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  • 1.
    Hoier, Philipp
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Azarhoushang, Bahman
    Furtwangen University of Applied Sciences, Germany.
    Lundin, Per
    Schlumpf Scandinavia AB, Sweden.
    Malakizadi, Amir
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Badger, Jeffrey
    The Grinding Doc, USA.
    Stormvinter, Albin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Manufacturing Processes.
    Björk, Thomas
    Ovako AB, Sweden.
    Klement, Uta
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Hashimoto, Fukuo
    Advanced Finishing Technology Ltd, USA.
    Krajnik, Peter
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Influence of batch-to-batch material variations on grindability of a medium‑carbon steel2022In: Journal of Manufacturing Processes, ISSN 1526-6125, Vol. 73, p. 463-470Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study addresses the influence of material variations on the grindability of crankshaft steel. Most previous studies on the effect of material microstructure on grindability involve comparisons of significantly different steel grades. This study, in contrast, is focused on batch-to-batch grindability variations for one steel grade, a scenario frequently occurring in industry where batches from different steel makers are fed into a production line. For this purpose, a batch made of recycled steel and a batch made of ore-based steel were compared with regards to microstructure and grindability under identical grinding and dressing conditions. Although both batches met the same material specifications, microstructural variations were identified in terms of grain size and micro-constituents (inclusions, carbonitrides). While specific grinding energy, residual stress and full-width at half-maximum profiles of ground surfaces were the same for both batches, the recycled batch showed different and unfavorable variation in wheel wear and Barkhausen noise (BN) response. Larger fractions of oxide inclusions and larger grain sizes (affected by carbonitrides) were present in the recycled batch, which were the likely reasons for the differences in wheel wear and BN response, respectively. These findings may aid grindability improvement by steel-grade adjustments, e.g. modification of the distribution and type of inclusions and/or amount of elements forming carbonitrides. Furthermore, the results highlight the importance of understanding and controlling material microstructure, as existing in-line quality by BN control may not always be able to correctly indicate surface integrity, which could lead to misinterpretations (e.g. false part-rejection on the assumption of grinding burn). © 2021 The Authors

  • 2.
    Holmberg, Jonas
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Manufacturing Processes.
    Berglund, Johan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Manufacturing Processes.
    Stormvinter, Albin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Manufacturing Processes.
    Andersson, Pär
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Manufacturing Processes.
    Lundin, Per
    Ludin Stress Service AB, Sweden.
    Influence of Local Electropolishing Conditions on Ferritic–Pearlitic Steel on X-Ray Diffraction Residual Stress Profiling2024In: Journal of materials engineering and performance (Print), ISSN 1059-9495, E-ISSN 1544-1024, Vol. 33, p. 3682-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Layer removal with electropolishing is a well-established method when measuring residual stress profiles with lab-XRD. This is done to measure the depth impact from processes such as shot peening, heat treatment, or machining. Electropolishing is used to minimize the influence on the inherent residual stresses of the material during layer removal, performed successively in incremental steps to specific depths followed by measurement. Great control of the material removal is critical for the measured stresses at each depth. Therefore, the selection of size of the measurement spot and electropolishing parameters is essential. The main objective in this work is to investigate how different electrolytes and electropolishing equipment affect the resulting surface roughness, geometry, microstructure, and consequently the measured residual stress. A second objective has been to establish a methodology of assessing the acquired electropolished depth. The aim has been to get a better understanding of the influence of the layer removal method on the accuracy of the acquired depth. Evaluation has been done by electropolishing one ground and one shot peened sample of a low-alloy carbon steel, grade 1.1730, with different methods. The results showed a difference in stresses depending on the electrolyte used where the perchloric acid had better ability to retain the stresses compared to the saturated salt. Electropolishing with saturated salt is fast and results in evenly distributed material removal but has high surface roughness, which is due to a difference in electropolishing of the two phases, ferrite, and pearlite. Perchloric acid electropolishing is slower but generates a smooth surface as both ferrite and pearlite have the same material removal rates but may cause an increased material removal for the center of the electropolished area. In this work, it is suggested to use perchloric acid electropolishing for the final layer removal step. © 2023, The Author(s).

