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  • 1.
    Fritsch, Lothar
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Tjostheim, Ingvar
    Nork Regnesentral.
    Kitkowska, Agnieszka
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    I’m Not That Old Yet! The Elderly and Us in HCI and Assistive Technology2018In: Proceedings of the Mobile Privacy and Security for an Ageing Population workshop at the 20th International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction with Mobile Devices and Services (MobileHCI) 2018, Barcelona: University of Bath; Cranfield university; Northumbria university, Newcastle; University of Portsmouth , 2018Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent HCI research in information security and privacy focuses on the Elderly. It aims at the provision of inclu-sive, Elderly-friendly interfaces for security and data protection features. Much attention is put on care situa-tions where the image of the Elderly is that of sick or disabled persons not mastering contemporary infor-mation technology. That population is however a frac-tion of the group called the Elderly. In this position pa-per, we argue that the Elderly are a very diverse popu-lation. We discuss issues rising from researchers and software architects’ misconception of the Elderly as technology-illiterate and unable. We suggest a more nuanced approach that includes changing personal abil-ities over the course of life.

  • 2.
    Hatamian, Majid
    et al.
    Goethe University Frankfurt, Frankfurt am Main, Germany.
    Kitkowska, Agnieszka
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Korunovska, Jana
    Vienna University of Business and Economics, Vienna, Austria.
    Kirrane, Sabrina
    Vienna University of Business and Economics, Vienna, Austria.
    “It’s shocking!": Analysing the impact and reactions to the A3: Android apps behaviour analyser2018In: Data and Applications Security and Privacy XXXII / [ed] Florian Kerschbaum, Stefano Paraboschi, Basel, Switzerland: Springer, 2018, p. 198-215Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The lack of privacy awareness in smartphone ecosystems prevents users from being able to compare apps in terms of privacy and from making informed privacy decisions. In this paper we analysed smartphone users’ privacy perceptions and concerns based on a novel privacy enhancing tool called Android Apps Behaviour Analyser (A3). The A3 tool enables user to behaviourally analyse the privacy aspects of their installed apps and notifies about potential privacy invasive activities. To examine the capabilities of A3 we designed a user study. We captured and contrasted privacy concern and perception of 52 participants, before and after using our tool. The results showed that A3 enables users to easily detect their smartphone app’s privacy violation activities. Further, we found that there is a significant difference between users’ privacy concern and expectation before and after using A3 and the majority of them were surprised to learn how often their installed apps access personal resources. Overall, we observed that the A3 tool was capable to influence the participants’ attitude towards protecting their privacy.

  • 3.
    Kitkowska, Agnieszka
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Advancing Models of Privacy Decision Making: Exploring the What & How of Privacy Behaviours2018Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    People's decisions do not happen in a vacuum; there are multiple factors that may affect them. There are external determinants, such as cost/benefit calculation of decision outcomes. There are also internal factors, such as attitudes, personality, emotions, age, and nationality. Frequently, the latter have a final say on the decision at hand, and similar determinants are triggered during the digital interaction when people make decisions about their privacy.

    The current digital privacy landscape is filled with recurring security breaches and leaks of personal information collected by online service providers. Growing dependency on Internet-connected devices and increasing privacy risks prompted policy makers to protect individuals' right to privacy. In Europe, the General Data Protection Regulation requires companies to provide adequate information about their data collection and processing practices to users, to increase privacy awareness and enable better decision making. Regardless, currently there is no sufficient, usable technology, which could help people make improved privacy decisions, decreasing over-disclosure and oversharing. Hence, multidisciplinary researchers aim at developing new privacy-enhancing solutions. To define such solutions and successfully convey data provision and processing practices, potential risks, or harms resulting from information disclosure, it is crucial to understand cognitive processes underpinning privacy decisions.

