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• 1.
LERMA, Observatoire de ParisFrance EstellusParis, France.
LERMA, Observatoire de ParisFrance EstellusParis, France. Universität HamburgGermany. Chalmers University of TechnologySweden. Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik. Cologne UniversityGermany.
Towards more realistic hypotheses for the information content analysis of cloudy/precipitating situations: Application to an hyper‐spectral instrument in the microwaves2019Inngår i: Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, ISSN 0035-9009, E-ISSN 1477-870X, Vol. 145, nr 718, s. 1-14Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)

Information Content (IC) analysis can be used before an instrument is built to estimate its retrieval uncertainties and analyse their sensitivity to several factors. It is a very useful method to define/optimise satellite instruments. IC has shown its potential to compare instrument concepts in the infrared or the microwaves. IC is based on some hypotheses such as the the gaussian character of the Radiative Transfer (RT) and instrument errors, the first guess errors (Gaussian character, std and correlation structure), or the linearisation of the RT around a first guess. These hypotheses are easier to define for simple atmospheric situations. However, even in the clear‐sky case, their complexity has never ceased to increase towards more realism, to optimise the assimilation of satellite measurements in the Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) systems. In the cloudy/precipitating case, these hypotheses are even more difficult to define in a realistic way as many factors are still very difficult to quantify. In this study, several tools are introduced to specify more realistic IC hypotheses than the current practice. We focus on the microwave observations as this is more pertinent for clouds and precipitation. Although not perfect, the proposed solutions are a new step towards more realistic IC assumptions of cloudy/precipitating scenes. A state‐dependence of the RT errors is introduced, the first guess errors have a more complex vertical structure, the IC is performed simultaneously on all the hydrometeors to take into account the contamination effect of the RT input uncertainties, and the IC is performed on a diversified set of cloudy/precipitating scenes with well‐defined hydrometeor assumptions. The method presented in this study is illustrated using the HYperspectral Microwave Sensor (HYMS) instrument concept with channels between 6.9 and 874 GHz (millimeter and sub‐millimeter regions). HYMS is considered as a potential next generation microwave sounder.

• 2.
Estellus, Paris.
Estellus, Paris. Cologne university. Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik. Chalmers University of Technology. Cologne university. ESA, ESTEC. ESA, ESTEC.
Microwave hyperspectral measurements for temperature and humidity atmospheric profiling from satellite: The clear-sky case2015Inngår i: Journal of Geophysical Research - Atmospheres, ISSN 2169-897X, E-ISSN 2169-8996, Vol. 120, nr 21, s. 11334-11351Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)

This study investigates the benefits of a satellite HYper-spectral Microwave Sensor (HYMS) for the retrieval of atmospheric temperature and humidity profiles, in the context of Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP). In the infrared, hyper-spectral instruments have already improved the accuracy of NWP forecasts. Microwave instruments so far only provide observations for a limited number of carefully selected channels. An information content analysis is conducted here to assess the impact of hyper-spectral microwave measurements on the retrieval of temperature and water vapor profiles under clear-sky conditions. It uses radiative transfer simulations over a large variety of atmospheric situations. It accounts for realistic observation (instrument and radiative transfer) noise and for a priori information assumptions compatible with NWP practices. The estimated retrieval performance of the HYMS instrument is compared to those of the microwave instruments to be deployed on board the future generation of European operational meteorological satellites (MetOp-SG). The results confirm the positive impact of a HYMS instrument on the atmospheric profiling capabilities compared to MetOp-SG. Temperature retrieval uncertainty, compared to a priori information, is reduced by 2 to 10%, depending on the atmospheric height, and improvement rates are much higher than what will be obtained with MetOp-SG. For humidity sounding these improvements can reach 30%, a significant benefit as compared to MetOp-SG results especially below 250 hPa. The results are not very sensitive to the instrument noise, under our assumptions. The main impact provided by the hyper-spectral information originates from the higher resolution in the O2 band around 60 GHz. The results are presented over ocean at nadir but similar conclusions are obtained for other incidence angles and over land

• 3.
Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik.
Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik. Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik. Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik. Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB. Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB. Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Strömningslära och experimentell mekanik.
Masters Programs in Space Science and Engineering in Northern Sweden2017Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
• 4.
Météo-France-CNRS, Toulouse .
Météo-France-CNRS, Toulouse. Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik. IRV. Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden. University of Hamburg, Hamburg. University of Hamburg, Hamburg .
Information content on hydrometeors from millimeter and sub-millimeter wavelengths2017Inngår i: Tellus. Series A, Dynamic meteorology and oceanography, ISSN 0280-6495, E-ISSN 1600-0870, Vol. 69, nr 1, artikkel-id 1271562Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)

This study examines the information content on hydrometeors that could be provided by a future HYperspectralMicrowave Sensor (HYMS) with frequencies ranging from 6.9 to 874 GHz (millimeter and sub-millimeter regions). Through optimal estimation theory the information content is expressed quantitatively in terms of degrees of freedom for signal (DFS). For that purpose the Atmospheric Radiative Transfer Simulator (ARTS) and its Jacobians are used with a set of 25 cloudy and precipitating profiles and their associated errors from the European Centre for Medium-range Weather Forecasting (ECMWF) global numerical weather prediction model.

In agreement with previous studies it is shown that frequencies between 10 and 40 GHz are the most informative ones for liquid and rain water contents. Similarly, the absorption band at 118 GHz contains significant information on liquid precipitation. A set of new window channels (15.37-, 40.25-, 101-GHz) could provide additional information on the liquid phase. The most informative channels on cloud icewater are the window channels at 664 and 874GHz and thewater vapour absorption bands at 325 and 448 GHz. Regarding snow water contents, the channels having the largest DFS values are located inwindow regions (150-, 251-, 157-, 101-GHz). However it is necessary to consider 90 channels in order to represent 90% of the DFS. The added value of HYMS has been assessed against current Special Sensor Microwave Imager/Sounder (SSMI/S) onboard the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) and future (Microwave Imager/Ice Cloud Imager (MWI/ICI) onboard European Polar orbiting Satellite – Second Generation (EPS-SG)) microwave sensors. It appears that with a set of 276 channels the information content on hydrometeors would be significantly enhanced: the DFS increases by 1.7 against MWI/ICI and by 3 against SSMI/S. A number of tests have been performed to examine the robustness of the above results. The most informative channels on solid hydrometeors remain the same over land and over ocean surfaces. On the other hand, the database is not large enough to produce robust results over land surfaces for liquid hydrometeors. The sensitivity of the results to the microphysical properties of frozen hydrometeors has been investigated. It appears that a change in size distribution and scattering properties can move the large information content of the channels at 664 and 874 GHz from cloud ice to solid precipitation.

• 5.
Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik.
Met Office Hadley Centre, Exeter. Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Radio and Space Science, Gothenburg.
Efficient radiative transfer simulations for a broadband infrared radiometer: combining a weighted mean of representative frequencies approach with frequency selection by simulated annealing2010Inngår i: Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer, ISSN 0022-4073, E-ISSN 1879-1352, Vol. 111, nr 4, s. 602-615Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)

We present a method to efficiently simulate the measurements of a broadband infrared instrument. The High Resolution Infrared Radiation Sounder (HIRS) instrument is used as example to illustrate the method. The method uses two basic ideas. Firstly, the channel radiance can be approximated by a weighted mean of the radiance at some representative frequencies, where the weights can be determined by linear regression. Secondly, a near-optimal set of representative frequencies can be found by simulated annealing.The paper does not only describe and analyze the method, it also describes how the method was used to derive optimized frequency grids for the HIRS instruments on the satellites TIROS N, NOAA 6-19, and Metop A. The grids and weights, as well as the optimization algorithm itself are openly available under a GNU public license.

