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  • 1.
    Fritze, Stefan
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Kemiska sektionen, Institutionen för kemi - Ångström, Oorganisk kemi.
    Koller, Christian M.
    TU Wien, Inst Mat Sci & Technol, A-1060 Vienna, Austria.
    von Fieandt, Linus
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Kemiska sektionen, Institutionen för kemi - Ångström, Oorganisk kemi.
    Malinovskis, Paulius
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Kemiska sektionen, Institutionen för kemi - Ångström, Oorganisk kemi.
    Johansson, Kristina
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Kemiska sektionen, Institutionen för kemi - Ångström, Oorganisk kemi.
    Lewin, Erik
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Kemiska sektionen, Institutionen för kemi - Ångström, Oorganisk kemi.
    Mayrhofer, Paul H.
    TU Wien, Inst Mat Sci & Technol, A-1060 Vienna, Austria.
    Jansson, Ulf
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Kemiska sektionen, Institutionen för kemi - Ångström, Oorganisk kemi.
    Influence of Deposition Temperature on the Phase Evolution of HfNbTiVZr High-Entropy Thin Films2019Inngår i: Materials, ISSN 1996-1944, E-ISSN 1996-1944, Vol. 12, nr 4, artikkel-id 587Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we show that the phase formation of HfNbTiVZr high-entropy thin films is strongly influenced by the substrate temperature. Films deposited at room temperature exhibit an amorphous microstructure and are 6.5 GPa hard. With increasing substrate temperature (room temperature to 275 degrees C), a transition from an amorphous to a single-phased body-centred cubic (bcc) solid solution occurs, resulting in a hardness increase to 7.9 GPa. A higher deposition temperature (450 degrees C) leads to the formation of C14 or C15 Laves phase precipitates in the bcc matrix and a further enhancement of mechanical properties with a peak hardness value of 9.2 GPa. These results also show that thin films follow different phase formation pathways compared to HfNbTiVZr bulk alloys.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 2.
    Johansson, Kristina
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Kemiska sektionen, Institutionen för kemi - Ångström, Oorganisk kemi. Uppsala University.
    Multicomponent Nitride Thin Films by Reactive Magnetron Sputtering2018Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 3.
    Johansson, Kristina
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Kemiska sektionen, Institutionen för kemi - Ångström, Oorganisk kemi.
    Lewin, Erik
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Kemiska sektionen, Institutionen för kemi - Ångström, Oorganisk kemi.
    Influence of oxygen content on structure and material properties of reactively sputtered Al-Ge-O-N thin films2018Inngår i: Journal of Alloys and Compounds, ISSN 0925-8388, E-ISSN 1873-4669, Vol. 738, s. 515-527Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Ternary Al-Ge-N and quaternary Al-Ge-O-N coatings were deposited by reactive dc magnetron cosputtering of Al and Ge targets in an Ar/N-2 or Ar/N-2/O-2 atmosphere at a substrate temperature of 250 degrees C. The structure and material properties of the coatings were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), nanoindentation, UV-vis spectroscopy and optical profilometry. In agreement with literature, the ternary Al-Ge-N coatings were found to be nanocomposite materials with nanocrystalline (Al1-xGex) N-y solid solution phase in a Ge3N4-z amorphous matrix. The Al-Ge-O-N coatings consisted of a nanocrystalline wurzite-type (Al1-xGex)( N1-yOy) solid solution phase for low oxygen concentrations with a possible co-existence of an amorphous Ge-N matrix phase. For higher O contents, the coatings became X-ray amorphous. The mechanical properties of the Al-Ge-O-N films were improved for low oxygen content, as compared to the ternary Al-Ge-N samples, showing an increase in hardness up to 29 GPa and Young's modulus to 320 GPa. The oxygen addition also resulted in an additional design parameter of the optical properties compared to the ternary Al-Ge-N films. The optical absorption edge was thus tuneable towards both shorter and longer wavelength by changing the O and Ge content respectively, and ranged from 302 to 373 nm, corresponding to an optical bandgap (E-04) between 4.1 and 3.3 eV. After annealing of the Al-Ge-O-N coatings in ultra-high vacuum at 500 degrees C, indications of increased thermal stability for the coating with high oxygen content were observed. For the annealed Al-Ge-O-N films the mechanical properties were improved upon heat treatment, while the optical properties were only slightly changed. These results suggests that coatings of the Al-Ge-O-N system could be suitable as protective optical coatings at elevated temperatures.

