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  • 1. Antonini, G.
    et al.
    Ekman, Jonas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Ruehli, A.E.
    Accuracy and stability enhancement of PEEC models for the time and frequency domain2006In: EMC Europe 2006 Barcelona: [International Symposium on Electromagnetic Compatibility ; September 4 - 8, 2006, Barcelona, Spain] / [ed] Ferran Silva, Barcelona: Universidad Politécnica de Cataluña , 2006Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 2.
    Antonini, G.
    et al.
    Università Degli Studi di l'Aquila.
    Miscione, G.
    Università Degli Studi di l'Aquila.
    Ekman, Jonas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    PEEC modeling of automotive electromagnetic problems2008In: Applied Computational Electromagnetics Society Newsletter, ISSN 1056-9170, Vol. 23, no 1, p. 39-50Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the combination of the nonorthogonal Partial Element Equivalent Circuit (PEEC) models and interconnect structures through a macromodel approach for the analysis of automotive electromagnetic problems. The applications are within automotive computational electromagnetics due to the typical combination of cable harnesses and chassis structures. It is shown that PEEC-based solvers are capable of handling electrically large problems with high geometrical complexity for detailed analysis in both the time- and frequency- domain with attached multi-conductor transmission lines.

  • 3. Antonini, G.
    et al.
    Miscione, G.
    Ekman, Jonas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Anttu, Peter
    PEEC modeling of automotive electromagnetic problems2006In: Proceedings of the International Conference of Numerical Analysis and Applied Mathematics: official conference European Society of Computational Methods in Sciences and Engineering (ESCMSE) / [ed] T. E. Simos, John Wiley & Sons, 2006Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Antonini, Giulio
    et al.
    University of L'Aquila (Italy).
    De Lauretis, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Ekman, Jonas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Miroshnikova, Elena
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Mathematical Science.
    On the passivity of the Delay-Rational Green’s-function-based model for Transmission Lines2018In: Trends in Mathematics, Research Perspectives, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Antonini, Giulio
    et al.
    Department of Electrical Engineering, University of L’Aquila.
    Delsing, Jerker
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Ekman, Jonas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Orlandi, Antonio
    Department of Electrical Engineering, University of L’Aquila.
    Ruehli, Albert
    IBM T.J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights.
    PEEC development road map 20072007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A road map for the long term development of the partial element equivalent circuit (PEEC) method is presented. Emerging areas are pointed out together with a solution strategy. Special attention is given to speed up approaches, mesh generation, and time domain stability. The purpose with the road map is to facilitate a unified development of the method into an electromagnetic modeling method suitable for incorporation in integrated analysis tools for engineers for electromagnetic compatibility and electromagnetic interference purpose.

  • 6.
    Antonini, Giulio
    et al.
    Department of Electrical Engineering, University of L’Aquila.
    Ekman, Jonas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Ruehli, Albert
    IBM T.J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights.
    Parallel waveform relaxation and matrix solution for large PEEC model problems2007In: 2007 IEEE Electrical Performance of Electronic Packaging, IEEE Communications Society, 2007, p. 241-244Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Excessive compute time is becoming a key problem for high performance system modeling as the complexity of the electromagnetic and circuit models are increasing. At the same time the PEEC models are locally becoming more complex with the increased importance of dielectric and skin-effect losses. Fortunately, parallel processing removes the restriction on the availability of compute resources. In this paper,we consider a combined approach where WR is used for the predominant weak coupling while a Gaussian matrix solver is used for the parallelization of the strongly coupled parts of the overall system.

  • 7.
    Antonini, Giulio
    et al.
    Department of Electrical Engineering, University of L’Aquila.
    Ekman, Jonas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Ruehli, Albert E.
    IBM T.J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights.
    Waveform relaxation for the parallel solution of large PEEC model problems2007In: 2007 IEEE International Symposium on Electromagnetic Compatibility: workshop and tutorial notes : July 8-13, 2007 Honolulu, Hawaii., Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2007Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The solution of large 3D electromagnetic models is important for the modeling of a multitude of EMC, PI and SI problems. In this paper, we explore new algorithms for the parallel solution of large time domain 3D electromagnetic problems. Our approach is to use a volume Partial Element Equivalent Circuit (PEEC) electromagnetic formulation in combination with a Waveform Relaxation (WR) algorithm. In WR, we split the system into smaller subsystems and we break weak couplings so that the problem can be solved iteratively. WR has been used to solve a multitude of different problems. It is especially suited for parallel processing due to its favorable compute time to communication ratio. We consider a specific example for the application of WR to PEEC models.