  • 3.
    Holmberg, Jonas
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Materials and Production, IVF, Tillverkningsprocesser. University West, Sweden.
    Steuwer, Axel
    Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, South Africa.
    Stormvinter, Albin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Materials and Production, IVF, Tillverkningsprocesser.
    Kristoffersen, Hans
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Materials and Production, IVF, Tillverkningsprocesser.
    Haakanen, Marja
    Stresstech OY, Finland.
    Berglund, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Materials and Production, IVF, Tillverkningsprocesser.
    Residual stress state in an induction hardened steel bar determined by synchrotron- and neutron diffraction compared to results from lab-XRD2016In: Materials Science & Engineering: A, ISSN 0921-5093, E-ISSN 1873-4936, Vol. 667, p. 199-207Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Induction hardening is a relatively rapid heat treatment method to increase mechanical properties of steel components. However, results from FE-simulation of the induction hardening process show that a tensile stress peak will build up in the transition zone in order to balance the high compressive stresses close to the surface. This tensile stress peak is located in the transition zone between the hardened zone and the core material. The main objective with this investigation has been to non-destructively validate the residual stress state throughout an induction hardened component. Thereby, allowing to experimentally confirming the existence and magnitude of the tensile stress peak arising from rapid heat treatment. For this purpose a cylindrical steel bar of grade C45 was induction hardened and characterised regarding the microstructure, hardness, hardening depth and residual stresses. This investigation shows that a combined measurement with synchrotron/neutron diffraction is well suited to non-destructively measure the strains through the steel bar of a diameter of 20 mm and thereby making it possible to calculate the residual stress profile. The result verified the high compressive stresses at the surface which rapidly changes to tensile stresses in the transition zone resulting in a large tensile stress peak. Measured stresses by conventional lab-XRD showed however that at depths below 1.5 mm the stresses were lower compared to the synchrotron and neutron data. This is believed to be an effect of stress relaxation from the layer removal. The FE-simulation predicts the depth of the tensile stress peak well but exaggerates the magnitude compared to the measured results by synchrotron/neutron measurements. This is an important knowledge when designing the component and the heat treatment process since this tensile stress peak will have great impact on the mechanical properties of the final component.

  • 4.
    Holmberg, Jonas
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Manufacturing Processes.
    Wendel, Johan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Manufacturing Processes.
    Stormvinter, Albin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Manufacturing Processes.
    Progressive Induction Hardening: Measurement and Alteration of Residual Stresses2024In: Journal of materials engineering and performance (Print), ISSN 1059-9495, E-ISSN 1544-1024Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Progressive induction hardening is an in-line steel heat treatment method commonly used to surface harden powertrain components. It produces a martensitic case layer with a sharp transition zone to the base material. This rapid process will induce large residual stresses, where a compressive state in the case layer will shift to a tensile state in the transition zone. For fatigue performance, it is important to quantify the magnitude and distribution of these stresses, and moreover how they depend on material and processing parameters. In this work, x-ray diffraction in combination with a layer removal method is used for efficient and robust quantification of the subsurface stress state, which combines electropolishing with either turning or milling. Characterization is done on C45E steel samples that were progressively induction hardened using either a fast or slow (27.5 or 5 mm/s, respectively) scanning speed. The results show that although the hardening procedures will meet arbitrary requirements on surface hardness, case depth and microstructure, the subsurface tensile stress peak magnitude is doubled when using a fast scanning speed. However, the near-surface compressive residual stresses are comparable. In addition, the subsurface tensile residual stress peak is compared with the on-surface tensile stresses in the fade-out zone.

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  • 5.
    Kohne, Thomas
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Structures.
    Fahlkrans, Johan
    Haglund, Sven
    Stormvinter, Albin
    Troell, Eva
    Hedström, Peter
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Properties.
    Borgenstam, Annika
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Structures.
    Impact of Cooling Rate during High-Pressure Gas Quenching on Fatigue Performance of Low Pressure Carburized Gears2022In: Metals, E-ISSN 2075-4701, Vol. 12, no 11, p. 1917-1917Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The impact of cooling rate during high-pressure gas quenching on the fatigue performance of low-pressure carburized spur gears was studied for steel grades 20MnCr5 and 17NiCrMo6-4. The results show an increased fatigue limit by 10 to 11% when applying a slower cooling rate for both steel grades. Moreover, for 20MnCr5 the slower cooled gears show an increase in compressive residual stresses by 130 MPa compared to the faster cooling, although no significant difference was observed for 17NiCrMo6-4. It is also seen that the cooling rate affects the core hardness for both steel grades, while other properties like surface hardness, case-hardness depth and martensite variant pairing were unaffected. The results for the retained austenite content and average martensite unit size show no clear effect of the cooling rate. The possible influence of different carbon distributions after quenching for the two used cooling rates on the carbide precipitation and fatigue limit is discussed. View Full-Text

