology. Umeå University, Arctic Research Centre at Umeå University.
    Obanda, Vincent
    Lindstrom, Anders
    Ahlm, Clas
    Umeå University, Arctic Research Centre at Umeå University. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology.
    Evander, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Section of Virology. Umeå University, Arctic Research Centre at Umeå University.
    Näslund, Jonas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, European CBRNE Center.
    Bucht, Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, European CBRNE Center.
    Globe-Trotting Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus: Risk Factors for Arbovirus Pandemics2019In: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases, ISSN 1530-3667, E-ISSN 1557-7759, article id CTANDER P, 1995, PROCEEDINGS OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY B-BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES, V262, P13 ntenille D, 1997, TRANSACTIONS OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY OF TROPICAL MEDICINE AND HYGIENE, V91Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Two species of Aedes (Ae.) mosquitoes (Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus) are primary vectors for emerging arboviruses that are a significant threat to public health and economic burden worldwide. Distribution of these vectors and the associated arboviruses, such as dengue virus, chikungunya virus, yellow fever virus, and Zika virus, was for a long time restricted by geographical, ecological, and biological factors. Presently, arbovirus emergence and dispersion are more rapid and geographically widespread, largely due to expansion of the range for these two mosquitoes that have exploited the global transportation network, land perturbation, and failure to contain the mosquito population coupled with enhanced vector competence. Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus may also sustain transmission between humans without having to depend on their natural reservoir forest cycles due to arthropod adaptation to urbanization. Currently, there is no single strategy that is adequate to control these vectors, especially when managing arbovirus outbreaks. Objective: This review aimed at presenting the characteristics and abilities of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus, which can drive a global public health risk, and suggests strategies for prevention and control. Methods: This review presents the geographic range, reproduction and ecology, vector competence, genetic evolution, and biological and chemical control of these two mosquito species and how they have changed and developed over time combined with factors that may drive pandemics and mitigation measures. Conclusion: We suggest that more efforts should be geared toward the development of a concerted multidisciplinary approach.

  • 7.
    Lwande, Olivia Wesula
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Virology. Consortium for Epidemiology and Ecology (CEER-Africa), Minnesota, USA.
    Paul, George Omondi
    Chiyo, Patrick I.
    Ng'ang'a, Eliud
    Otieno, Viola
    Obanda, Vincent
    Evander, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Virology.
    Spatio-temporal variation in prevalence of Rift Valley fever: a post-epidemic serum survey in cattle and wildlife in Kenya2015In: Infection Ecology & Epidemiology, ISSN 2000-8686, E-ISSN 2000-8686, Vol. 5, article id 30106Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a fatal arthropod-borne zoonotic disease of livestock and humans. Since the identification of RVF in Kenya in the 1930s, repeated epizootics and epidemics coinciding with El Niño events have occurred in several locations in Africa and Saudi Arabia, causing mass deaths of livestock and humans. RVF is of great interest worldwide because of its negative effect on international livestock trade and its potential to spread globally. The latter is due to the increasing incidence of extreme climatic phenomena caused by global warming, as well as to the increase in global trade and international travel. How RVF is maintained and sustained between epidemics and epizootics is not clearly understood, but it has been speculated that wildlife reservoirs and trans-ovarian transmission in the vector may be important. Several studies have examined the role of wildlife and livestock in isolation or in a limited geographical location within the one country over a short time (usually less than a year). In this study, we examined the seroprevalence of anti-RVF antibodies in cattle and several wildlife species from several locations in Kenya over an inter-epidemic period spanning up to 7 years.

    METHODS: A serological survey of immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies to RVF using competitive ELISA was undertaken on 297 serum samples from different wildlife species at various locations in Kenya. The samples were collected between 2008 and 2015. Serum was also collected in 2014 from 177 cattle from Ol Pejeta Conservancy; 113 of the cattle were in close contact with wildlife and the other 64 were kept separate from buffalo and large game by an electric fence.

    RESULTS: The seroprevalence of RVF virus (RVFV) antibody was 11.6% in wildlife species during the study period. Cattle that could come in contact with wildlife and large game were all negative for RVFV. The seroprevalence was relatively high in elephants, rhinoceros, and buffalo, but there were no antibodies in zebras, baboons, vervet monkeys, or wildebeest.

    CONCLUSIONS: Diverse species in conservation areas are exposed to RVFV. RVFV exposure in buffalo may indicate distribution of the virus over wide geographical areas beyond known RVFV foci in Kenya. This finding calls for thorough studies on the epizootology of RVFV in specific wildlife species and locations.