• 6.
Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik.
Institut für Umweltphysik (Institute for Environmental Physics) (IUP), University of Bremen. Meteorology and Physical Oceanography, Rosenstiel School for Marine and Atmospheric Science (RSMAS), University of Miami. Meteorology and Physical Oceanography, Rosenstiel School for Marine and Atmospheric Science (RSMAS), University of Miami. Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science (CIRES), University of Colorado, NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory. Institut für Umweltphysik (Institute for Environmental Physics) (IUP), University of Bremen.
An upper tropospheric humidity data set from operational satellite microwave data2008Inngår i: Journal of Geophysical Research, ISSN 0148-0227, E-ISSN 2156-2202, Vol. 113, nr 14, s. D14110-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)

183.31 GHz observations from the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit B (AMSUB) instruments onboard the NOAA 15, 16, and 17 satellites were used to derive a new data set of Upper Tropospheric Humidity (UTH). The data set consist of monthly median and mean data on a 1.5 degrees latitude-longitude grid between 60 degrees S and 60 degrees N, and covers the time period of January 2000 to February 2007. The data from all three instruments are very consistent, with relative difference biases of less than 4% and relative difference standard deviations of 7%. Radiometric contributions by high ice clouds and by the Earth's surface affect the measurements in certain areas. The uncertainty due to clouds is estimated to be up to approximately 10%RH in areas with deep convection. The uncertainty associated with contamination from surface emission can exceed 10%RH in midlatitude winter, where the data therefore should be regarded with caution. Otherwise the surface influence appears negligible. The paper also discusses the UTH median climatology and seasonal cycle, which are found to be broadly consistent with UTH climatologies from other sensors. Finally, the paper presents an initial validation of the new data set against IR satellite data and radiosonde data. The observed biases of up to 9%RH (wet bias relative to HIRS) were found to be broadly consistent with expectations based on earlier studies. The observed standard deviations against all other data sets were below 6%RH. The UTH data are available to the scientific community on http://www.sat.ltu.se.

• 7.
Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik.
Upper tropospheric humidity and cloud ice: comparing global climate models and satellite observations2008Inngår i: 2008 European Geosciences Union General Assembly, Austria Center Vienna, Vienna (Austria), 13-18 Apr 2008, European Geosciences Union (EGU), 2008Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)

Upper tropospheric humidity (UTH) and cloud ice (measured as ice water content IWC or vertically integrated ice water path IWP) are parameters of the climate system on which current global climate models do not agree well. This is illustrated by intercomparing the models in the IPCC AR4 archive. It is then discussed, to what extent different satellite measurements agree on these parameters. The focus is on passive observations from different infrared (HIRS, IASI) and microwave (AMSU-B, HSB) sensors.

• 8.
Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik.
Luleå tekniska universitet. Institute of Environmental Physics, University of Bremen. Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik. Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik. Met Office Hadley Centre, Exeter. Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Institut für Meteorologie und Klimaforschung Karlsruhe. Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Institut für Meteorologie und Klimaforschung Karlsruhe. Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Earth and Space Sciences. Swedish Institute of Space Physics / Institutet för rymdfysik. Research Institute for Global Change, Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology, Yokohama. Atmosphere and Ocean Research Institute, University of Tokyo. Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik. Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik.
A multi-instrument comparison of integrated water vapour measurements at a high latitude site2012Inngår i: Atmospheric Chemistry And Physics, ISSN 1680-7316, E-ISSN 1680-7324, Vol. 12, nr 22, s. 10925-10943Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)

We compare measurements of integrated water vapour (IWV) over a subarctic site (Kiruna, Northern Sweden) from five different sensors and retrieval methods: Radiosondes, Global Positioning System (GPS), ground-based Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer, ground-based microwave radiometer, and satellite-based microwave radiometer (AMSU-B). Additionally, we compare also to ERA-Interim model reanalysis data. GPS-based IWV data have the highest temporal coverage and resolution and are chosen as reference data set. All datasets agree reasonably well, but the ground-based microwave instrument only if the data are cloud-filtered. We also address two issues that are general for such intercomparison studies, the impact of different lower altitude limits for the IWV integration, and the impact of representativeness error. We develop methods for correcting for the former, and estimating the random error contribution of the latter. A literature survey reveals that reported systematic differences between different techniques are study-dependent and show no overall consistent pattern. Further improving the absolute accuracy of IWV measurements and providing climate-quality time series therefore remain challenging problems.

• 9.
Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe.
Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik.
MIPAS reduced spectral resolution UTLS-1 mode measurements of temperature, O3, HNO3, N2O, H2O and relative humidity over ice: retrievals and comparison to MLS2009Inngår i: Atmospheric Measurement Techniques, ISSN 1867-1381, E-ISSN 1867-8548, nr 2, s. 337-353Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)

During several periods since 2005 the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS) on Envisat has performed observations dedicated to the region of the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere (UTLS). For the duration of November/December 2005 global distributions of temperature and several trace gases from MIPAS UTLS-1 mode measurements have been retrieved using the IMK/IAA (Institut für Meteorologie und Klimaforschung/Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía) scientific processor. In the UTLS region a vertical resolution of 3 km for temperaure, 3 to 4 km for H2O, 2.5 to 3 km for O3, 3.5 km for HNO3 and 3.5 to 2.5 km for N2O has been achieved. The retrieved temperature, H2O, O3, HNO3, N2O, and relative humidity over ice are intercompared with the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS/Aura) v2.2 data in the pressure range 316 to 0.68 hPa, 316 to 0.68 hPa, 215 to 0.68 hPa, 215 to 3.16 hPa, 100 to 1 hPa and 316 to 10 hPa, respectively. In general, MIPAS and MLS temperatures are biased within ±4 K over the whole pressure and latitude range. Systematic, latitude-independent differences of −2 to −4 K (MIPAS-MLS) at 121 hPa are explained by previously observed biases in the MLS v2.2 temperature retrievals. Temperature differences of −4 K up to 12 K above 10.0 hPa are present both in MIPAS and MLS with respect to ECMWF (European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts) and are likely due to deficiencies of the ECMWF analysis data. MIPAS and MLS stratospheric volume mixing ratios (vmr) of H2O are biased within ±1 ppmv, with indication of oscillations between 146 and 26 hPa in the MLS dataset. Tropical upper tropospheric values of relative humidity over ice measured by the two instruments differ by ±20% in the pressure range ~146 to 68 hPa. These differences are mainly caused by the MLS temperature biases. Ozone mixing ratios agree within 0.5 ppmv (10 to 20%) between 68 and 14 hPa. At pressures smaller than 10 hPa, MIPAS O3 vmr are higher than MLS by an average of 0.5 ppmv (10%). General agreement between MIPAS and MLS HNO3 is within the range of −1.0 (−10%) to 1.0 ppbv (20%). MIPAS HNO3 is 1.0 ppbv (10%) higher compared to MLS between 46 hPa and 10 hPa over the Northern Hemisphere. Over the tropics at 31.6 hPa MLS shows a low bias of more than 1 ppbv (>50%). In general, MIPAS and MLS N2O vmr agree within 20 to 40 ppbv (20 to 40%). Differences in the range between 100 to 21 hPa are attributed to a known 20% positive bias in MIPAS N2O data.

• 10.
Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Institut für Meteorologie und Klimaforschung Karlsruhe.
Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Institut für Meteorologie und Klimaforschung Karlsruhe. Laboratory of Atmospheric Physics, Physics Department, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki. Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Institut für Meteorologie und Klimaforschung Karlsruhe. Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía CSIC, Granada. Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Institut für Meteorologie und Klimaforschung Karlsruhe. Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Institut für Meteorologie und Klimaforschung Karlsruhe. Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Institut für Meteorologie und Klimaforschung Karlsruhe. Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Institut für Meteorologie und Klimaforschung Karlsruhe. Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik. Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Institut für Meteorologie und Klimaforschung Karlsruhe. Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Institut für Meteorologie und Klimaforschung Karlsruhe.
MIPAS measurements of upper tropospheric C2H6 and O3 during the southern hemispheric biomass burning season in 20032007Inngår i: Atmospheric Chemistry And Physics, ISSN 1680-7316, E-ISSN 1680-7324, Vol. 7, nr 22, s. 5861-5872Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)

Under cloud free conditions, the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS) provides measurements of spectrally resolved limb radiances down to the upper troposphere. These are used to infer global distributions of mixing ratios of atmospheric constituents in the upper troposphere and the stratosphere. From 21 October to 12 November 2003, MIPAS observed enhanced amounts of upper tropospheric C2H6 (up to about 400 pptv) and ozone (up to about 80 ppbv). The absolute values of C2H6, however, may be systematically low by about 30% due to uncertainties of the spectroscopic data used. By means of trajectory calculations, the enhancements observed in the southern hemisphere are, at least partly, attributed to a biomass burning plume, which covers wide parts of the Southern hemisphere, from South America, the Atlantic Ocean, Africa, the Indian Ocean to Australia. The chemical composition of the part of the plume-like pollution belt associated with South American fires, where rainforest burning is predominant appears different from the part of the plume associated with southern African savanna burning. In particular, African savanna fires lead to a larger ozone enhancement than equatorial American fires. In this analysis, MIPAS observations of high ozone were disregarded where low CFC-11 (below 245 pptv) was observed, because this hints at a stratospheric component in the measured signal. Different type of vegetation burning (flaming versus smouldering combustion) has been identified as a candidate explanation for the different plume compositions