  • 4.
    Johansson, Kristina
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Kemiska sektionen, Institutionen för kemi - Ångström, Oorganisk kemi.
    Lewin, Erik
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Kemiska sektionen, Institutionen för kemi - Ångström, Oorganisk kemi.
    Reactively Sputtered Al-Ge-O-N Thin Films2017Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 5.
    Johansson, Kristina
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Kemiska sektionen, Institutionen för kemi - Ångström, Oorganisk kemi.
    Lewin, Erik
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Kemiska sektionen, Institutionen för kemi - Ångström, Oorganisk kemi.
    Reactively Sputtered Multicomponent (TiZrHfVNb)N Thin Films2017Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 6.
    Johansson, Kristina
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Kemiska sektionen, Institutionen för kemi - Ångström, Oorganisk kemi.
    Lewin, Erik
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Kemiska sektionen, Institutionen för kemi - Ångström, Oorganisk kemi.
    Structure-property correlations in reactively sputtered Al-Ge-O-N thin films2016Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 7.
    Johansson, Kristina
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Kemiska sektionen, Institutionen för kemi - Ångström, Oorganisk kemi.
    Lewin, Erik
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Kemiska sektionen, Institutionen för kemi - Ångström, Oorganisk kemi.
    Structure-property correlations in reactively sputtered Al-Ge-O-N thin films2016Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 8.
    Johansson, Kristina
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Kemiska sektionen, Institutionen för kemi - Ångström, Oorganisk kemi. Uppsala Univ, Angstrom Lab, Dept Chem, Inorgan Res Programme, Box 538, SE-75121 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Riekehr, Lars
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Tekniska sektionen, Institutionen för teknikvetenskaper, Fasta tillståndets elektronik.
    Fritze, Stefan
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Kemiska sektionen, Institutionen för kemi - Ångström, Oorganisk kemi.
    Lewin, Erik
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Kemiska sektionen, Institutionen för kemi - Ångström, Oorganisk kemi.
    Multicomponent Hf-Nb-Ti-V-Zr nitride coatings by reactive magnetron sputter deposition2018Inngår i: Surface & Coatings Technology, ISSN 0257-8972, E-ISSN 1879-3347, Vol. 349, s. 529-539Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Multicomponent nitride coatings of the Hf-Nb-Ti-V-Zr system with different Hf content (0-18 at.%) were deposited using reactive dc magnetron sputtering. Coatings with lower Hf content (0-7 at.%) were found to consist of a single solid solution phase with NaCl-type structure (space group Fm-3m). Coatings with higher Hf content (10-18 at.%) showed a two-phase material consisting of cubic Fm-3m and tetragonal I4/m:run solid solution phase. The lattice distortion, estimated by calculating the delta-parameter under the assumption of a single solid solution phase, varied between 3.8 and 4.0% and slightly decreased with increasing Hf content. SEM and TEM cross section images showed a columnar microstructure with columns that were frayed on the surface or throughout the whole column. The column size decreased as Hf content increased. The hardness increased from 8 to 19 GPa with increased Hf content, which most probably is related to the change in microstructure rather than change in lattice distortion. The electrical resistivity for all samples ranged between 231 and 286 mu Omega cm.