  • 8. Mosomtai, Gladys
    et al.
    Evander, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Virology.
    Mundia, Charles
    Sandström, Per
    Ahlm, Clas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Infectious Diseases.
    Hassan, Osama Ahmed
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Virology.
    Lwande, Olivia Wesula
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Virology.
    Gachari, Moses K.
    Landmann, Tobias
    Sang, Rosemary
    Datasets for mapping pastoralist movement patterns and risk zones of Rift Valley fever occurrence2018In: Data in Brief, E-ISSN 2352-3409, Vol. 16, p. 762-770Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a zoonotic disease affecting humans and animals. It is caused by RVF virus transmitted primarily by Aedes mosquitoes. The data presented in this article propose environmental layers suitable for mapping RVF vector habitat zones and livestock migratory routes. Using species distribution modelling, we used RVF vector occurrence data sampled along livestock migratory routes to identify suitable vector habitats within the study region which is located in the central and the north-eastern part of Kenya. Eleven herds monitored with GPS collars were used to estimate cattle utilization distribution patterns. We used kernel density estimator to produce utilization contours where the 0.5 percentile represents core grazing areas and the 0.99 percentile represents the entire home range. The home ranges were overlaid on the vector suitability map to identify risks zones for possible RVF exposure. Assimilating high spatial and temporal livestock movement and vector distribution datasets generates new knowledge in understanding RVF epidemiology and generates spatially explicit risk maps. The results can be used to guide vector control and vaccination strategies for better disease control.

  • 9. Obanda, Vincent
    et al.
    Michuki, George
    Jowers, Michael J.
    Rumberia, Cecilia
    Mutinda, Mathew
    Lwande, Olivia Wesula
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Virology.
    Wangoru, Kihara
    Kasiiti-Orengo, Jacquiline
    Yongo, Moses
    Angelone-Alasaad, Samer
    COMPLETE GENOMIC SEQUENCE OF VIRULENT PIGEON PARAMYXOVIRUS IN LAUGHING DOVES (STREPTOPELIA SENEGALENSIS) IN KENYA2016In: Journal of Wildlife Diseases, ISSN 0090-3558, E-ISSN 1943-3700, Vol. 52, no 3, p. 599-608Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Following mass deaths of Laughing Doves (Streptopelia senegalensis) in different localities throughout Kenya, internal organs obtained during necropsy of two moribund birds were sampled and analyzed by next generation sequencing. We isolated the virulent strain of pigeon paramyxovirus type-1 (PPMV-1), PPMV1/Laughing Dove/Kenya/Isiolo/B2/2012, which had a characteristic fusion gene motif (110)GGRRQKRF(117). We obtained a partial full genome of 15,114 nucleotides. The phylogenetic relationship based on the fusion gene and genomic sequence grouped our isolate as class II genotype VI, a group of viruses commonly isolated from wild birds but potentially lethal to Chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus). The fusion gene isolate clustered with PPMV-I strains from pigeons (Columbidae) in Nigeria. The complete genome showed a basal and highly divergent lineage to American, European, and Asian strains, indicating a divergent evolutionary pathway. The isolated strain is highly virulent and apparently species-specific to Laughing Doves in Kenya. Risk of transmission of such a strain to poultry is potentially high whereas the cyclic epizootic in doves is a threat to conservation of wild Columbidae in Kenya.