  • 8.
    Antonini, Giulio
    et al.
    University of L’Aquila.
    Ekman, Jonas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Scogna, Antonio Ciccomancini
    University of L’Aquila.
    Ruehli, Albert E.
    IBM Research Division, Yorktown Heights, NY.
    A comparative study of PEEC circuit elements computation2003In: IEEE International Symposium on Electromagnetic Compatibility: symposium record : Boston, August 18-22, 2003, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2003, p. 810-813Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A key use of the PEEC method is the solution of combined electromagnetic and circuit problems as they occur in many situations in todays very large scale integrated circuits (VLSI) and systems. An important aspect of this approach is the fast and accurate computation of PEEC circuit matrix elements, the partial inductances and normalized coefficients of potential. Recently, fast multipole methods (FMM) have been applied to the PEEC method in the frequency domain as a way to speed up the solution. In this paper, we consider the fast evaluation of the PEEC circuit matrix elements by two different methods, a matrix version of the (FMM) PEEC method and a method, which we call the fast multi-function (FMF) PEEC approach. In this technique, the matrix coefficients are evaluated using analytical functions approximation of the coefficients in combination with a proper choice of numerical quadrature formulas.

  • 9.
    Biello, Elia
    et al.
    Dipartimento di Ingegneria Industriale e dell'Informazione e di Economi, Università degli Studi dell'Aquila.
    Antonini, Giulio
    Dipartimento di Ingegneria Industriale e dell'Informazione e di Economi, Università degli Studi dell'Aquila.
    De Lauretis, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Ekman, Jonas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    A delay‐rational model of electromagnetic interference on multiconductor transmission lines2018In: International journal of numerical modelling, ISSN 0894-3370, E-ISSN 1099-1204, Vol. 31, no 4, article id 2342Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Multiconductor transmission lines have found a wide range of applications, as power lines, as high‐speed interconnects, and as on‐chip interconnects. Electromagnetic interference (EMI) can be described in terms of plane waves that couple to these lines, leading to unwanted disturbance. This paper presents a delayed spectral formulation for the analysis of plane‐wave coupling to multiconductor transmission lines in both the frequency and time domains, called the DeRaG‐EMI model (short for “delay‐rational model based on Green's functions for electromagnetic interference”). The model is based on Green's functions and is described in terms of delayed differential equations in the time domain. The model is suitable for studying the EMI on multiconductor transmission lines in the case of incident fields. The coupling of a plane wave to a line is described in terms of equivalent sources that account for both the delay of the line and the delays of the incoming plane wave. The delay is explicitly extracted and incorporated into the model with hyperbolic functions. The DeRaG‐EMI model does not require any segmentation of the line. Numerical results confirm its accuracy and its improved performance compared with the previous spectral model and with the inverse fast Fourier transform technique.

  • 10.
    Cottet, Didier
    et al.
    ABB Corporate Research.
    Stevanovic, Ivica
    ABB Corporate Research.
    Wunsch, Bernhard
    ABB Corporate Research.
    Daroui, Danesh
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Ekman, Jonas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Antonini, Giulio
    University of L’Aquila.
    EM simulation of planar bus bars in multi-level power converters2012In: EMC Europe 2012: International Symposium on Electromagnetic Compatibillity, September 15-21, Rome, Italy, 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents recent progress in the acceleration of PEEC based electromagnetic simulations and its impact on the design of complex bus bar structures as used in multi-level power converters. The approach presented consists of providing different dedicated acceleration methods for the different design tasks. The first acceleration technique applied is the so called reluctance matrix method for full 3D field results, reducing memory consumption by orders of magnitude and computing time by a factor 3 to 5. The second acceleration method applied is based on model order reduction techniques for port-to-port impedance extraction, reducing the computation time by several orders of magnitude and allowing wideband macro modeling for system level simulations. The paper focuses on the application of these methods showing the impact on practical bus bar design tasks