  • 6.
    Kohne, Thomas
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Fahlkrans, Johan
    Scania CV AB, Sweden.
    Stormvinter, Albin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Polymeric Materials and Composites.
    Maawad, Emad
    Helmholtz-Zentrum Hereon, Germany.
    Winkelmann, Aimo
    AGH University of Science and Technology, Poland.
    Hedström, Peter
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Borgenstam, Annika
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Evolution of Martensite Tetragonality in High-Carbon Steels Revealed by In Situ High-Energy X-Ray Diffraction2023In: Metallurgical and Materials Transactions. A, ISSN 1073-5623, E-ISSN 1543-1940, Vol. 54, no 4, p. 1083-1100Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The martensitic transformation was studied by in situ and ex situ experiments in two high-carbon, 0.54 and 0.74 wt pct C, steels applying three different cooling rates, 15 °C/s, 5 °C/s, and 0.5 °C/s, in the temperature range around Ms, to improve the understanding of the evolution of martensite tetragonality c/a and phase fraction formed during the transformation. The combination of in situ high-energy X-ray diffraction during controlled cooling and spatially resolved tetragonality c/a determination by electron backscatter diffraction pattern matching was used to study the transformation behavior. The cooling rate and the different Ms for the steels had a clear impact on the martensitic transformation with a decrease in average tetragonality due to stronger autotempering for a decreasing cooling rate and higher Ms. A slower cooling rate also resulted in a lower fraction of martensite at room temperature, but with an increase in fraction of autotempered martensite. Additionally, a heterogeneous distribution of martensite tetragonality was observed for all cooling rates. © 2023, The Author(s).

  • 7.
    Kohne, Thomas
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Fahlkrans, Johan
    Scania CV AB, 15148, Södertälje, Sweden.
    Stormvinter, Albin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, 41756, Mölndal, Sweden.
    Maawad, Emad
    Institute of Materials Physics, Helmholtz-Zentrum Hereon, 21502, Geesthacht, Germany.
    Winkelmann, Aimo
    Academic Centre for Materials and Nanotechnology (ACMiN), AGH University of Science and Technology, 30059, Kraków, Poland.
    Hedström, Peter
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Borgenstam, Annika
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Evolution of Martensite Tetragonality in High-Carbon Steels Revealed by In Situ High-Energy X-Ray Diffraction2023In: Metallurgical and Materials Transactions. A, ISSN 1073-5623, E-ISSN 1543-1940, Vol. 54, no 4, p. 1083-1100Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The martensitic transformation was studied by in situ and ex situ experiments in two high-carbon, 0.54 and 0.74 wt pct C, steels applying three different cooling rates, 15 °C/s, 5 °C/s, and 0.5 °C/s, in the temperature range around Ms, to improve the understanding of the evolution of martensite tetragonality c/a and phase fraction formed during the transformation. The combination of in situ high-energy X-ray diffraction during controlled cooling and spatially resolved tetragonality c/a determination by electron backscatter diffraction pattern matching was used to study the transformation behavior. The cooling rate and the different Ms for the steels had a clear impact on the martensitic transformation with a decrease in average tetragonality due to stronger autotempering for a decreasing cooling rate and higher Ms. A slower cooling rate also resulted in a lower fraction of martensite at room temperature, but with an increase in fraction of autotempered martensite. Additionally, a heterogeneous distribution of martensite tetragonality was observed for all cooling rates.

  • 8.
    Kohne, Thomas
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Fahlkrans, Jonas
    Scania CV, Sweden.
    Haglund, Sven
    Swerim AB, Sweden.
    Stormvinter, Albin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Manufacturing Processes.
    Troell, Eva
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Manufacturing Processes.
    Hedström, Peter
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Borgenstam, Annika
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Impact of Cooling Rate during High-Pressure Gas Quenching on Fatigue Performance of Low Pressure Carburized Gears2022In: Metals, ISSN 2075-4701, Vol. 12, no 11, article id 1917Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The impact of cooling rate during high-pressure gas quenching on the fatigue performance of low-pressure carburized spur gears was studied for steel grades 20MnCr5 and 17NiCrMo6-4. The results show an increased fatigue limit by 10 to 11% when applying a slower cooling rate for both steel grades. Moreover, for 20MnCr5 the slower cooled gears show an increase in compressive residual stresses by 130 MPa compared to the faster cooling, although no significant difference was observed for 17NiCrMo6-4. It is also seen that the cooling rate affects the core hardness for both steel grades, while other properties like surface hardness, case-hardness depth and martensite variant pairing were unaffected. The results for the retained austenite content and average martensite unit size show no clear effect of the cooling rate. The possible influence of different carbon distributions after quenching for the two used cooling rates on the carbide precipitation and fatigue limit is discussed. © 2022 by the authors.