  • 10. Sang, Rosemary
    et al.
    Arum, Samwel
    Chepkorir, Edith
    Mosomtai, Gladys
    Tigoi, Caroline
    Sigei, Faith
    Lwande, Olivia Wesula
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Virology.
    Landmann, Tobias
    Affognon, Hippolyte
    Ahlm, Clas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Infectious Diseases.
    Evander, Magnus
    Distribution and abundance of key vectors of Rift Valley fever and other arboviruses in two ecologically distinct counties in Kenya2017In: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, ISSN 1935-2727, E-ISSN 1935-2735, Vol. 11, no 2, article id e0005341Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a mosquito-borne viral zoonosis of ruminants and humans that causes outbreaks in Africa and the Arabian Peninsula with significant public health and economic consequences. Humans become infected through mosquito bites and contact with infected livestock. The virus is maintained between outbreaks through vertically infected eggs of the primary vectors of Aedes species which emerge following rains with extensive flooding. Infected female mosquitoes initiate transmission among nearby animals, which amplifies virus, thereby infecting more mosquitoes and moving the virus beyond the initial point of emergence. With each successive outbreak, RVF has been found to expand its geographic distribution to new areas, possibly driven by available vectors. The aim of the present study was to determine if RVF virus (RVFV) transmission risk in two different ecological zones in Kenya could be assessed by looking at the species composition, abundance and distribution of key primary and secondary vector species and the level of virus activity. Methodology Mosquitoes were trapped during short and long rainy seasons in 2014 and 2015 using CO2 baited CDC light traps in two counties which differ in RVF epidemic risk levels(high risk Tana-River and low risk Isiolo), cryo-preserved in liquid nitrogen, transported to the laboratory, and identified to species. Mosquito pools were analyzed for virus infection using cell culture screening and molecular analysis. Findings Over 69,000 mosquitoes were sampled and identified as 40 different species belonging to 6 genera (Aedes, Anopheles, Mansonia, Culex, Aedeomyia, Coquillettidia). The presence and abundance of Aedes mcintoshi and Aedes ochraceus, the primary mosquito vectors associated with RVFV transmission in outbreaks, varied significantly between Tana-River and Isiolo. Ae. mcintoshi was abundant in Tana-River and Isiolo but notably, Aedes ochraceus found in relatively high numbers in Tana-River (n = 1,290), was totally absent in all Isiolo sites. Fourteen virus isolates including Sindbis, Bunyamwera, and West Nile fever viruses were isolated mostly from Ae. mcintoshi sampled in Tana-River. RVFV was not detected in any of the mosquitoes. Conclusion This study presents the geographic distribution and abundance of arbovirus vectors in two Kenyan counties, which may assist with risk assessment for mosquito borne diseases.

  • 11.
    Tingström, Olov
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Virology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Infectious Diseases. Swedish Defence Research Agency, CBRN Defence and Security, Umeå, Sweden..
    Lwande, Olivia Wesula
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Virology.
    Naslund, Jonas
    Spyckerelle, Iris
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Virology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Infectious Diseases.
    Engdahl, Cecilia
    Von Schoenberg, Pontus
    Ahlm, Clas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Infectious Diseases.
    Evander, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Virology.
    Bucht, Goran
    Detection of Sindbis and Inkoo Virus RNA in Genetically Typed Mosquito Larvae Sampled in Northern Sweden2016In: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases, ISSN 1530-3667, E-ISSN 1557-7759, Vol. 16, no 7, p. 461-467Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Mosquito-borne viruses have a widespread distribution across the globe and are known to pose serious threats to human and animal health. The maintenance and dissemination of these viruses in nature are driven through horizontal and vertical transmission. In the temperate climate of northern Sweden, there is a dearth of knowledge on whether mosquito-borne viruses that occur are transmitted transovarially. To gain a better understanding of mosquito-borne virus circulation and maintenance, mosquito larvae were sampled in northern Sweden during the first and second year after a large outbreak of Ockelbo disease in 2013 caused by Sindbis virus (SINV).

    Materials and Methods: A total of 3123 larvae were sampled during the summers of 2014 and 2015 at multiple sites in northern Sweden. The larvae were homogenized and screened for viruses using RT-PCR and sequencing. Species identification of selected larvae was performed by genetic barcoding targeting the cytochrome C oxidase subunit I gene.

    Results and Discussion: SINV RNA was detected in mosquito larvae of three different species, Ochlerotatus (Oc.) communis, Oc. punctor, and Oc. diantaeus. Inkoo virus (INKV) RNA was detected in Oc. communis larvae. This finding suggested that these mosquitoes could support transovarial transmission of SINV and INKV. Detection of virus in mosquito larva may serve as an early warning for emerging arboviral diseases and add information to epidemiological investigations before, during, and after outbreaks. Furthermore, our results demonstrated the relevance of genetic barcoding as an attractive and effective method for mosquito larva typing. However, further mosquito transmission studies are needed to ascertain the possible role of different mosquito species and developmental stages in the transmission cycle of arboviruses.

  • 12.
    Wesula Lwande, Olivia
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Virology.
    Bucht, Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology.
    Ahlm, Clas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Infectious Diseases.
    Evander, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Virology.
    Inkoo virus: a common but unrecognized mosquito-borne virus in northern Europe2017In: Infectious Diseases HubArticle, review/survey (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Inkoo virus (INKV) is a common but less explored mosquito-borne virus belonging to family Bunyaviridae, genus Orthobunyavirus of the California serogroup. The virus was originally isolated in Finland in 1964 and has since then been detected in other northern European countries including Norway, Russia and Sweden. The virus has been associated with fever and encephalitis, in addition, patients considered positive for INKV antibodies have been linked with neurologic disease.

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