  • 11.
    Daroui, Danesh
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Ekman, Jonas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Combined circuit and electromagnetic modelling on multi-core platforms2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Computer simulation techniques are widely used in various fields to design and verify the functionality, performance, quality, or safety of a product. In electrical systems, with increasing operational frequencies, capacitive and inductive couplings between parts in an embedded system might have to be taken into account. Therefore, traditional circuit analysis are not sufficient for such problems. Hence, other simulation approaches such as Partial Element Equivalent Circuit (PEEC), Method of Moments, and Finite Element Methods, and other have been developed to fulfill this need. By using the PEEC method, the simulation of the functionality of an electrical device can be combined with an electromagnetic analysis. Thus, the method has been widely used in combined circuit and electromagnetic modeling on problems in different classes in power electronic industry and antenna design. The main aim of this paper is to demonstrate how multi-core systems can contribute to improve the performance of a PEEC-based electromagnetic simulation tool and to show that the improvements make it possible to solve larger and more complex problems in a reasonable time.A PEEC-based solver has been developed at Luleå University of Technology. The kernel of the solver has been implemented in C++ and is designed to run on different desktop platforms and operating systems. It is known that in the PEEC formulations there are large, dense, and in many cases non-symmetric matrices which increase the computational costs. Hence, using an efficient and robust library as well as support for the recently advanced hardware, is vital and will highly affect the performance of the solver.

  • 12.
    Daroui, Danesh
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Ekman, Jonas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Efficient PEEC-based simulations using reluctance method for power electronic applications2012In: Applied Computational Electromagnetics Society Journal, ISSN 1054-4887, Vol. 27, no 10, p. 830-841Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a partial element equivalent circuit (PEEC)-based solver that has been accelerated to exploit the massively parallel structure of graphics processing unit (GPU) technology, in order to employ a reluctance-based method in an efficient way. A grouping algorithm is also presented which makes reluctance calculation efficient, suitable for GPUs, and feasible even for very large problems. It has been shown that by using the reluctance method, the coefficient matrix in the system equation can be safely sparsified whilst the required accuracy is maintained. Because the calculation of the reluctance matrix includes matrix inversion, which is a task with high computational complexity, GPUs as cooperative units are utilized to reduce computational costs by taking advantage of parallelism. Two test models have been simulated and analyzed to benchmark the solver, and the results have been compared with the previously developed solver. Furthermore, analyzing the results reveals that the reluctance method makes it possible to use a considerably sparser system and thereby solve large problems by decreasing the memory demands and the solution time. It is also proven that the solution is reliable and accurate, whereas the problem has become noticeably smaller.

  • 13.
    Daroui, Danesh
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Ekman, Jonas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Iterative PEEC-based power electronic systems simulations using reluctance and regularization techniques2012In: EMC Europe 2012: International Symposium on Electromagnetic Compatibillity, September 15-21, Rome, Italy, 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a method to deal with the ill-posed and rank-deficient linear systems arising from sparsified partial element equivalent circuit-based electromagnetic simulations via a reluctance method. Since conventional, direct methods, cannot be used to solve these kind of problems, regularization techniques need to be employed. Among various regularization techniques, a least square-based method entitled LSQR is utilized to solve the rank-deficient problems. The proposed method is specially proper for the models where capacitive couplings can be neglected, since magnetic field is the dominating factor, like problems within power electronics. The correctness of the presented PEEC-based solver is ensured by studying bus bar models which are a part of frequency converters with application in power electronics.

  • 14. Daroui, Danesh
    et al.
    Ekman, Jonas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Parallel implementations of the PEEC method2010In: Applied Computational Electromagnetics Society Journal, ISSN 1054-4887, Vol. 25, no 5, p. 410-422Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the first parallel implementation of a partial element equivalent circuit (PEEC) based electromagnetic modelling code suitable for solving general electromagnetic problems. The parallelization is based on the GMM++ and ScaLAPACK packages which are cross-platform libraries available for major operating systems. The parallel PEEC solver has been tested on several high performance computer systems. Large structures containing over 250 000 unknown current and voltage basis functions were successfully analyzed for the first time with a general PEEC-solver. The numerical examples are of orthogonal type, studied both in the time and frequency domain, for which memory, performance, and speed-up results are presented.