• 11.
Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Materialvetenskap. Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik. Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik. Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design. Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik. Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Maskinelement. Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Maskinelement. Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Materialvetenskap. Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik. Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik. Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Kemiteknik. Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design. Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik. Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik. Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design. Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik. Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik. Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik. Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik. Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik. Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik. Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik. Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Maskinelement. Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Materialvetenskap. Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design. Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Materialvetenskap.
Projekt: Rymdforskarskolan2015Annet (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))

The Graduate School of Space Technology

• 12.
Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Radio and Space Science, Gothenburg.
Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Radio and Space Science, Gothenburg. Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena. Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik. Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Radio and Space Science, Gothenburg.
Comparison of satellite limb-sounding humidity climatologies of the uppermost tropical troposphere2008Inngår i: Atmospheric Chemistry And Physics, ISSN 1680-7316, E-ISSN 1680-7324, Vol. 8, nr 2, s. 309-320Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)

Humidity climatologies of the tropical uppermost troposphere from satellite limb emission measurements have been compared. Four instruments are considered; UARS-MLS, Odin-SMR, and Aura-MLS operating in the microwave region, and MIPAS in the infrared region. A reference for the comparison is obtained by MOZAIC in-situ measurements. The upper tropospheric humidity products were compared on basis of their empirical probability density functions and seasonally averaged horizontal fields at two altitude layers, 12 and 15 km. The probability density functions of the microwave datasets were found to be in very good agreement with each other, and were also consistent with MOZAIC. The average seasonal humidities differ with less than 10%RHi between the instruments, indicating that stated measurement accuracies of 20–30% are conservative estimates. The systematic uncertainty in Odin-SMR data due to cloud correction was also independently estimated to be 10%RHi. MIPAS humidity profiles were found to suffer from cloud contamination, with only 30% of the measurements reaching into the upper troposphere, but under clear-sky conditions there is a good agreement between MIPAS, Odin-SMR and Aura-MLS. Odin-SMR and the two MLS datasets can be treated as independent, being based on different underlying spectroscopy and technology. The good agreement between the microwave limb-sounders, and MOZAIC, is therefore an important step towards understanding the upper tropospheric humidity. The found accuracy of 10%RHi is approaching the level required to validate climate modelling of the upper troposphere humidity. The comparison of microwave and infrared also stresses that microwave limb-sounding is necessary for a complete view of the upper troposphere.

• 13. Eliasson, Salomon
Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik.
A study on the ice water path descrepencies between global climate models2008Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
• 14.
Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik.
Department of Radio and Space Science, Chalmers University of Technology. Met Office Hadley Centre, Exeter.
Assessing modelled spatial distributions of ice water path using satellite data2010Inngår i: Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions, ISSN 1680-7367, E-ISSN 1680-7375, Vol. 10, nr 5, s. 12185-12224Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)

The climate models used in the IPCC AR4 show large differences in monthly mean cloud ice. The most valuable source of information that can be used to potentially constrain the models is global satellite data. For this, the data sets must be long enough to capture the inter-annual variability of Ice Water Path (IWP). PATMOS-x was used together with ISCCP for the annual cycle evaluation in Fig. 7 while ECHAM-5 was used for the correlation with other models in Table 3. A clear distinction between ice categories in satellite retrievals, as desired from a model point of view, is currently impossible. However, long-term satellite data sets may still be used to indicate the climatology of IWP spatial distribution. We evaluated satellite data sets from CloudSat, PATMOS-x, ISCCP, MODIS and MSPPS in terms of monthly mean IWP, to determine which data sets can be used to evaluate the climate models. IWP data from CloudSat cloud profiling radar provides the most advanced data set on clouds. As CloudSat data are too short to evaluate the model data directly, it was mainly used here to evaluate IWP from the other satellite data sets. ISCCP and MSPPS were shown to have comparatively low IWP values. ISCCP shows particularly low values in the tropics, while MSPPS has particularly low values outside the tropics. MODIS and PATMOS-x were in closest agreement with CloudSat in terms of magnitude and spatial distribution, with MODIS being the best of the two. As PATMOS-x extends over more than 25 years and is in fairly close agreement with CloudSat, it was chosen as the reference data set for the model evaluation. In general there are large discrepancies between the individual climate models, and all of the models show problems in reproducing the observed spatial distribution of cloud-ice. Comparisons consistently showed that ECHAM-5 is the GCM from IPCC AR4 closest to satellite observations

• 15.
Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik.
Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik. Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik. Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Earth and Space Sciences. Met Office Hadley Centre, Exeter.
Assessing observed and modelled spatial distributions of ice water path using satellite data2011Inngår i: Atmospheric Chemistry And Physics, ISSN 1680-7316, E-ISSN 1680-7324, Vol. 11, nr 1, s. 375-391Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)

The climate models used in the IPCC AR4 show large differences in monthly mean ice water path (IWP). The most valuable source of information that can be used to potentially constrain the models is global satellite data. The satellite datasets also have large differences. The retrieved IWP depends on the technique used, as retrievals based on different techniques are sensitive to different parts of the cloud column. Building on the foundation of Waliser et al. (2009), this article provides a more comprehensive comparison between satellite datasets. IWP data from the CloudSat cloud profiling radar provide the most advanced dataset on clouds. For all its unmistakable value, CloudSat data are too short and too sparse to assess climatic distributions of IWP, hence the need to also use longer datasets. We evaluate satellite datasets from CloudSat, PATMOS-x, ISCCP, MODIS and MSPPS in terms of monthly mean IWP, in order to determine the differences and relate them to the sensitivity of the instrument used in the retrievals. This information is also used to evaluate the climate models, to the extent that is possible. ISCCP and MSPPS were shown to have comparatively low IWP values. ISCCP shows particularly low values in the tropics, while MSPPS has particularly low values outside the tropics. MODIS and PATMOS-x were in closest agreement with CloudSat in terms of magnitude and spatial distribution, with MODIS being the better of the two. Additionally PATMOS-x and ISCCP, which have a temporal range long enough to capture the inter-annual variability of IWP, are used in conjunction with CloudSat IWP (after removing profiles that contain precipitation) to assess the IWP variability and mean of the climate models. In general there are large discrepancies between the individual climate models, and all of the models show problems in reproducing the observed spatial distribution of cloud-ice. Comparisons consistently showed that ECHAM-5 is probably the GCM from IPCC AR4 closest to satellite observations

• 16. Glatthor, N.
Retrieval of stratospheric ozone profiles from MIPAS/ENVISAT limb emission spectra: a sensitivity study2006Inngår i: Atmospheric Chemistry And Physics, ISSN 1680-7316, E-ISSN 1680-7324, Vol. 6, nr 10, s. 2767-2781Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)

We report on the dependence of ozone volume mixing ratio profiles, retrieved from limb emission infrared spectra of the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS), on different retrieval setups such as the treatment of the background continuum, cloud filtering, spectral regions used for analysis and a series of further more technical parameter choices. The purpose of this investigation is to better understand the error sources of the ozone retrieval, to optimize the current retrieval setup and to document changes in the data versions. It was shown that the cloud clearing technique used so far (cloud index 1.8) does not reliably exclude all cloud-contaminated spectra from analysis. Through analysis of spectra calculated for cloudy atmospheres we found that the cloud index should be increased to a value of 3.0 or higher. Further, it was found that assignment of a common background continuum to adjacent microwindows within 5 cm−1 is advantageous, because it sufficiently represents the continuum emission by aerosols, clouds and gases as reported in the literature, and is computationally more efficient. For ozone retrieval we use ozone lines from MIPAS band A (685–970 cm−1) and band AB (1020–1170 cm−1) as well. Therefore we checked ozone retrievals with lines from bands A or AB only for a systematic difference. Such a difference was indeed found and could, to a major part, be attributed to the spectroscopic data used in these two bands, and to a minor part to neglection of modelling of non-local thermodynamic (non-LTE) emissions. Another potential explanation, a bias in the radiance calibration of level-1B spectra of bands A and AB, could largely be ruled out by correlation analysis and inspection of broadband spectra. Further upgrades in the ozone retrieval consist of application of an all-zero a-priori profile and a weaker regularization. Finally, the ozone distribution obtained with the new retrieval setup (data versions V3o_O3_7) was compared to the data version used before (V2_O3_2). Differences are smaller than $\pm$0.4 ppmv in the altitude region 15–50 km. Further, differences to ozone measured by the HALogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE) on the Upper Atmospheric Research Satellite (UARS) are partly reduced with the new MIPAS data version.