  • 9.
    Johansson, Kristina
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Kemiska sektionen, Institutionen för kemi - Ångström, Oorganisk kemi.
    Riekehr, Lars
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Tekniska sektionen, Institutionen för teknikvetenskaper, Fasta tillståndets elektronik.
    Fritze, Stefan
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Kemiska sektionen, Institutionen för kemi - Ångström, Oorganisk kemi.
    Lewin, Erik
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Kemiska sektionen, Institutionen för kemi - Ångström, Oorganisk kemi.
    Multicomponent Hf-Nb-Ti-V-Zr nitride coatings by reactive sputter depositionManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 10. Srinath, Aishwarya
    et al.
    von Fieandt, Kristina
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Kemiska sektionen, Institutionen för kemi - Ångström, Oorganisk kemi.
    Lindblad, Rebecka
    Fritze, Stefan
    Korvela, Markus
    Petersson, Jean
    Lewin, Erik
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Kemiska sektionen, Institutionen för kemi - Ångström, Oorganisk kemi.
    Nyholm, Leif
    Corrosion in Al-Cr-Nb-Y-Zr-N multi-component alloys: What role does the nitrogen content play?Manuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 11.
    von Fieandt, Kristina
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Kemiska sektionen, Institutionen för kemi - Ångström, Oorganisk kemi.
    Riekehr, Lars
    Osinger, Barbara
    Fritze, Stefan
    Lewin, Erik
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Kemiska sektionen, Institutionen för kemi - Ångström, Oorganisk kemi.
    Influence of N content on structure and mechanical properties of multi-component Al-Cr-Nb-Y-Zr based thin films by reactive magnetron sputteringManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 12.
    von Fieandt, Linus
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Kemiska sektionen, Institutionen för kemi - Ångström, Oorganisk kemi.
    Johansson, Kristina
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Kemiska sektionen, Institutionen för kemi - Ångström, Oorganisk kemi.
    Larsson, T.
    Seco Tools AB.
    Boman, Mats
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Kemiska sektionen, Institutionen för kemi - Ångström, Oorganisk kemi.
    Lindahl, E.
    AB Sandvik Coromant.
    On the growth, orientation and hardness of chemical vapor deposited Ti(C,N)2018Inngår i: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 645, s. 19-26Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of Ti(C,N) from a reaction gas mixture of TiCl4, CH3CN, H2 and N2 was investigated with respect to gas phase composition and kinetics. The gas phase composition was modelled by thermodynamic calculations and the growth rate of the CVD process was measured when replacing H2 for N2 while the sum of partial pressures H2+N2 was kept constant. The N2/H2 molar ratio was varied from 0 to 19. Single crystal c-sapphire was used as substrates. It was found that low molar ratios (N2/H2 molar ratio below 0.6) lead to an increased Ti(C,N) growth rate with up to 22%, compared to deposition without added N2. The mechanism responsible for the increased growth rate was attributed to the formation and increased gas phase concentration of one major growth species, HCN, in the gas phase. The texture of the Ti(C,N) films were also studied. ⟨211⟩ textured layers were deposited at N2/H2 molar ratios below 9. At higher molar ratios, ⟨111⟩ oriented Ti(C,N) layers were deposited and the grain size increased considerably. The films deposited at a N2/H2 ratio above 9 exhibited superior hardness, reaching 37GPa. The increased hardness is attributed to an almost epitaxial orientation between the layer and the substrate. The absence of grain twinning in the ⟨111⟩ oriented layer also contributed to the increased hardness.The Ti(C,N) layers were characterized by elastic recoil detection analysis, X-ray photo electron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and nanoindentation.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 13.
    von Fieandt, Linus
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Kemiska sektionen, Institutionen för kemi - Ångström, Oorganisk kemi. Sandvik Coromant AB, Hägersten, Sweden.
    Johansson, Kristina
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Kemiska sektionen, Institutionen för kemi - Ångström, Oorganisk kemi.
    Lindahl, Erik
    Sandvik Coromant AB, Hägersten, Sweden.
    Larsson, Tommy
    Seco Tools AB, Fagersta, Sweden.
    Boman, Mats
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Kemiska sektionen, Institutionen för kemi - Ångström, Oorganisk kemi.
    Rehnlund, David
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Kemiska sektionen, Institutionen för kemi - Ångström, Oorganisk kemi.
    Corrosion properties of CVD grown Ti(C,N) coatings in 3.5 wt-% NaCl environment2018Inngår i: Corrosion Engineering, Science and Technology, ISSN 1478-422X, E-ISSN 1743-2782, Vol. 53, nr 4, s. 316-320Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The corrosion behaviour of Titanium carbonitride (Ti(C,N)) films grown by chemical vapour deposition was analysed in artificial sea water environment. From potentiodynamic polarisation curves, two passivation zones were detected, which originated from an initial oxidation of TiC and TiN to TiO2 followed by growth of the TiO2 layer upon increased polarisation. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses verified the mechanism by detecting a gradual decrease in Ti(C,N) peaks accompanied by a gradual increase of oxidised Ti (e.g. TiO2). It was likewise found that carbon in TiC mainly decomposes into carbonate species while the nitrogen in TiN remains elemental and likely escapes as nitrogen gas. Accordingly, Ti(C,N) behaves like a superposition of TiC and TiN with their individual oxidation behaviour, resulting in a highly corrosion resistant material.

  • 14.
    von Fieant, Kristina
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Kemiska sektionen, Institutionen för kemi - Ångström, Oorganisk kemi.
    Reactive Sputtering of Complex Multi-component Nitride Thin Films2019Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The ever-increasing demand on improvement of protective nitride thin films has led to an expansion of the research field into multi-element based materials. The work in this thesis has focused on exploring new complex, multi-component nitride thin films based on three different material systems: Al-Ge-N, Hf-Nb-Ti-V-Zr-N and Al-Cr-Nb-Y-Zr-N. All films were synthesised by reactive dc magnetron sputtering and characterised with regard to structure and material properties, in particular the mechanical, optical and corrosion properties.