  • 15.
    Daroui, Danesh
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Ekman, Jonas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    PEEC-based Simulations Using Iterative Method and Regularization Technique for Power Electronic Applications2014In: IEEE transactions on electromagnetic compatibility (Print), ISSN 0018-9375, E-ISSN 1558-187X, Vol. 56, no 6, p. 1448-1456Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The partial element equivalent circuit (PEEC) method has been widely used in different industrial and scientific fields for electromagnetic analysis. PEEC-based solvers have been optimized and accelerated in order to be able to solve larger and more complex problems that arise in industry. In power electronic system simulations, PEEC models are often simplified by neglecting electric field couplings and using quasi-static model. The simplified system can be further accelerated using reluctance technique and then sparsified up to high levels without degrading the accuracy of the solution. In previous work, the sparse system was solved using sparse direct solution, while in this study, an iterative approach is employed which resulted in lower time complexity of the solution. However, since matrices achieved from PEEC equations are severely ill-conditioned, regularization techniques need to be applied to avoid numerical instabilities. The regularization is done mathematically and can be interpreted as adding a frequency-dependent pseudocapacitor to each node in the PEEC model. Because the pseudocapacitors are frequency dependent, hence frequencies close to dc are not covered in this study and have left as future work. The new sparse and regularized system can then be solved using a Schur complement technique together with iterative solvers with a novel preconditioning approach.

  • 16.
    Daroui, Danesh
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Ekman, Jonas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Performance analysis of parallel non-orthogonal PEEC-based solver for EMC applications2012In: Progress in Electromagnetics Research B, ISSN 1937-6472, E-ISSN 1937-6472, Vol. 41, p. 77-100Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A parallel implementation of a quasi-static Partial Element Equivalent Circuit (PEEC)-based solver that can handle electromagnetic problems with non-orthogonal structures is presented in this paper. The solver has been written in C++ and employs GMM++ and ScaLAPACK computational libraries to make the solver fast, efficient, and adaptable to current parallel computer systems. The parallel PEEC-based solver has been tested and studied on high performance computing clusters and the correctness of the solver has been verified by doing comparisons between results from orthogonal routines and also another type of electromagnetic solver, namely FEKO. Two non-orthogonal numerical test cases have been analysed in the time and frequency domain. The results are given for solution time and memory consumption while bottlenecks are pointed out and discussed. The benchmarks show a good speedup which gets improved as the problem size is increased. With the capability of the presented solver, the non-orthogonal PEEC formulation is a viable tool for modelling geometrically complex problems.

  • 17. Daroui, Danesh
    et al.
    Ekman, Jonas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Didier, Cottet
    ABB Switzerland, Corporate Research, Schweiz.
    Dierk, Bormann
    ABB Corporate Research, Sverige.
    Engdahl, Göran
    KTH, Sverige.
    Projekt: Kretsbaserad lösare för elektromagnetisk analys av kraftelektroniksystem- Applikation mot IGBTmoduler2007Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Projektet syftar till att accelerera och adaptera den programvara, MultiPEEC,som ingick i ELEKTRA-projekt 36021 för att möjliggöra studier avelektromagnetiska effekter i avancerade kraftelektroniksystem.Programvaran bygger på en långsiktig forskningssatsning på Luleå tekniskauniversitet med syfte att kombinera lösningen av elektriska kretsar ochelektromagnetiska effekter i samma miljö med hjälp av en ekvivalent-kretsmetod(PEEC).I första delen av projektet verifierades, optimerades och stabiliseradesprogramvaran i ett mycket nära samarbete med ABB CRC. I den föreslagnaandra delen av projektet kommer programvaran att massivt accelereras föratt möjliggöra detaljstudier av elektromagnetiska effekter i bus bars ochIGBT moduler. För bus bars är det främst studier av parasitiska induktanseroch magnetiska fältmönster som är av intresse för att minimeraoscillationer, spänningstoppar och sk termiska hot spots. För IGBTmodulerna är det främst den dynamiska strömfördelningen i modulerna ochöver seriekopplade konfigurationer som studeras för att förbättrakommande produkter. Exakt med vilken metod den egen-utveckladeprogramvara kommer att accelereras utifrån bestäms under hösten 2010med en litteraturstudie som bas. Tänkbara metoder är QR decomposition,Fast multipole methods, wavelets, eller hierarkiska matrismetoder. Detprimära syftet är att accelerera lösningen av system beskrivna i frekvensdomänen under kvasi-statiska antaganden formulerade med hälp av enmodifierad nodanalys (MNA) då det passar för ovan nämnda designstudier.Vidare är det av stor vikt att kunna uppskatta felet som dessaaccelerationsmetoder introducerar i lösningen så verktyget inte blir praktisktoanvändbart.