• 17.
Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Institut für Meteorologie und Klimaforschung Karlsruhe.
Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Institut für Meteorologie und Klimaforschung Karlsruhe. Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Institut für Meteorologie und Klimaforschung Karlsruhe. Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía CSIC, Granada. Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Institut für Meteorologie und Klimaforschung Karlsruhe. Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Institut für Meteorologie und Klimaforschung Karlsruhe. Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Institut für Meteorologie und Klimaforschung Karlsruhe. Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Institut für Meteorologie und Klimaforschung Karlsruhe. Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Institut für Meteorologie und Klimaforschung Karlsruhe. Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Institut für Meteorologie und Klimaforschung Karlsruhe. Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Institut für Meteorologie und Klimaforschung Karlsruhe.
Global peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) retrieval in the upper troposphere from limb emission spectra of the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS)2007Inngår i: Atmospheric Chemistry And Physics, ISSN 1680-7316, E-ISSN 1680-7324, Vol. 7, nr 11, s. 2775-2787Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)

We use limb emission spectra of the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS) onboard the ENVIronmental SATellite (ENVISAT) to derive the first global distribution of peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) in the upper troposphere. PAN is generated in tropospheric air masses polluted by fuel combustion or biomass burning and acts as a reservoir and carrier of NOx in the cold free troposphere. PAN exhibits continuum-like broadband structures in the mid-infrared region and was retrieved in a contiguous analysis window covering the wavenumber region 775–800 cm−1. The interfering species CCl4, HCFC-22, H2O, ClONO2, CH3CCl3 and C2H2 were fitted along with PAN, whereas pre-fitted profiles were used to model the contribution of other contaminants like ozone. Sensitivity tests consisting in retrieval without consideration of PAN demonstrated the existence of PAN signatures in MIPAS spectra obtained in polluted air masses. The analysed dataset consists of 10 days between 4 October and 1 December 2003. This period covers the end of the biomass burning season in South America and South and East Africa, in which generally large amounts of pollutants are produced and distributed over wide areas of the southern hemispheric free troposphere. Indeed, elevated PAN amounts of 200–700 pptv were measured in a large plume extending from Brasil over the Southern Atlantic, Central and South Africa, the South Indian Ocean as far as Australia at altitudes between 8 and 16 km. Enhanced PAN values were also found in a much more restricted area between northern subtropical Africa and India. The most significant northern midlatitude PAN signal was detected in an area at 8 km altitude extending from China into the Chinese Sea. The average mid and high latitude PAN amounts found at 8 km were around 125 pptv in the northern, but only between 50 and 75 pptv in the southern hemisphere. The PAN distribution found in the southern hemispheric tropics and subtropics is highly correlated with the jointly fitted acetylene (C2H2), which is another pollutant produced by biomass burning, and agrees reasonably well with the CO plume detected during end of September 2003 at the 275 hPa level (~10 km) by the Measurement of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT) instrument on the Terra satellite. Similar southern hemispheric PAN amounts were also observed by previous airborne measurements performed in September/October 1992 and 1996 above the South Atlantic and the South Pacific, respectively.

• 18. Höpfner, M.
Validation of MIPAS ClONO2 measurements2007Inngår i: Atmospheric Chemistry And Physics, ISSN 1680-7316, E-ISSN 1680-7324, Vol. 7, nr 1, s. 257-281Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)

Altitude profiles of ClONO2 retrieved with the IMK (Institut für Meteorologie und Klimaforschung) science-oriented data processor from MIPAS/Envisat (Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding on Envisat) mid-infrared limb emission measurements between July 2002 and March 2004 have been validated by comparison with balloon-borne (Mark IV, FIRS2, MIPAS-B), airborne (MIPAS-STR), ground-based (Spitsbergen, Thule, Kiruna, Harestua, Jungfraujoch, Izaña, Wollongong, Lauder), and spaceborne (ACE-FTS) observations. With few exceptions we found very good agreement between these instruments and MIPAS with no evidence for any bias in most cases and altitude regions. For balloon-borne measurements typical absolute mean differences are below 0.05 ppbv over the whole altitude range from 10 to 39 km. In case of ACE-FTS observations mean differences are below 0.03 ppbv for observations below 26 km. Above this altitude the comparison with ACE-FTS is affected by the photochemically induced diurnal variation of ClONO2. Correction for this by use of a chemical transport model led to an overcompensation of the photochemical effect by up to 0.1 ppbv at altitudes of 30–35 km in case of MIPAS-ACE-FTS comparisons while for the balloon-borne observations no such inconsistency has been detected. The comparison of MIPAS derived total column amounts with ground-based observations revealed no significant bias in the MIPAS data. Mean differences between MIPAS and FTIR column abundances are 0.11±0.12×1014 cm−2 (1.0±1.1%) and −0.09±0.19×1014 cm−2 (−0.8±1.7%), depending on the coincidence criterion applied. χ2 tests have been performed to assess the combined precision estimates of MIPAS and the related instruments. When no exact coincidences were available as in case of MIPAS – FTIR or MIPAS – ACE-FTS comparisons it has been necessary to take into consideration a coincidence error term to account for χ2 deviations. From the resulting χ2 profiles there is no evidence for a systematic over/underestimation of the MIPAS random error analysis.

• 19.
Karlsruhe Institute of Technology.
Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik. Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik. Karlsruhe Institute of Technology. Karlsruhe Institute of Technology.
The natural greenhouse effect of atmospheric oxygen (O2) and nitrogen (N2)2012Inngår i: Geophysical Research Letters, ISSN 0094-8276, E-ISSN 1944-8007, Vol. 39, s. L10706-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)

The effect of collision-induced absorption by molecular oxygen (O 2) and nitrogen (N 2) on the outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) of the Earth's atmosphere has been quantified. We have found that on global average under clear-sky conditions the OLR is reduced due to O 2 by 0.11 Wm -2 and due to N 2 by 0.17 Wm -2. Together this amounts to 15% of the OLR-reduction caused by CH 4 at present atmospheric concentrations. Over Antarctica the combined effect of O 2 and N 2 increases on average to about 38% of CH 4 with single values reaching up to 80%. This is explained by less interference of H 2O spectral bands on the absorption features of O 2 and N 2 for dry atmospheric conditions

• 20. Kiefer, M.
Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik.
Impact of temperature field inhomogeneities on the retrieval of atmospheric species from MIPAS IR limb emission spectra2010Inngår i: Atmospheric Measurement Techniques Discussions, ISSN 1867-8610, E-ISSN 1867-8610, Vol. 3, nr 2, s. 1707-1742Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)

We examine volume mixing ratios (vmr) retrieved from limb emission spectra recorded with the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS). In level 2 (L2) data products of three different retrieval processors, which perform one dimensional (1-D) retrievals, we find significant differences between species' profiles from ascending and descending orbit parts. The relative differences vary systematically with time of the year, latitude, and altitude. In the lower stratosphere their monthly means can reach maxima of 20% for CFC-11, CFC-12, HNO3, H2O, 10% for CH4 and N2O. Relative differences between monthly means of 1-D retrieval results and of the true atmospheric state can be expected to reach half of these percentage values, while relative differences in single vmr profiles might well exceed those numbers. Often there are no physical or chemical reasons for these differences, so they are an indicator for a problem in the data processing. The differences are generally largest at locations where the meridional temperature gradient of the atmosphere is strong. On the contrary, when performing the retrieval with a tomographic two dimensional (2-D) retrieval, L2 products generally do not show these differences. This implies that inhomogeneities in the temperature field, and possibly in the species' fields, which are accounted for in the 2-D algorithm and not in standard 1-D processors, may cause significant deviations in the results. Inclusion of an externally given adequate temperature gradient in the forward model of a 1-D processor helps to reduce the observed differences. However, only the full tomographic approach is suitable to resolve the horizontal inhomogeneities. Implications for the use of the 1-D data, e.g. for validation, are discussed. The dependence of the ascending/descending differences on the observation strategy suggests that this problem is to be expected to affect in general 1-D retrievals of infrared limb sounders, if the line of sight of the instrument has a significant component in the direction of the horizontal temperature variation.