  • 9.
    Stormvinter, Albin
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF, Tillverkningsprocesser.
    Borgenstam, Annika
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Miyamoto, Goro
    Tohoku University, Japan.
    Furuhara, Tadashi
    Tohoku University, Japan.
    Kristoffersen, Hans
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Quantitative metallography for industrial use on martensitic steels2015In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Solid-Solid Phase Transformations in Inorganic Materials 2015, 2015, p. 539-546Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The performance of powertrain components and rock tools relies on the inherent strength and hardness of ferrous martensite. Currently the industry uses experimental measurements of surface hardness and case depth to qualify their hardening processes. Often there are additional requirements on microstructure constituents, although there are no quantitative methods available to characterize ferrous martensite. Here such methodology is discussed in relation to EBSD measurements on the full practical range of Fe-C alloys. The orientation relationships between austenite and martensite along with the variant pairing tendency of martensite are determined from the EBSD data. These results are related to the well-known morphological transition from lath to plate martensite in Fe-C alloys. Quantitative metallography using EBSD has the potential to complement hardness- and residual-stress measurements when qualifying new steel grades and hardening processes in industry. It may also prove important when investigating the coupling between material properties and fatigue performance.

  • 10.
    Stormvinter, Albin
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Goldsteinas, A.
    Rink, M.
    DoE – Interrupted Gas Quenching in a Single Chamber Vacuum Furnace2017In: Proceedings of the 24th IFHTSE CONGRESS 2017 European Conference on Heat Treatment and Surface Engineering, 2017Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Stormvinter, Albin
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF, Tillverkningsprocesser.
    Kristoffersen, Hans
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Olofsson, A.
    Scania CVAB, Sweden.
    Biwersi, K.
    Scania CVAB, Sweden.
    Haglund, S.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, KIMAB.
    Effect of hardenability and press quenching on distortion of crown wheels2014In: Thermal Process Modeling - Proceedings from the 5th International Conference on Thermal Process Modeling and Computer Simulation, ICTPMCS 2014 / [ed] Papp R.MacKenzie S.Goldstein R.Ferguson B.L., ASM International , 2014, p. 149-155Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Press quenching is used to control distortion of large transmission components, e.g. case hardened crown wheels. The unsystematic distortion arises from non-uniformity in the steel properties and processing conditions and is a major concern for gear manufactures. In the present work a methodology is developed to analyze how various properties and parameters influence the distortion during press quenching of crown wheels. To obtain realistic quenching characteristics, to be used for simulation, a number of experiments are carried out on an industrial press quenching machine. In addition, the distortion potential from hardenability is surveyed on a set of non-press quenched crown wheels and quantified by 3D- scanning. Based on the experimentally obtained quenching characteristics the press quenching process is simulated by FEM. Impact of steel properties, quenching characteristics and processing conditions on the distortion is discussed and analyzed in relation to the experiments. From the results it may be concluded that press quenching is a powerful tool that can limit the impact of distortion carriers. However, to exploit the full capability of press quenching and thereby increase process optimization it is necessary to better quantify the distortion carriers in the parts to be hardened. Copyright © 2014 ASM International ® All rights reserved.

  • 12.
    Stormvinter, Albin
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Materials and Production, IVF, Tillverkningsprocesser.
    Kristoffersen, Hans
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Materials and Production, IVF.
    Troell, Eva
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Materials and Production, IVF.
    Induction hardening - Establishing the process window for induction quenching by using experimental results and computational tools2014In: Materials Performance and Characterization, ISSN 2379-1365, E-ISSN 2165-3992, Vol. 3, no 4, p. 352-368Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To establish the process window for the spray quenching step of the induction hardening process is essential for quality control and optimized use of the quenching capacity supplied by the quenching unit. In general, the process window is established by an empirical approach, where the processing is related to the mechanical properties. On the other hand, there has been a rapid development of computational tools that may facilitate and accelerate process optimization. In the present work it is demonstrated how such tools, e.g., FE-simulation and multivariate analysis, can be applied to couple quenching characteristics to mechanical properties. The methodology is applied to induction hardened steel cylinders that were quenched with different flow rates, temperatures and composition of the quenchant. The results show how mechanical properties can be related to characteristics of the quenching, e.g., heat transfer coefficients and characteristics of the cooling curve. Moreover, the work discusses and exemplifies how the process window can be established and how computational tools allow the user to virtually alter the processing and estimate the impact it may have on the mechanical properties.