    In this thesis, we examine privacy decisions and define factors that influence them. We investigate the attitude-behaviour relationship and identify privacy concerns affecting perceptions of privacy. Additionally, we examine factors influencing information sharing, such as emotional arousal and personality traits. Our results demonstrate that there is a relationship between privacy concerns and behaviours, and that simplified models of behaviour are insufficient to predict privacy decisions. Our findings show that internal factors, such as nationality and culture, emotional arousal, and individual characteristics, affect privacy decisions. Based on our findings, we conclude that future models of privacy should incorporate such determinants. Further, we postulate that privacy user interfaces must become more flexible and personalised than the current solutions.

  • 4.
    Kitkowska, Agnieszka
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Reaching Beyond Borders: Investigating Differences in Privacy Harms Concerns2018In: Proceedings of the CHI 2018 Workshop: Moving Beyond a One-Size Fits All Approach: Exploring Individual Differences in Privacy, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Are people worried about harms that may result from their privacy decisions? How can we improve privacy decisions, and make them more informed? In this short position pa- per, we present some of the findings from the quantitative study on privacy attitudes and behaviors. Further, we shift the attention to potential differences of privacy perceptions among representatives from various demographics. We hope to start the discussion about a necessity to enrich privacy research and include cultural factors, to ensure in- clusion and enhance digital privacy.

  • 5.
    Kitkowska, Agnieszka
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science.
    Meyer, Joachim
    Tel Aviv University.
    Wästlund, Erik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Martucci, Leonardo
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science.
    Is It Harmful? Measuring People’s Perceptions of Online Privacy Issues2017Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We report preliminary findings from an online study, identifying people’s attitudes toward privacy issues. The results confirm some of the previous research findings regarding demographic and contextual dependencies of privacy perceptions. The research presents a new scale for measuring attitudes to privacy issues that is based on privacy harms. The results suggest that people consider privacy harms in generic and simplified terms, rather than as separated issues suggested in legal research. This research identified major factors that people tend to think of while considering online privacy.

  • 6.
    Kitkowska, Agnieszka
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Wästlund, Erik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013).
    Martucci, Leonardo
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Emotional Privacy: Explaining Privacy Behaviours with Affect and Personality TraitsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Kitkowska, Agnieszka
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Wästlund, Erik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Meyer, Joachim
    Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel.
    Martucci, Leonardo
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Is It Harmful?: Re-examining Privacy Concerns2017In: Privacy and Identity Management: The Smart Revolution / [ed] Hansen Marit., Kosta Eleni., Nai-Fovino Igor., Fischer-Hübner Simone, Cham, Switzerland: Springer, 2017, p. 59-75Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The increased popularity of interconnected devices, which we rely on when performing day-to-day activities expose people to various privacy harms. This paper presents findings from the empirical investigation of privacy concerns. The study revealed that people, regardless of their diversity, perceive privacy harms as generic and simplified models, not individually as suggested in Solove’s framework. Additionally, the results identified differences in privacy concerns related to information disclosure, protection behavior, and demographics. The findings may benefit privacy and system designers, ensuring that policies and digital systems match people’s privacy expectations, decreasing risks and harms.

  • 8.
    Land, Molly
    et al.
    University of Connecticut School of Law and Human Rights Institute, USA.
    Giannoumis, Anthony
    Department of Computer Science at Oslo and Akershus University College, Norway and Burton Blatt Institute at Syracuse University, USA.
    Kitkowska, Agnieszka
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Mikhaylova, Maria
    Faculty of Technology, Art and Design at Oslo and Akershus University College of Applied Sciences, Norway.
    Article 22: Respect for Privacy2018In: The UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities: A Commentary / [ed] Bantekas, I., Stein, M.A. & Anastasiou, D, Oxford Commentaries on International Law, Oxford University Press. , 2018Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter examines the legal and normative obligations of states under Article 22 of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) to protect individuals with disabilities against unlawful and arbitrary interference with their privacy, both in general and in particular with respect to their personal, health, and rehabilitation information. For persons with disabilities, the right to privacy plays a particularly important role in helping to guarantee rights such as the rights to equality, to freedom from discrimination, to employment, and to education, among others. This is because the right to privacy provides individuals with the right to control information about themselves, including information related to their disability status. The ability to control and limit discovery and disclosure of one’s disability status is essential in helping to protect the individual from discrimination and stigma.

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