    The Al-Ge-O-N coatings exhibited amorphisation of the structure upon oxygen addition, via the formation of a crystalline (Al1-xGex)(N1-yOy) solid solution phase for low O contents. The mechanical properties were improved, and hardness values up to 29 GPa were achieved for low O and Ge concentrations, most likely due to nanocomposite hardening. The optical absorption edge was tuneable towards shorter and longer wavelengths with increasing the O and Ge content respectively. Annealing to 850°C showed indications of increased thermal stability for the quaternary Al-Ge-O-N films compared to the ternary Al-Ge-N films.

    Coatings in the Hf-Nb-Ti-V-Zr-N system were found to be highly crystalline featuring a single solid solution phase with NaCl-type structure for low Hf content, whereas an additional, tetragonally distorted, phase appeared for higher Hf contents. The mechanical properties, such as hardness and Young’s modulus increased with increasing Hf content, although the values were relatively low compared to those for transition metal nitrides in general.

    The Al-Cr-Nb-Y-Zr-N films also crystallised in the NaCl-type structure for the films with high nitrogen contents, i.e. between 46 and 51 at.%. However, partial elemental segregation was present, mainly for yttrium, both within the grains and in the column boundaries. XPS results suggested that yttrium was in a metallic state, while the remaining elements were present in a nitrided environment. The partial segregation could possibly explain the observed ductile behaviour of the nitride films. Electrochemical tests showed that the corrosion resistance increased with increased nitrogen content and the films performed in some cases better than a hyper-duplex stainless steel.

    This thesis demonstrates that solid solutions are formed for three relatively different nitride material systems when varying the composition. The solubilities of the solid solution phases were found to be limited as shown by amorphisation, partial elemental segregation or formation of a two-phase material. The limited solubility and the phase changes can be used to design the material properties.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
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    Download (jpg)
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  • 15.
    von Fieant, Kristina
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Kemiska sektionen, Institutionen för kemi - Ångström, Oorganisk kemi.
    Johansson, Fredrik O. L.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Molekyl- och kondenserade materiens fysik.
    Balmes, Olivier
    MAX IV Laboratory, Lund University, PO Box 118, SE-22100 Lund, Sweden.
    Lindblad, Rebecka
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Kemiska sektionen, Institutionen för kemi - Ångström, Oorganisk kemi.
    Riekehr, Lars
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Kemiska sektionen, Institutionen för kemi - Ångström, Oorganisk kemi.
    Lindblad, Andreas
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Molekyl- och kondenserade materiens fysik.
    Lewin, Erik
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Kemiska sektionen, Institutionen för kemi - Ångström, Oorganisk kemi.
    In Situ Formation of Ge Nanoparticles by Annealing of Al-Ge‑N ThinFilms Followed by HAXPES and XRD2019Inngår i: Inorganic Chemistry, ISSN 0020-1669, E-ISSN 1520-510X, Vol. 58, nr 16, s. 11100-11109Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Ge nanoparticles embedded in thin films have attracted a lot of attention due to their promising optical and electronic properties that can be tuned by varying the particle size and choice of matrix material. In this study, Ge nanoparticle formation was investigated for Al-Ge-N based thin films by simultaneous measurements of HAXPES and grazing incidence XRD during in situ annealing in vacuum conditions. As-deposited Al-Ge-N thin films, synthesized by reactive dc magnetron sputtering, consisted of a nanocrystalline (Al1–xGex)Ny solid solution and an amorphous tissue phase of Ge3Ny. Upon annealing to 750 °C, elemental Ge was formed shown by both HAXPES and XRD measurements, and N2 gas was released as measured by a mass spectrometer. Postannealed ex situ analysis by SEM and TEM showed that the elemental Ge phase formed spherical nanoparticles on the surface of the film, with an average size of 210 nm. As the annealing temperature increased further to 850 °C, the Ge particles on the film surface evaporated, while the phase segregation of Ge still could be observed within the film. Thus, these results show the possibility for a controlled synthesis of Ge nanoparticles through annealing of Al-Ge-N thin films to produce materials suitable for use in electronic or optoelectronic devices.

