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  • 1.
    Leckner, S.
    et al.
    Malmö University.
    Tenor, Carina
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    Nygren, Gunnar
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    What About the Hyperlocals?: The drivers, organization and economy of independent news media in Sweden2019In: Journalism Practice, ISSN 1751-2786, E-ISSN 1751-2794, Vol. 13, no 1, p. 68-89Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using a survey of a sample of hyperlocal actors in Sweden (N = 178), this article examines preconditions, motivations and sustainability for hyperlocal media operations, outside the traditional media chains, in order to provide a picture of their function in the current media landscape, and to further build on the understanding of the hyperlocal business model. This study extends the hyperlocal definition by including media platforms other than websites. The results show that the operations indeed aim to support and foster citizenship, strengthen democracy and mirror the local community. At the same time, as shown by other studies, the fact that they are not large-scale, highly profitable operations may challenge their sustainability. Nonetheless, most of them claim to be profitable, largely because of the print platform, and have a positive outlook on the future. Revenues from advertising and readership are currently less substantial for Web-based operations, which reinforces the need to broaden the definition of hyperlocal publishing platforms when talking about financial sustainability. Currently, hyperlocal media in Sweden, with small resources and a lower publishing frequency, cannot be viewed as a replacement of established media, but play important roles as complementary alternative voices and contribute to media plurality in the local community.

  • 2.
    Nygren, Gunnar
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    Leckner, Sara
    Tenor, Carina
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    Hyperlocals and Legacy Media: Media Ecologies in Transition2018In: Nordicom Review, ISSN 1403-1108, E-ISSN 2001-5119, Vol. 39, no 1, p. 33-49Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Declining legacy media seriously affects local journalism in Sweden. Since 2004, nearly every second local office for local newspapers has been closed, and local coverage is diminishing. In a parallel development, new types of hyperlocal media are growing, according to a national mapping of local media ecologies. The study presented here is based on two surveys: one of local municipalities and one of independent hyperlocals. The key question is: are hyperlocals filling the gap? In many cases, the motivation behind new hyperlocal media has been discontent with declining media coverage from legacy media. In general, however, the pattern is more complicated; most hyperlocals grow in places where legacy media is also present. The main conclusion is that hyperlocals are only partly filling the gaps from declining legacy media, while parts of Sweden are becoming “news deserts.” Another important result is that hyperlocals are developing both in print and online, often in combination, to create a sustainable business model. 

  • 3.
    Tenor, Carina
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    Hyperlocal News And Media Accountability2018In: Digital Journalism, ISSN 2167-0811, E-ISSN 2167-082X, Vol. 6, no 8, p. 1064-1077Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates how hyperlocal entrepreneurs interpret and undertake the role of accountable journalism, but it still acknowledges the many roles hyperlocal news may hold in a local community. The analysis is built on the approaches within this group toward (1) business and (2) journalism. The findings suggest that the focus of (A) nonprofit/nonprofessional could be to mirror community events, often as a “positive” counter-image. Within (B) nonprofit/professional, interrogative reporting could be viewed as a contribution to the common good. Niches of news alerts and partnership content are found within (C) for-profit/nonprofessional, while a full news standard is the (struggling) ambition within (D) for-profit/professional. The argument can be made that a deeper understanding of how media accountability can be addressed and/or promoted in this diverse sector of scarce resources is a vital question for policymakers, educational institutions and the public–as well as for the future of local journalism.

  • 4.
    Tenor, Carina
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    Logic of an Effectuating Hyperlocal Entrepreneurial processes and passions of online news start-ups2019In: Nordicom Review, ISSN 1403-1108, E-ISSN 2001-5119, Vol. 40, no S2, p. 129-143Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article examines motivations, rewards and strategies in hyperlocal news entrepreneurship. The material is an interview study with eight entrepreneurs who independently own and manage hyperlocal news sites in Sweden. The conclusion is that the means of the hyperlocal entrepreneur both motivate and create an obstacle for growth. The findings of struggling business models, self-exploitation and civic motivations correspond with previous research in different countries, but alternative perspectives are suggested drawing from theories of entrepreneurial passion and processes. Civic motivations can be viewed as part of entrepreneurial passion, and the precarious nature as a low-risk effectuation process. The effectuator explores possible outcomes of given means and builds the business by controlling the affordable loss rather than calculating the possible return. Along with the obvious difficulty in finding a profitable business model when operating in a very small market, this implies a new perspective on failure and success in hyperlocal entrepreneurship, but also underlines that any measures of support for the sector need to be easily accessible for the individual entrepreneur.

  • 5.
    Tenor, Carina
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    Nygren, Gunnar
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    Local Public Communication Filling the Gap for a Vanishing Local Media. A Dilemma for Democracy in Sweden2017In: Voice of the Locality: Local Media And Local Audience / [ed] Waschková Císařová, Lenka, Brno: Masaryk University Press , 2017, p. 215-237Chapter in book (Other academic)
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