  • 18. Daroui, Danesh
    et al.
    Stevanovic, Ivica
    ABB.
    Cottet, Didier
    ABB.
    Ekman, Jonas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Bus bar simulations using the PEEC method2010In: 26th International Review of Progress in Applied Computational Electromagnetics ACES 2010: Tampere, Finland, April 25-29, 2010, 2010, p. 1-6Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Partial Element Equivalent Circuit (PEEC) is an integral equation based full-wave approach for the solution of combined circuit and electromagnetic problems in the time and the frequency domain. The method is fast and efficient and can be applied to different classes of problems in power electronics system design, antennas modeling, and printed circuit board simulation. This paper presents PEEC usage in simulating a system of parallel bus bars used in distributing the DC-link power in a medium voltage frequency converter. Using PEEC simulations with non-uniform meshing, the impedance of a complete bus bar structure has been simulated. The results of PEEC simulations compare very well with measured values.

  • 19.
    De Lauretis, Maria
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Antonini, Giulio
    Department of Electrical Engineering, University of L’Aquila.
    Ekman, Jonas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    A Delay-Rational Model of Lossy Multiconductor Transmission Lines with Frequency Independent Per-Unit-Length Parameters2015In: IEEE transactions on electromagnetic compatibility (Print), ISSN 0018-9375, E-ISSN 1558-187X, Vol. 57, no 5, p. 1235-1245Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cables, printed circuit boards, and VLSI interconnects are commonly modelled as multiconductor transmission lines. Models of electrically long transmission lines are memory and time consuming. In this paper, a robust and efficient algorithmfor the generation of a delay-based model is presented. The impedance representation via the open-end matrix Z is analyzed. In particular, the rational formulation of Z in terms of poles and residues is exploited for both lossless and lossy cases. The delaysof the lines are identified, and explicitly incorporated into the model. A model order reduction of the system is automatically performed, since only a limited number of poles and residues are included in the rational part of the model, whereas the highfrequency behaviour is captured by means of closed expressions that accounts for the delays. The proposed method is applied to two relevant examples and validated through the comparison with reference methods. The time domain solver is found to be more accurate and significantly faster than the one obtained froma pure-rational model.

  • 20.
    De Lauretis, Maria
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Ekman, Jonas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Antonini, Giulio
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab. Università Degli Studi di l'Aquila.
    A SPICE Realization of the Delay-Rational Green's-Function-based Method for Multiconductor Transmission Lines2016In: IEEE transactions on electromagnetic compatibility (Print), ISSN 0018-9375, E-ISSN 1558-187X, Vol. 58, no 4, p. 1158-1168Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Virtual prototyping has become an unavoidable step in the design of electrical and electronic systems.In this context, time-domain models have to be efficiently embedded in circuit simulator environments, such as SPICE-like transient simulators.Recently, the authors focused on the interconnections, modeled using the multiconductor transmission lines theory, and a Delay-Rational method has been developed, based on Green's functions and line-delay extraction.This work presents a SPICE synthesis of the Delay-Rational method previously developed by the authors.The solution was tested for three transmission lines with frequency-independent per-unit-length parameters.We compared the SPICE results of the Delay-Rational method with those of two standard techniques: one based on a pure rational model and one based on the inverse fast Fourier transform.The time-domain simulations in SPICE of the Delay-Rational method show both accuracy and a remarkable reduction in the number of components used with respect to a purely rational approach, by virtue of the delay extraction.