• 21.
Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Institut für Meteorologie und Klimaforschung Karlsruhe.
Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Institut für Meteorologie und Klimaforschung Karlsruhe. Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Institut für Meteorologie und Klimaforschung Karlsruhe. Rhea System SA, Louvain-La-Neuve. Vitrociset S.p.A., Rome. Dipertemento di Chimica Fisica e Inorganica, Universitá di Bologna.
Characterization of MIPAS elevation pointing2007Inngår i: Atmospheric Chemistry And Physics, ISSN 1680-7316, E-ISSN 1680-7324, Vol. 7, nr 6, s. 1615-1628Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)

Sufficient knowledge of the pointing is essential for analyses of limb emission measurements. The scientific retrieval processor for MIPAS on ENVISAT operated at IMK allows the retrieval of pointing information in terms of tangent altitudes along with temperature. The retrieved tangent altitudes are independent of systematic offsets in the engineering Line-Of-Sight (LOS) information delivered with the ESA Level 1b product. The difference of pointing retrieved from the reprocessed high resolution MIPAS spectra and the engineering pointing information was examined with respect to spatial/temporal behaviour. Among others the following characteristics of MIPAS pointing could be identified: Generally the engineering tangent altitudes are too high by 0–1.8 km with conspicuous variations in this range over time. Prior to December of 2003 there was a drift of about 50–100 m/h, which was due to a slow change in the satellite attitude. A correction of this attitude is done twice a day, which leads to discontinuities in the order of 1–1.5 km in the tangent altitudes. Occasionally discontinuities up to 2.5 km are found, as already reported from MIPAS and SCIAMACHY observations. After an update of the orbit position software in December 2003 values of drift and jumps are much reduced. There is a systematic difference in the mispointing between the poles which amounts to 1.5–2 km, i.e. there is a conspicuous orbit-periodic feature. The analysis of the correlation between the instrument's viewing angle azimuth and differential mispointing supports the hypotheses that a major part of this latter phenomenon can be attributed to an error in the roll angle of the satellite/instrument system of approximately 42 mdeg. One conclusion is that ESA level 2 data should be compared to other data exclusively on tangent pressure levels. Complementary to IMK data, ESA operational LOS calibration results were used to characterize MIPAS pointing. For this purpose MIPAS is used as a radiometer while the passage of infrared bright stars through the instrument's field of view is recorded. Deviation from expected time of passage gives information about mispointing. Results are: a pronounced seasonal variation of the LOS is seen before a correction of on-board software took place in December of 2003. Further a pitch bias of 26 mdeg with respect to the platform attitude information is found, which corresponds to 1.45 km tangent altitude offset towards low altitudes.

• 22.
Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik.
Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik. UK Met Office, Exeter. Milo Scientific LLC, Lafayette, Colorado. Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik. Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik.
On the importance of Vaisala RS92 radiosonde humidity corrections for a better agreement between measured and modeled satellite radiances2012Inngår i: Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, ISSN 0739-0572, E-ISSN 1520-0426, Vol. 29, nr 2, s. 248-259Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)

• 23.
National Institute of Information and Communications Technology, Tokyo, Japan.
Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik. IRV. Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg. Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg. National Institute of Information and Communications Technology, Tokyo, Japan. University of Hamburg. Lancaster University. University of Colorado, Boulder. Max planck Institute for Solar System Research, Göttingen, Germany .
Martian magnetism with orbiting sub-millimeter sensor: simulated retrieval system2017Inngår i: Geoscientific Instrumentation, Methods and Data Systems, ISSN 2193-0856, E-ISSN 2193-0864, Vol. 6, nr 1, s. 27-37Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)

A Mars-orbiting sub-millimeter sensor can be used to retrieve the magnetic field at low altitudes over large areas of significant planetary crustal magnetism of the sur- face of Mars from measurements of circularly polarized radi- ation emitted by the 368 GHz ground-state molecular oxygen absorption line. We design a full retrieval system for one ex- ample orbit to show the expected accuracies on the magnetic field components that one realization of such a Mars satellite mission could achieve. For one set of measurements around a tangent profile, we find that the two horizontal components of the magnetic field can be measured at about 200 nT error with a vertical resolution of around 4 km from 6 up to 70 km in tangent altitude. The error is similar regardless of the true strength of the magnetic field, and it can be reduced by re- peated measurements over the same area. The method and some of its potential pitfalls are described and discussed.

• 24.
Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik.
Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik. UK Met Office, Exeter. UK Met Office, Exeter. UK Met Office, Exeter. UK Met Office, Exeter. Meteorological Institute, University of Hamburg, Hamburg. Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Earth and Space Sciences. EUMETSAT, Darmstadt.
Modeling the Zeeman effect in high altitude SSMIS channels for numerical weather prediction profiles: Comparing a fast model and a line-by-line model2015Inngår i: Atmospheric Measurement Techniques Discussions, ISSN 1867-8610, E-ISSN 1867-8610, Vol. 8, nr 10, s. 10179-10211Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)

We present a comparison of a reference and a fast radiative transfer model using numerical weather prediction profiles for the Zeeman-affected high altitude Special Sensor Microwave Imager/Sounder channels 19–22. We find that the models agree well for channels 21 and 22 compared to the channels' system noise temperatures (1.9 and 1.3 K, respectively) and the expected profile errors at the affected altitudes (estimated to be around 5 K). For channel 22 there is a 0.5 K average difference between the models, with a standard deviation of 0.24 K for the full set of atmospheric profiles. Same channel, there is 1.2 K in average between the fast model and the sensor measurement, with 1.4 K standard deviation. For channel 21 there is a 0.9 K average difference between the models, with a standard deviation of 0.56 K. Same channel, there is 1.3 K in average between the fast model and the sensor measurement, with 2.4 K standard deviation. We consider the relatively small model differences as a validation of the fast Zeeman effect scheme for these channels. Both channels 19 and 20 have smaller average differences between the models (at below 0.2 K) and smaller standard deviations (at below 0.4 K) when both models use a two-dimensional magnetic field profile. However, when the reference model is switched to using a full three-dimensional magnetic field profile, the standard deviation to the fast model is increased to almost 2 K due to viewing geometry dependencies causing up to ± 7 K differences near the equator. The average differences between the two models remain small despite changing magnetic field configurations. We are unable to compare channels 19 and 20 to sensor measurements due to limited altitude range of the numerical weather prediction profiles. We recommended that numerical weather prediction software using the fast model takes the available fast Zeeman scheme into account for data assimilation of the affected sensor channels to better constrain the upper atmospheric temperatures.

• 25.
Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik.
Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik. UK Met Office, Exeter. UK Met Office, Exeter. UK Met Office, Exeter. UK Met Office, Exeter. Meteorological Institute, University of Hamburg, Hamburg. Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Earth and Space Sciences. EUMETSAT, Darmstadt.
Modeling the Zeeman effect in high altitude SSMIS channels for numerical weather prediction profiles: Comparing a fast model and a line-by-line model2016Inngår i: Atmospheric Measurement Techniques, ISSN 1867-1381, E-ISSN 1867-8548, Vol. 9, nr 2, s. 841-857Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)

We present a comparison of a reference and a fast radiative transfer model using numerical weather prediction profiles for the Zeeman-affected high altitude Special Sensor Microwave Imager/Sounder channels 19–22. We find that the models agree well for channels 21 and 22 compared to the channels' system noise temperatures (1.9 and 1.3 K, respectively) and the expected profile errors at the affected altitudes (estimated to be around 5 K). For channel 22 there is a 0.5 K average difference between the models, with a standard deviation of 0.24 K for the full set of atmospheric profiles. Same channel, there is 1.2 K in average between the fast model and the sensor measurement, with 1.4 K standard deviation. For channel 21 there is a 0.9 K average difference between the models, with a standard deviation of 0.56 K. Same channel, there is 1.3 K in average between the fast model and the sensor measurement, with 2.4 K standard deviation. We consider the relatively small model differences as a validation of the fast Zeeman effect scheme for these channels. Both channels 19 and 20 have smaller average differences between the models (at below 0.2 K) and smaller standard deviations (at below 0.4 K) when both models use a two-dimensional magnetic field profile. However, when the reference model is switched to using a full three-dimensional magnetic field profile, the standard deviation to the fast model is increased to almost 2 K due to viewing geometry dependencies causing up to ± 7 K differences near the equator. The average differences between the two models remain small despite changing magnetic field configurations. We are unable to compare channels 19 and 20 to sensor measurements due to limited altitude range of the numerical weather prediction profiles. We recommended that numerical weather prediction software using the fast model takes the available fast Zeeman scheme into account for data assimilation of the affected sensor channels to better constrain the upper atmospheric temperatures.

