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  • 1.
    Apler, Anna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development. Geological Survey of Sweden.
    Dispersal and environmental impact of contaminants in organic rich, fibrous sediments of industrial origin in the Baltic Sea2018Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The health of the Baltic Sea is negatively affected by hazardous substances such as metals and persistent organic pollutants (POPs), which include legacy pollutants that were banned decades ago, but still circulate in the ecosystem. Elevated levels of legacy pollutants, identified by HELCOM as key hazardous substances, have been found in accumulations of fibrous sediments, so-called fiberbanks and fiber-rich sediments, which derive from old pulp mills along the Swedish north coast. The fiberbanks are deposited in shallow water and bathymetrical models show evidence of their erosion, potentially caused by propeller wash, submarine landslides and gas ebullition. This thesis addresses the potential dispersal of key substances from three fiberbank sites located in a non-tidal Swedish estuary, in which metals and POPs are present in concentrations that may pose a risk for benthic organisms. Metals and POPs are partitioned to organic material and, as expected, show the highest partitioning coefficients (KD) in fiberbanks that have higher TOC levels compared to adjacent areas with fiber-rich sediments (natural clay sediments mixed up with fibers) or relatively unaffected postglacial clays. However, many analytes were found to be present in quantifiable concentrations in pore water, which indicates diffusion of substances from the solid phase to the aqueous phase. To assess the dispersive influence of an abrupt erosional event on dispersion, metals were measured in undisturbed bottom water and in bottom water disturbed by artificial re-suspension of fibrous sediments. The bioavailable, dissolved fraction of metals decreased in bottom water after re-suspension, probably due to the particle concentration effect. In contrast, the total concentrations of metals and number of quantifiable metals increased with particle concentration caused by re-suspension. At one station, the total concentration of chromium (Cr) was elevated to a level where it may lower the ecological status of the water body during periods of substantial erosion (e.g. spring floods or submarine landslides). Analyses of disturbed bottom water revealed, however, that minerogenic particles were preferentially re-suspended compared to organic. This suggests that physical erosion and re-suspension of fiberbank sediments might have a larger effect on dispersal of metals than on POPs.

  • 2.
    Apler, Anna
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development. Geological Survey of Sweden.
    Snowball, Ian
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development.
    Frogner-Kockum, Paul
    Swedish Geotechnical Institute (SGI).
    Josefsson, Sarah
    Geological Survey of Sweden (SGU).
    Distribution and dispersal of metals in contaminated fibrous sediments of industrial originIn: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Apler, Anna
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development. Geological Survey of Sweden.
    Snowball, Ian
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development.
    Frogner-Kockum, Paul
    Swedish Geotechnical Institute.
    Josefsson, Sarah
    Geological Survey of Sweden.
    Distribution and dispersal of metals in contaminated fibrous sediments of industrial origin2019In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 215, p. 470-481Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Industrial emissions can impact aquatic environments and unregulated discharges from pulp and paper factories have resulted in deposits of cellulose fiber along the Swedish coast. These deposits are contaminated by metals, but due to their unique fibrous character the extent of sorption and dispersal of the metals is unclear. Fibrous sediments were sampled at two sites in the Ångermanälven river estuary, Sweden. The partitioning of metals between the sediment, pore water and bottom water was investigated and the degree of bioavailability was evaluated. The levels of metals in the sediment were high in fibrous or offshore samples, depending on the metal, whereas the levels of dissolved metals in pore water were low or below the limit of quantification. Partition coefficients (KD) showed that sorption to the sediment was stronger at one of the fibrous sites, possibly related to the type and size of organic matter. Undisturbed bottom water samples contained low levels of both dissolved and particle bound metals, but when comparing measured metal concentrations to threshold values of ecological status and ecotoxicological assessment criteria, both sediments and bottom water may be detrimental to living organisms. In-situ re-suspension experiments showed that the concentrations of particle bound metals increased whereas the dissolved concentrations decreased. The analyzed metals are probably retained by the solid phases of the fibrous sediment or adsorbed to particles in the water, reducing their bioavailability.

  • 4.
    Dahlberg, Anna-Karin
    et al.
    Department of Aquatic Sciences and Assessment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU).
    Apler, Anna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development. Geological Survey of Sweden.
    Vogel, Lisa
    Department of Aquatic Sciences and Assessment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU).
    Wiberg, Karin
    Department of Aquatic Sciences and Assessment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU).
    Josefsson, Sarah
    Geological Survey of Sweden (SGU).
    Persistent organic pollutants in wood fiber contaminated sediments from the Baltic SeaIn: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Frogner-Kockum, Paul
    et al.
    Swedish Geotechnical Institute, SE-211 22 Malmö, Sweden.
    Kononets, Mikhail
    Department of Marine Sciences, University of Gothenburg, Box 461, SE-405 30 Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Apler, Anna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development. Geological Survey of Sweden, Department of marine environment & planning, Box 670, SE-751 28 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Hall, Per O.J.
    Department of Marine Sciences, University of Gothenburg, Box 461, SE-405 30 Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Snowball, Ian
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development.
    Less metal fluxes than expected from fibrous marine sediments2020In: Marine Pollution Bulletin, ISSN 0025-326X, E-ISSN 1879-3363, Vol. 150, article id 110750Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Deposits of fibrous sediment, which include fiberbanks and fiber-rich sediments, are known to exist on the Swedish seafloor adjacent to coastally located former pulp and paper industries. These deposits contain concentrations of hazardous substances that exceed national background levels and contravene national environmental quality objectives (EQOs). In this study of metal fluxes from fibrous sediments using benthic flux chamber measurements (BFC) in situ we obtained detected fluxes of Co, Mo, Ni and Zn, but no fluxes of Pb, Hg and Cr. The absence of fluxes of some of the analyzed metals indicates particle bound transport of Pb, Cr and Hg from fiberbanks even though Hg might become methylated under anoxic conditions and, in that case, may enter the food chain. We found less metal fluxes than expected and thus emphasize the importance of in-situ flux measurements as a compliment to sediment metal concentrations within risk assessments of contaminated sediments.

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