  • 16.
    von Fieant, Kristina
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Kemiska sektionen, Institutionen för kemi - Ångström, Oorganisk kemi.
    Paschalidou, Eirini-Maria
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Kemiska sektionen, Institutionen för kemi - Ångström, Oorganisk kemi.
    Srinath, Aishwarya
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Kemiska sektionen, Institutionen för kemi - Ångström, Oorganisk kemi.
    Soucek, Pavel
    Masaryk Univ, Dept Phys Elect, Brno, Czech Republic.
    Riekehr, Lars
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Kemiska sektionen, Institutionen för kemi - Ångström, Oorganisk kemi.
    Nyholm, Leif
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Kemiska sektionen, Institutionen för kemi - Ångström, Oorganisk kemi.
    Lewin, Erik
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Kemiska sektionen, Institutionen för kemi - Ångström, Oorganisk kemi.
    Multi-component (Al,Cr,Nb,Y,Zr)N thin films by reactive magnetron sputter deposition for increased hardness and corrosion resistance2020Inngår i: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 693, artikkel-id 137685Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Multi-component nitride thin films in the Al-Cr-Nb-Y-Zr system with non-equimolar composition have been deposited by reactive dc magnetron sputtering. The substrate temperature and substrate bias have been varied, from room temperature to 700 degrees C and from 0 to -200 V respectively. The relationship between these varied growth conditions on the structure, morphology, mechanical and corrosion properties of the films have been probed. All films consisted of a single solid solution with a NaCl-type structure, as shown by X-ray diffraction. However, elemental energy dispersive spectroscopy maps, obtained in the scanning transmission electron microscope, indicated that there could be partial segregation of Al, Cr and Y atoms within the grains. The microstructure of the films became denser, more fine-grained and smoother as the bias and temperature were increased. Nanoindentation showed that the hardness of the films increased with both bias and temperature, reaching a maximum of 27 +/- 2 GPa. The corrosion resistance of the films, studied by performing potentiodynamic polarisation curves in 1 M HCl, was also found to be improved when compared to a commercially available hyper-duplex stainless steel and a ternary reference (Nb,Zr)N thin film as well.

  • 17.
    Zichi, Julien
    et al.
    Royal Inst Technol KTH, Dept Appl Phys, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Chang, Jin
    Delft Univ Technol, Fac Appl Sci, ImPhys Dept, Opt Res Grp, Lorentzweg 1, NL-2628 CJ Delft, Netherlands.
    Steinhauer, Stephan
    Royal Inst Technol KTH, Dept Appl Phys, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Johansson, Kristina
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Kemiska sektionen, Institutionen för kemi - Ångström, Oorganisk kemi.
    Los, Johannes W. N.
    Single Quantum BV, NL-2628 CH Delft, Netherlands.
    Visser, Gus
    Single Quantum BV, NL-2628 CH Delft, Netherlands.
    Kalhor, Nima
    Single Quantum BV, NL-2628 CH Delft, Netherlands.
    Lettner, Thomas
    Royal Inst Technol KTH, Dept Appl Phys, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Elshaari, Ali W.
    Royal Inst Technol KTH, Dept Appl Phys, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Zadeh, Iman Esmaeil
    Delft Univ Technol, Fac Appl Sci, ImPhys Dept, Opt Res Grp, Lorentzweg 1, NL-2628 CJ Delft, Netherlands.
    Zwiller, Val
    Royal Inst Technol KTH, Dept Appl Phys, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden;Single Quantum BV, NL-2628 CH Delft, Netherlands.
    Optimizing the stoichiometry of ultrathin NbTiN films for high-performance superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors2019Inngår i: Optics Express, ISSN 1094-4087, E-ISSN 1094-4087, Vol. 27, nr 19, s. 26579-26587Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The requirements in quantum optics experiments for high single-photon detection efficiency. low timing jitter, low dark count rate and short dead time have been fulfilled with the development of superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors. Although they offer a detection efficiency above 90%, achieving a high time resolution in devices made of amorphous materials is a challenge, particularly at temperatures above 0.8 K. Devices made from niobium nitride and niobium titanium nitride allow us to reach the best timing jitter but. in turn, have stronger requirements in terms of film quality to achieve a high efficiency. Here we take advantage of the flexibility of reactive co-sputter deposition to tailor the composition of NbxTi1-xN superconducting films and show that a Nb fraction of x = 0.62 allows for the fabrication of detectors from films as thick as 9 nm and covering an active area of 20 mu m. with a wide detection saturation plateau at telecom wavelengths and in particular at 1550 nm. This is a signature of an internal detection efficiency saturation, achieved while maintaining the high time resolution associated with NbTiN and operation at 2.5K. With our optimized recipe, we reliably fabricated detectors with high critical current densities reaching a saturation plateau at 1550 nm with 80% system detection efficiency and with a FWHM timing jitter as low as 19.5 ps. (C) 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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