• 26.
CNRM–GAME, Météo-France and CNRS.
CNRM–GAME, Météo-France and CNRS. Estellus, Paris. L'Observatoire de Paris-LERMA. University of Cologne. Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik.
Information content on temperature and water vapour from a hyper-spectral microwave sensor2015Inngår i: Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, ISSN 0035-9009, E-ISSN 1477-870X, Vol. 141, nr 693, s. 3268-3284Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)

This study examines the information content on atmospheric temperature and humidity profiles that could be provided by a future spaceborne microwave sensor with a few hundred radiances in the millimetre and submillimetre spectral domains (ranging from 7–800 GHz). A channel selection method based on optimal estimation theory is undertaken, using a database of profiles with associated errors from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) numerical weather prediction model and the radiative transfer model Atmospheric Radiative Transfer Simulator (ARTS) under clear-sky conditions. The main results indicate that, by increasing the number of channels within the oxygen absorption band around 60 GHz and within the water-vapour absorption band at 183 GHz, the accuracy of temperature and humidity retrievals in the troposphere and stratosphere (for temperature) would be noticeably improved compared with present and planned microwave radiometers. The channels located in the absorption lines at 118 GHz and above 200 GHz do not bring significant additional information regarding atmospheric profiles under clear-sky conditions, partly due to greater radiometric noise. With a set of 137 selected channels that contribute to 90% of the total information content (measured by the degree of freedom for signal), it is possible to achieve almost the same performance in terms of variance error reduction as with 276 candidate channels. Sensitivity studies of various prescribed quantities defining the channel selection have been undertaken, in order to check the robustness of the conclusions. They show that none of the choices modifies the above findings.

• 27.
Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik.
Study on forest fire detection with satellite data2013Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
• 28. Milz, Mathias
Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik. Met Office Hadley Centre, Exeter.
Comparison of AIRS and AMSU-B monthly mean estimates of upper tropospheric humidity2009Inngår i: Geophysical Research Letters, ISSN 0094-8276, E-ISSN 1944-8007, Vol. 36, nr L10804Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)

Satellite-borne measurements provide valuable information on the global distribution of upper tropospheric humidity (UTH), which represents the mean relative humidity in a layer approximately enclosed by the atmospheric pressure levels 500 and 200 hPa. Monthly mean distributions of microwave observations of UTH obtained from the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-B (AMSU-B) and the Humidity Sounder for Brazil (HSB) are compared to infrared observations of UTH from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS). All data sets for January 2003 show distributions as expected from climatologies. Data of AIRS and AMSU-B averaged on 1.5° × 1.5° lat-lon bins for January 2003 show good overall agreement. However, with 2.7%RH AIRS shows an unexpected wet mean bias, especially for regions where the influence of clouds is small or cloud affected measurements are excluded for both sensors. In regions where AIRS is sensitive to cloud affected measurements but not AMSU-B, the bias is reduced and partly negative.

• 29.
Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik.
Comparison of UTH Measurements from Satellite-Borne IR and MW Sensors2008Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
• 30.
Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik.
Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe. University of York, Department of Chemistry. University of Waterloo, Deptment of Chemistry, Waterloo. Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe. University of Bern, Institute of Applied Physics, Atmospheric Research Group. Max-Planck-Institut für Biogeochemie, Jena. Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía CSIC, Granada. Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe. Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe. CNRS, UVSQ, LATMOS, Verrieres Le Buisson. University of Bern, Institute of Applied Physics, Atmospheric Research Group. Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe. University of Bern, Institute of Applied Physics, Atmospheric Research Group. Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe. Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe. University of Bern, Institute of Applied Physics, Atmospheric Research Group. National Institute for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba. Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe. NASA, Langley Research Centre, Scientific Directorate. Forschungszentrum Julich. Hampton University, Department of Physics. Forschungszentrum Julich. National Institute for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba. Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe.
Validation of water vapour profiles (version 13) retrieved by the IMK/IAA scientific retrieval processor based on full resolution spectra measured by MIPAS on board Envisat2009Inngår i: Atmospheric Measurement Techniques, ISSN 1867-1381, E-ISSN 1867-8548, nr 2, s. 379-399Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)

Vertical profiles of stratospheric water vapour measured by the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS) with the full resolution mode between September 2002 and March 2004 and retrieved with the IMK/IAA scientific retrieval processor were compared to a number of independent measurements in order to estimate the bias and to validate the existing precision estimates of the MIPAS data. The estimated precision for MIPAS is 5 to 10% in the stratosphere, depending on altitude, latitude, and season. The independent instruments were: the Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE), the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE-FTS), the Improved Limb Atmospheric Spectrometer-II (ILAS-II), the Polar Ozone and Aerosol Measurement (POAM III) instrument, the Middle Atmospheric Water Vapour Radiometer (MIAWARA), the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding, balloon-borne version (MIPAS-B), the Airborne Microwave Stratospheric Observing System(AMSOS), the Fluorescent Stratospheric Hygrometer for Balloon (FLASH-B), the NOAA frostpoint hygrometer, and the Fast In Situ Hygrometer (FISH). For the in-situ measurements and the ground based, air- and balloon borne remote sensing instruments, the measurements are restricted to central and northern Europe. The comparisons to satellite-borne instruments are predominantly at mid- to high latitudes on both hemispheres. In the stratosphere there is no clear indicationof a bias in MIPAS data, because the independent measurements in some cases are drier and in some cases are moister than the MIPAS measurements. Compared to the infrared measurements of MIPAS, measurements in the ultraviolet and visible have a tendency to be high, whereas microwave measurements have a tendency to be low. Theresults of chi2-based precision validation are somewhat controversial among the comparison estimates. However, for comparison instruments whose error budget also includes errors due to uncertainties in spectrally interfering species and where good coincidences were found, the chi2 values found are in the expected range or even below. This suggests that there is no evidence of systematically underestimated MIPAS random errors.

• 31. Milz, Mathias
Automated quality control of scene and residual FTIR spectra1999Inngår i: Proceedings of SPIE, the International Society for Optical Engineering, ISSN 0277-786X, E-ISSN 1996-756X, Vol. 3821, s. 404-415Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)

Spectrally high-resolved infrared spectra from Fourier transform experiments are often used to determine atmospheric parameters. Reliability of results depends on the quality of the measured spectra and on the successful fit of modeled spectra to the measured ones. Algorithms are presented which enable automated quality control of measured spectra as well as the differences between measured and the calculated spectra, so-called residual spectra. The measured scene spectrum is checked for successful phase correction, the compliance of given maximum and minimum envelope functions, spectral patterns in the variance spectrum, which is calculated during coaddition of several spectra, if applicable. The symmetry of isolated lines, the consistence of expected and real noise, and the plausibility of the magnitude of background radiation are assessed.The quality of the spectral fit first is assessed by means of the X2-test and, is checked for superimposed functions, periodicities, spectral signatures, and conspicuous determine possible calculated spectra.

• 32. Milz, Mathias
Retrieval of water vapour in the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere from mipas envisat limb emission spectra1999Inngår i: Proceedings of SPIE, the International Society for Optical Engineering, ISSN 0277-786X, E-ISSN 1996-756X, Vol. 3756, s. 536-543Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)

Global Measurements of water vapor in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UT/LS) are required to assess its influence on the radiation budget of the Earth and for its use as a suitable tracer for the study of troposphere-stratosphere exchange processes(STE). MIPAS (Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding) is a Fourier transform spectrometer measuring limb emission spectra. The field of view of the satellite-borne MIPAS/Envisat is rather wide compared to horizontal and vertical structures in real water vapor distributions (e.g. hygropause). Our aim is to derive UT/LS water vapor profiles from MIPAS/Envisat data with optimized spatial resolution and accuracy. The retrieval errors and vertical resolution were assessed in an altitude- range 5 - 25 km with respect to a MIPAS standard observation scenario and the retrieval of the water vapor profile to be performed on the measurement grid. As target parameters we used water vapor and continuum in the first case and water vapor, temperature and continuum in the second scenario. Improvements by joint retrieval of water vapor and temperature are investigated, in particular for saturated H2O- signatures originating fromthe troposphere. The vertical resolution was estimated by the use of so-called averaging kernels.

