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  • 1. Alkhadi, H.S.
    et al.
    Tran, Tuan
    Department of Electronic Materials Engineering, Research School of Physics and Engineering, The Australian National University, Canberra, Australia.
    Kremer, F.
    Williams, J.S.
    The influence of capping layers on pore formation in Ge during ion implantation2016In: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 120, no 21, article id 215706Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ion induced porosity in Ge has been investigated with and without a cap layer for two ion species, Ge and Sn, with respect to ion fluence and temperature. Results without a cap are consistent with a previous work in terms of an observed ion fluence and temperature dependence of porosity, but with a clear ion species effect where heavier Sn ions induce porosity at lower temperature (and fluence) than Ge. The effect of a cap layer is to suppress porosity for both Sn and Ge at lower temperatures but in different temperatures and fluence regimes. At room temperature, a cap does not suppress porosity and results in a more organised pore structure under conditions where sputtering of the underlying Ge does not occur. Finally, we observed an interesting effect in which a barrier layer of a-Ge that is denuded of pores formed directly below the cap layer. The thickness of this layer (∼ 8 nm) is largely independent of ion species, fluence, temperature, and cap material, and we suggest that this is due to viscous flow of a-Ge under ion irradiation and wetting of the cap layer to minimize the interfacial free energy.

  • 2. Kiran, M. S. R. N.
    et al.
    Tran, Tuan
    Department of Electronic Materials Engineering, Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra, Australia.
    Smillie, L. A.
    Haberl, B.
    Subianto, D.
    Williams, J.S.
    Bradby, J.E.
    Temperature-dependent mechanical deformation of silicon at the nanoscale: Phase transformation versus defect propagation2015In: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 117, article id 205901Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Kiran, Mangalampalli
    et al.
    Canberra, Australien.
    Tran, Tuan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Temperature-dependent mechanical deformation of silicon at the nanoscale: Phase transformation versus defect propagation2015In: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 117, no 20, p. 205901-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study uses high-temperature nanoindentation coupled with in situ electrical measurements to investigate the temperature dependence (25-200 degrees C) of the phase transformation behavior of diamond cubic (dc) silicon at the nanoscale. Along with in situ indentation and electrical data, ex situ characterizations, such as Raman and cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy, have been used to reveal the indentation-induced deformation mechanisms. We find that phase transformation and defect propagation within the crystal lattice are not mutually exclusive deformation processes at elevated temperature. Both can occur at temperatures up to 150 degrees C but to different extents, depending on the temperature and loading conditions. For nanoindentation, we observe that phase transformation is dominant below 100 degrees C but that deformation by twinning along {111} planes dominates at 150 degrees C and 200 degrees C. This work, therefore, provides clear insight into the temperature dependent deformation mechanisms in dc-Si at the nano

  • 4.
    Tran, Tuan
    et al.
    Department of Electronic Materials Engineering, Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra, Australia.
    Gandhi, Hemi H.
    Pastor, David
    Aziz, Michael J.
    Williams, J.S.
    Ion-beam synthesis and thermal stability of highly tin-concentrated germanium – tin alloys2017In: Materials Science in Semiconductor Processing, ISSN 1369-8001, E-ISSN 1873-4081, Vol. 62, p. 192-195Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Tran, Tuan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Jablonka, Lukas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Bruckner, Barbara
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics. Johannes Kepler Univ Linz, Atom Phys & Surface, A-4040 Linz, Austria.
    Rund, Stefanie
    Johannes Kepler Univ Linz, Atom Phys & Surface, A-4040 Linz, Austria.
    Roth, Dietmar
    Johannes Kepler Univ Linz, Atom Phys & Surface, A-4040 Linz, Austria.
    Sortica, Mauricio A.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Bauer, Peter
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, För teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten gemensamma enheter, Tandem Laboratory. Johannes Kepler Univ Linz, Atom Phys & Surface, A-4040 Linz, Austria.
    Zhang, Zhen
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Primetzhofer, Daniel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Electronic interaction of slow hydrogen and helium ions with nickel-silicon systems2019In: Physical Review A: covering atomic, molecular, and optical physics and quantum information, ISSN 2469-9926, E-ISSN 2469-9934, Vol. 100, no 3, article id 032705Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electronic stopping cross sections (SCSs) of nickel, silicon, and nickel-silicon alloys for protons and helium (He) ions are studied in the regime of medium- and low-energy ion scattering, i.e., for ion energies in the range from 500 eV to 200 keV. For protons, at velocities below the Bohr velocity the deduced SCS is proportional to the ion velocity for all investigated materials. In contrast, for He ions nonlinear velocity scaling is observed in all investigated materials. Static calculations using density functional theory (DFT) available from the literature accurately predict the SCS of Ni and Ni-Si alloy in the regime with observed velocity proportionality. At higher energies, the energy dependence of the deduced SCS of Ni for protons and He ions agrees with the prediction by recent time-dependent DFT calculations. The measured SCS of the Ni-Si alloy was compared to the SCS obtained from Bragg's rule based on SCS for Ni and Si deduced in this study, yielding good agreement for protons, but systematic deviations for He projectiles, by almost 20%. Overall, the obtained data indicate the importance of nonadiabatic processes such as charge exchange for proper modeling of electronic stopping of, in particular, medium-energy ions heavier than protons in solids.

  • 6.
    Tran, Tuan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics. Australian Natl Univ, Res Sch Phys & Engn, Dept Elect Mat Engn, Canberra, ACT 0200, Australia.
    Mathews, Jay
    Univ Dayton, Dept Phys, Dayton, OH 45469 USA.
    Williams, J. S.
    Australian Natl Univ, Res Sch Phys & Engn, Dept Elect Mat Engn, Canberra, ACT 0200, Australia.
    Towards a direct band gap group IV Ge-based material2019In: Materials Science in Semiconductor Processing, ISSN 1369-8001, E-ISSN 1873-4081, Vol. 92, p. 39-46Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A silicon-compatible laser source is of utmost importance for a successful photonic integrated circuit. The conventional solution using direct band gap III-V materials adds significant complexity into the fabrication process because the active materials have to be bonded or grown on a largely mismatched silicon substrate. Recently, germanium has been considered a promising material for silicon photonic applications due to its interesting electronic band structure. Several concepts to realise a direct band gap Ge-based material will be reviewed in this paper, such as: tensile strain combined with high n-type doping, high tensile strain created by micromachining, synthesis of Ge-Sn alloys by chemical vapour deposition and, in particular, synthesis of Ge-Sn alloys by ion implantation followed by pulsed laser melting (PLM). Besides providing a very high level of reproducibility and purity in conventional device fabrication, ion implantation followed by PLM is shown to have potential for realising an intrinsically direct band gap material of high quality. Producing a 10at. % Sn alloy is now possible and a highly strain-relaxed layer can also be realised by this technique.

  • 7.
    Tran, Tuan T.
    et al.
    Department of Electronic Materials Engineering, Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra, Australia.
    Pastor, David
    Gandhi, Hemi H.
    Smillie, Lachlan A.
    Akey, Austin J.
    Aziz, Michael J.
    Williams, J. S.
    Synthesis of Ge1−xSnx alloys by ion implantation and pulsed laser melting: Towards a group IV direct bandgap material2016In: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 119, article id 183102Article in journal (Refereed)
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