  • 13.
    Stormvinter, Albin
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF, Tillverkningsprocesser.
    Kristoffersen, Hans
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Troell, Eva
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Senaneuch, Jerome
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, KIMAB.
    Haglund, Sven
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, KIMAB.
    Impact of Internal Oxidation and Quenching Path on Fatigue of Powertrain Components2015In: Heat Treating 2015: Proceedings of the 28th ASM Heat Treating Society Conference, 2015, p. 504-509Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Atmospheric case hardening of powertrain components may cause internal oxidation and thus reduce hardenability at the surface zone. This may affect the fatigue strength, which restricts the maximum cyclic load on steel components and hence is a major impediment for powertrain development and design. Here we have investigated the effect of furnace gas atmosphere composition and quenching path on fatigue properties of powertrain components. The results show that the detrimental effect of internal oxidation on fatigue may be compensated for by altering of the furnace atmosphere. Moreover, it is shown that the quenching path below the martensite start temperature also has an impact on the fatigue properties. These experiments were done in a full-scale industrial furnace on steel bars in 16MnCr5 and 20NiMo9-7F.

  • 14.
    Stormvinter, Albin
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Materials and Production, IVF, Tillverkningsprocesser.
    Kristoffersen, Hans
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Materials and Production, IVF.
    Troell, Eva
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Materials and Production, IVF.
    Senaneuch, Jérôme
    RISE, Swerea, KIMAB.
    Haglund, Sven
    RISE, Swerea, KIMAB.
    Impact of internal oxidation and quenching path on fatigue of powertrain components2015In: Heat Treating 2015: Proceedings of the 28th ASM Heat Treating Society Conference, 2015, p. 498-503Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Atmospheric case hardening of powertrain components may cause internal oxidation and thus reduce hardenability at the surface zone. This may affect the fatigue strength, which restricts the maximum cyclic load on steel components and hence is a major impediment for powertrain development and design. Here we have investigated the effect of furnace gas atmosphere composition and quenching path on fatigue properties of powertrain components. The results show that the detrimental effect of internal oxidation on fatigue may be compensated for by altering of the furnace atmosphere. Moreover, it is shown that the quenching path below the martensite start temperature also has an impact on the fatigue properties. These experiments were done in a full-scale industrial furnace on steel bars in l6MnCr5 and 2ONiMo9-7F. 

  • 15.
    Stormvinter, Albin
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF, Tillverkningsprocesser.
    Olofsson, Anders
    Scania CV AB, Sweden.
    Kristoffersen, Hans
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Troell, Eva
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Effects of Hardenability and Quenching on Distortion of Steel Components2015In: Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Distortion Engineering (IDE 2015), 2015, p. 39-46Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Distortion is a major concern for industrial production of case-hardened steel-components. Carriers of distortion have been identified at all stages in the production chain. Often recognized is the effect of steel hardenability, which is defined as “susceptibility to hardening by rapid cooling”. Hardenability is often represented by Jominy- or Grossman numbers, which are determined by experimental testing or calculation. Hardenability is derived from the steel ability to delay diffusion-controlled phase transformations, i.e. being dependent on alloying content and austenite grain-size. Hence, it may be of interest to investigate effects of individual alloying elements on distortion. Here we make an attempt to investigate the effect of hardenability (and alloying content) of case-hardening steel-grade 16NiCrS4 on distortion of ring- and c-shaped steel-components. The steel components are machined from tubes of three 16NiCrS4 heats, being dissimilar in alloying content and hardenability. After stress relief annealing, the steel-components were measured using either 3D-scanner or coordinate measuring machine. Subsequently, they were hardened, without carburization, using oil, gas or salt as quenchant. The components were measured in their hardened state and their distortion determined. The results clearly show the effects of hardenability and quenching on distortion. Moreover, these results are discussed in relation to production follow-up in industrial heat-treatment workshops. It is realized that to effectively handle distortion originating from hardenability; material, processing and component design has to be associated.

  • 16.
    Stormvinter, Albin
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Senaneuch, Jérome
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, KIMAB.
    Makander, G.
    Kristoffersen, Hans
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Induction hardening: Effect of Bainite in the Case Layer on Fatigue Strength2017In: Proceedings of the 24th IFHTSE CONGRESS 2017 European Conference on Heat Treatment and Surface Engineering, 2017Conference paper (Other academic)
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