• 33.
University of Bern.
University of Bern. Max-Planck-Institut for Biogeochemistry, Jena. University of Bern. Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik. Central Aerological Observatory, Moscow Region. Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Jülich. DLR-Institut für Physik der Atmosphäre, Oberpfaffenhofen. Chalmers University of Technology.
Validation of stratospheric water vapour measurements from the airborne microwave radiometer AMSOS2008Inngår i: Atmospheric Chemistry And Physics, ISSN 1680-7316, E-ISSN 1680-7324, Vol. 8, nr 12, s. 3169-3183Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)

We present the validation of a water vapour dataset obtained by the Airborne Microwave Stratospheric Observing System AMSOS, a passive microwave radiometer operating at 183 GHz. Vertical profiles are retrieved from spectra by an optimal estimation method. The useful vertical range lies in the upper troposphere up to the mesosphere with an altitude resolution of 8 to 16 km and a horizontal resolution of about 57 km. Flight campaigns were performed once a year from 1998 to 2006 measuring the latitudinal distribution of water vapour from the tropics to the polar regions. The obtained profiles show clearly the main features of stratospheric water vapour in all latitudinal regions. Data are validated against a set of instruments comprising satellite, ground-based, airborne remote sensing and in-situ instruments. It appears that AMSOS profiles have a dry bias of 0 to ĝ€"20%, when compared to satellite experiments. Also a comparison between AMSOS and in-situ hygrosondes FISH and FLASH have been performed. A matching in the short overlap region in the upper troposphere of the lidar measurements from the DIAL

• 34.
DLR, Remote Sensing Technology Institute, 82234 Oberpfaffenhofen.
DLR, Remote Sensing Technology Institute, 82234 Oberpfaffenhofen. Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik. Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik. Karlsruhe Institute of Technology. Karlsruhe Institute of Technology. Karlsruhe Institute of Technology.
Intercomparison of three microwave/infrared high resolution line-by-line radiative transfer codes2013Inngår i: International Radiation Symposium: Radiation Processes in the Atmosphere and Ocean, IRS 2012, Berlin, Germany; 6 August 2012-10 August 2012, 2013, s. 119-122Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)

An intercomparison of three line-by-line (lbl) codes developed independently for atmospheric sounding - ARTS, GARLIC, and KOPRA - has been performed for a thermal infrared nadir sounding application assuming a HIRS-like (High resolution Infrared Radiation Sounder) setup. Radiances for the HIRS infrared channels and a set of 42 atmospheric profiles from the "Garand dataset" have been computed. Results of this intercomparison and a discussion of reasons of the observed differences are presented

• 35.
DLR, Remote Sensing Technology Institute, 82234 Oberpfaffenhofen.
Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik. Universität Hamburg, Meteorological Institute. KIT — Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute of Meteorology and Climate Research.
Intercomparison of three microwave/infrared high resolution line-by-line radiative transfer codes2018Inngår i: Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer, ISSN 0022-4073, E-ISSN 1879-1352, Vol. 211, s. 64-77Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)

An intercomparison of three line-by-line (lbl) codes developed independently for atmospheric radiative transfer and remote sensing – ARTS, GARLIC, and KOPRA – has been performed for a thermal infrared nadir sounding application assuming a HIRS-like (High resolution Infrared Radiation Sounder) setup. Radiances for the 19 HIRS infrared channels and a set of 42 atmospheric profiles from the “Garand dataset” have been computed.

The mutual differences of the equivalent brightness temperatures are presented and possible causes of disagreement are discussed. In particular, the impact of path integration schemes and atmospheric layer discretization is assessed. When the continuum absorption contribution is ignored because of the different implementations, residuals are generally in the sub-Kelvin range and smaller than 0.1 K for some window channels (and all atmospheric models and lbl codes). None of the three codes turned out to be perfect for all channels and atmospheres. Remaining discrepancies are attributed to different lbl optimization techniques. Lbl codes seem to have reached a maturity in the implementation of radiative transfer that the choice of the underlying physical models (line shape models, continua etc) becomes increasingly relevant.

• 36.
Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Institut für Meteorologie und Klimaforschung Karlsruhe.
Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Institut für Meteorologie und Klimaforschung Karlsruhe. Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Institut für Meteorologie und Klimaforschung Karlsruhe. Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía CSIC, Granada. Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Institut für Meteorologie und Klimaforschung Karlsruhe. Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Institut für Meteorologie und Klimaforschung Karlsruhe. Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Institut für Meteorologie und Klimaforschung Karlsruhe. Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Institut für Meteorologie und Klimaforschung Karlsruhe. Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Institut für Meteorologie und Klimaforschung Karlsruhe. Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Institut für Meteorologie und Klimaforschung Karlsruhe. Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Institut für Meteorologie und Klimaforschung Karlsruhe. Physics Department, University of New Brunswick. Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute (KNMI), De Bilt. Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Institut für Meteorologie und Klimaforschung Karlsruhe. Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research, Potsdam. Norwegian Institute for Air Research (NILU), Polar Environmental Centre, Tromsø. Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Institut für Meteorologie und Klimaforschung Karlsruhe. Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Institut für Meteorologie und Klimaforschung Karlsruhe. Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Institut für Meteorologie und Klimaforschung Karlsruhe. FMI-Arctic Research Centre, Sodankylä. Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Institut für Meteorologie und Klimaforschung Karlsruhe. Swedish Institute of Space Physics / Institutet för rymdfysik. Instituto Nacional de Meteorologia (INM), Santa Cruz de Tenerife. Atmospheric Sciences Competency, NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton. Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Institut für Meteorologie und Klimaforschung Karlsruhe.
Bias determination and precision validation of ozone profiles from MIPAS-Envisat retrieved with the IMK-IAA processor2007Inngår i: Atmospheric Chemistry And Physics, ISSN 1680-7316, E-ISSN 1680-7324, Vol. 7, nr 13, s. 3639-3662Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)

This paper characterizes vertical ozone profiles retrieved with the IMK-IAA (Institute for Meteorology and Climate Research, Karlsruhe – Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia) science-oriented processor from high spectral resolution data (until March 2004) measured by the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS) aboard the environmental satellite Envisat. Bias determination and precision validation is performed on the basis of correlative measurements by ground-based lidars, Fourier transform infrared spectrometers, and microwave radiometers as well as balloon-borne ozonesondes, the balloon-borne version of MIPAS, and two satellite instruments (Halogen Occultation Experiment and Polar Ozone and Aerosol Measurement III). Percentage mean differences between MIPAS and the comparison instruments for stratospheric ozone are generally within ±10%. The precision in this altitude region is estimated at values between 5 and 10% which gives an accuracy of 15 to 20%. Below 18 km, the spread of the percentage mean differences is larger and the precision degrades to values of more than 20% depending on altitude and latitude. The main reason for the degraded precision at low altitudes is attributed to undetected thin clouds which affect MIPAS retrievals, and to the influence of uncertainties in the water vapor concentration.

• 37.
Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Institut für Meteorologie und Klimaforschung Karlsruhe.
Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Institut für Meteorologie und Klimaforschung Karlsruhe. Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Institut für Meteorologie und Klimaforschung Karlsruhe. Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Institut für Meteorologie und Klimaforschung Karlsruhe. Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Institut für Meteorologie und Klimaforschung Karlsruhe. Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Institut für Meteorologie und Klimaforschung Karlsruhe. Institute for Marine and Atmospheric Research, Utrecht.
HDO measurements with MIPAS2007Inngår i: Atmospheric Chemistry And Physics, ISSN 1680-7316, E-ISSN 1680-7324, Vol. 7, nr 10, s. 2601-2615Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)

We have used high spectral resolution spectroscopic measurements from the MIPAS instrument on the Envisat satellite to simultaneously retrieve vertical profiles of H2O and HDO in the stratosphere and uppermost troposphere. Variations in the deuterium content of water are expressed in the common δ notation, where δD is the deviation of the Deuterium/Hydrogen ratio in a sample from a standard isotope ratio. A thorough error analysis of the retrievals confirms that reliable δD data can be obtained up to an altitude of ~45 km. Averaging over multiple orbits and thus over longitudes further reduces the random part of the error. The absolute total error of averaged δD is between 36‰ and 111‰. With values lower than 42‰ the total random error is significantly smaller than the natural variability of δD. The data compare well with previous investigations. The MIPAS measurements now provide a unique global data set of high-quality δD data that will provide novel insight into the stratospheric water cycle.

• 38.
Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Institut für Meteorologie und Klimaforschung Karlsruhe.
Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Institut für Meteorologie und Klimaforschung Karlsruhe. Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Institut für Meteorologie und Klimaforschung Karlsruhe. Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Institut für Meteorologie und Klimaforschung Karlsruhe. Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Institut für Meteorologie und Klimaforschung Karlsruhe. Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Institut für Meteorologie und Klimaforschung Karlsruhe. Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Institut für Meteorologie und Klimaforschung Karlsruhe. Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Institut für Meteorologie und Klimaforschung Karlsruhe. Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik. Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Institut für Meteorologie und Klimaforschung Karlsruhe. Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Institut für Meteorologie und Klimaforschung Karlsruhe. Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Institut für Meteorologie und Klimaforschung Karlsruhe. Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía CSIC, Granada. Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía CSIC, Granada. Institut für Atmosphäre und Umwelt, J. W. Goethe Universität Frankfurt am Main, Frankfurt.
Global distribution of mean age of stratospheric air from MIPAS SF6 measurements2008Inngår i: Atmospheric Chemistry And Physics, ISSN 1680-7316, E-ISSN 1680-7324, Vol. 8, nr 3, s. 677-695Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)

Global distributions of profiles of sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) have been retrieved from limb emission spectra recorded by the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS) on Envisat covering the period September 2002 to March 2004. Individual SF6 profiles have a precision of 0.5 pptv below 25 km altitude and a vertical resolution of 4–6 km up to 35 km altitude. These data have been validated versus in situ observations obtained during balloon flights of a cryogenic whole-air sampler. For the tropical troposphere a trend of 0.230±0.008 pptv/yr has been derived from the MIPAS data, which is in excellent agreement with the trend from ground-based flask and in situ measurements from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Earth System Research Laboratory, Global Monitoring Division. For the data set currently available, based on at least three days of data per month, monthly 5° latitude mean values have a 1σ standard error of 1%. From the global SF6 distributions, global daily and monthly distributions of the apparent mean age of air are inferred by application of the tropical tropospheric trend derived from MIPAS data. The inferred mean ages are provided for the full globe up to 90° N/S, and have a 1σ standard error of 0.25 yr. They range between 0 (near the tropical tropopause) and 7 years (except for situations of mesospheric intrusions) and agree well with earlier observations. The seasonal variation of the mean age of stratospheric air indicates episodes of severe intrusion of mesospheric air during each Northern and Southern polar winter observed, long-lasting remnants of old, subsided polar winter air over the spring and summer poles, and a rather short period of mixing with midlatitude air and/or upward transport during fall in October/November (NH) and April/May (SH), respectively, with small latitudinal gradients, immediately before the new polar vortex starts to form. The mean age distributions further confirm that SF6 is destroyed in the mesosphere to a considerable degree. Model calculations with the Karlsruhe simulation model of the middle atmosphere (KASIMA) chemical transport model agree well with observed global distributions of the mean age only if the SF6 sink reactions in the mesosphere are included in the model.

• 39. Wang, D.Y.
Validation of nitric acid retrieved by the IMK-IAA processor from MIPAS/ENVISAT measurements2007Inngår i: Atmospheric Chemistry And Physics, ISSN 1680-7316, E-ISSN 1680-7324, Vol. 7, nr 3, s. 721-738Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)

The Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS) onboard the ENVISAT satellite provides profiles of temperature and various trace-gases from limb-viewing mid-infrared emission measurements. The stratospheric nitric acid (HNO3) from September 2002 to March 2004 was retrieved from the MIPAS observations using the science-oriented data processor developed at the Institut für Meteorologie und Klimaforschung (IMK), which is complemented by the component of non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (non-LTE) treatment from the Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (IAA). The IMK-IAA research product, different from the ESA operational product, is validated in this paper by comparison with a number of reference data sets. Individual HNO3 profiles of the IMK-IAA MIPAS show good agreement with those of the balloon-borne version of MIPAS (MIPAS-B) and the infrared spectrometer MkIV, with small differences of less than 0.5 ppbv throughout the entire altitude range up to about 38 km, and below 0.2 ppbv above 30 km. However, the degree of consistency is largely affected by their temporal and spatial coincidence, and differences of 1 to 2 ppbv may be observed between 22 and 26 km at high latitudes near the vortex boundary, due to large horizontal inhomogeneity of HNO3. Statistical comparisons of MIPAS IMK-IAA HNO3 VMRs with respect to those of satellite measurements of Odin/SMR, ILAS-II, ACE-FTS, as well as the MIPAS ESA product show good consistency. The mean differences are generally ±0.5 ppbv and standard deviations of the differences are of 0.5 to 1.5 ppbv. The maximum differences are 2.0 ppbv around 20 to 25 km. This gives confidence in the general reliability of MIPAS HNO3 VMR data and the other three satellite data sets.

• 40.
Karlsruhe Institute of Technology.
Karlsruhe Institute of Technology. CNRS. Universität Bremen. CNR, IMAA. Max-Planck-Institut. Karlsruhe Institute of Technology. Università Degli Studi dell'Aquila. Karlsruhe Institute of Technology. Karlsruhe Institute of Technology. Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik. CNR, IMAA. University of Bern. CNRS. CNR, IMAA. CNR. CNR. CNRS. Università Degli Studi dell'Aquila. Karlsruhe Institute of Technology. Universität Bremen. Karlsruhe Institute of Technology.
Validation of MIPAS-ENVISAT H2O operational data collected between July 2002 and March 20042013Inngår i: Atmospheric Chemistry And Physics, ISSN 1680-7316, E-ISSN 1680-7324, Vol. 13, nr 11, s. 5791-5811Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)

Water vapour (H2O) is one of the operationally retrieved key species of the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS) instrument aboard the Environmental Satellite (ENVISAT) which was launched into its sun-synchronous orbit on 1 March 2002 and operated until April 2012. Within the MIPAS validation activities, independent observations from balloons, aircraft, satellites, and ground-based stations have been compared to European Space Agency (ESA) version 4.61 operational H2O data comprising the time period from July 2002 until March 2004 where MIPAS measured with full spectral resolution. No significant bias in the MIPAS H2O data is seen in the lower stratosphere (above the hygropause) between about 15 and 30 km. Differences of H2O quantities observed by MIPAS and the validation instruments are mostly well within the combined total errors in this altitude region. In the upper stratosphere (above about 30 km), a tendency towards a small positive bias (up to about 10 %) is present in the MIPAS data when compared to its balloon-borne counterpart MIPAS-B, to the satellite instruments HALOE (Halogen Occultation Experiment) and ACE-FTS (Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment, Fourier Transform Spectrometer), and to the millimeter-wave airborne sensor AMSOS (Airborne Microwave Stratospheric Observing System). In the mesosphere the situation is unclear due to the occurrence of different biases when comparing HALOE and ACE-FTS data. Pronounced deviations between MIPAS and the correlative instruments occur in the lowermost stratosphere and upper troposphere, a region where retrievals of H2O are most challenging. Altogether it can be concluded that MIPAS H2O profiles yield valuable information on the vertical distribution of H2O in the stratosphere with an overall accuracy of about 10 to 30% and a precision of typically 5 to 15% - well within the predicted error budget, showing that these global and continuous data are very valuable for scientific studies. However, in the region around the tropopause retrieved MIPAS H2O profiles are less reliable, suffering from a number of obstacles such as retrieval boundary and cloud effects, sharp vertical discontinuities, and frequent horizontal gradients in both temperature and H2O volume mixing ratio (VMR). Some profiles are characterized by retrieval instabilities.

• 41.
Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik.
Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik. Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik. Swedish Institute of Space Physics (IRF), Solar Terrestrial and Atmospheric Research Programme, Kiruna, Sweden. Research Centre Jülich, Institute for Energy and Climate Research 7: Stratosphere (IEK-7), Jülich, Germany. Research Centre Jülich, Institute for Energy and Climate Research 7: Stratosphere (IEK-7), Jülich, Germany.
Arctic ice clouds over northern Sweden: microphysical properties studied with the Balloon-borne Ice Cloud particle Imager B-ICI2018Inngår i: Atmospheric Chemistry And Physics, ISSN 1680-7316, E-ISSN 1680-7324, Vol. 18, nr 23, s. 17371-17386Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)

Ice particle and cloud properties such as particle size, particle shape and number concentration influence the net radiation effect of cirrus clouds. Measurements of these features are of great interest for the improvement of weather and climate models, especially for the Arctic region. In this study, balloon-borne in situ measurements of Arctic cirrus clouds have been analysed for the first time with respect to their origin. Eight cirrus cloud measurements have been carried out in Kiruna (68 N), Sweden, using the Balloon-borne Ice Cloud particle Imager (B-ICI). Ice particle diameters between 10 and 1200 µm have been found and the shape could be recognized from 20 µm upwards. Great variability in particle size and shape is observed. This cannot simply be explained by local environmental conditions. However, if sorted by cirrus origin, wind and weather conditions, the observed differences can be assessed. Number concentrations between 3 and 400 L−1 have been measured, but the number concentration has reached values above 100 L−1 only for two cases. These two cirrus clouds are of in situ origin and have been associated with waves. For all other measurements, the maximum ice particle concentration is below 50 L−1 and for one in situ origin cirrus case only 3 L−1. In the case of in situ origin clouds, the particles are all smaller than 350 µm diameter. The PSDs for liquid origin clouds are much broader with particle sizes between 10 and 1200 µm. Furthermore, it is striking that in the case of in situ origin clouds almost all particles are compact (61 %) or irregular (25 %) when examining the particle shape. In liquid origin clouds, on the other hand, most particles are irregular (48 %), rosettes (25 %) or columnar (14 %). There are hardly any plates in cirrus regardless of their origin. It is also noticeable that in the case of liquid origin clouds the rosettes and columnar particles are almost all hollow.

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