  • 21.
    De Lauretis, Maria
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab. Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Signals and Systems.
    Ekman, Jonas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Antonini, Giulio
    Università Degli Studi dell'Aquila.
    Delayed Impedance Models of Two-Conductor Transmission Lines2014In: 2014 International Symposium on Electromagnetic Compatibility - EMC Europe 2014: Swedish Exhibition and Congress Centre, Gothenburg, Sweden : 1 - 4 September, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2014, p. 670-675, article id 6930989Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a new delayed model of two-conductortransmission lines with frequency-independent per-unit-length parameters. In particular, the line delay extractionproblem is considered. By use of a dyadic Green’s functionmacromodel method, the rational form of the open-endimpedance matrix allows an easy identification of poles andresidues, and a new technique for the extraction of the linedelay in an analytical way is gained, without any impact onthe complexity of the line macromodel itself. By use of Laplaceand Fourier transforms, the transfer function is expressed interms of the Dirac comb. The delay is then easily identified anddirectly incorporated into the system impulse response. Giving acurrent-controlled representation, the port voltages are evaluated.Thanks to the formulation of the transfer function by use ofthe Dirac comb, the convolution product is avoided, gainingaccuracy and time-saving from a computational point of view.Numerical results confirm the validity of the proposed delay-extractiontechnique. The basic ideas for the extension of theproposed technique to the lossy case are outlined.

  • 22.
    De Lauretis, Maria
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Ekman, Jonas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Antonini, Giulio
    University of L'Aquila .
    Delayed-rational Green's-function-based method of transmission lines and the Heaviside condition2016In: 2016 IEEE Electrical Design of Advanced Packaging and Systems Symposium, EDAPS 2016, Piscataway, NJ: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2016, p. 143--145, article id 7893147Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In electronics as well as in communications, it ishighly desirable to be able to transmit a signal that is preservedfrom any distortions that is due to the lossy nature of themedium in which the signal travels, normally a transmission line.In this paper, we exploit the connections between the delayedGreen’s-function-based method from the authors and the wellknowndistortionless Heaviside condition. It is found that, inthe method, an important results was already present but itsimportance not yet understood. In particular, we prove that weare able to identify the distortionless transmission line associatedto a generic transmission line. We consider only 1-conductortransmission lines, with frequency-independent per-unit-lengthparameters. The multiconductor transmission-line case will beaddressed in future works.

  • 23.
    De Lauretis, Maria
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Ekman, Jonas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Antonini, Giulio
    Department of Electrical Engineering, University of L’Aquila.
    Delay-Rational Model of Lossy and Dispersive Multiconductor Transmission Lines2015In: IEEE International Symposium on Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC), 2015 [joint conference with] EMC Europe: Dresden, 16-22 Aug. 2015, Piscataway,NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2015, p. 969-974, article id 7256297Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, the transient analysis of lossy anddispersive multiconductor transmission lines is considered. Theexisting Green’s function-based method is extended to explicitlyinclude delays extraction, thus leading to a significant compressedtime-domain state-space model. The proposed method is mainlybased on poles and residues asymptotic analysis and losslessdelays extraction. The resulting hybrid state-space model incorporatesDirac-combs in the input and results into a reducednumber of state variables. A test case has been considered inorder to clearly demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposedmethodology. The results are compared with the original rationalGreen’s function method, and with the standard inverse fastFourier transform technique.

  • 24.
    De Lauretis, Maria
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Ekman, Jonas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Antonini, Giulio
    Department of Electrical Engineering, University of L’Aquila.
    Romano, Daniele
    University of L’Aquila.
    Enhanced Delay-Rational Green's Method for Cable Time Domain Analysis2015In: 2015 International Conference on Electromagnetics in Advanced Applications (ICEAA): Turin, 7-11 Sept. 2015, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2015, p. 1228-1231Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    State-space models of multiconductor transmissionlines can be generated by means of the Green’s function basedmethod which allows to write the open-end impedance in arational form as an infinite sum of “modal impedances”. Itcan be then embedded in a circuit simulation environment forefficient time domain analysis. The previous rational approachhas been improved through a proper mathematical formulation,that makes use of explicit delay extraction and pole/residueasymptotic behavior. Nevertheless, the computation of the polesbecomes computationally expensive when the number of conductorsincreases, since the zeros of high order polynomials haveto be evaluated. A rational fitting over the “modal impedances”is proposed, which allows a fast identification of the poles that,together with the delays, model the high frequency behavior ofthe cable in terms of standard hyperbolic functions. The lowfrequencybehavior is captured by a reduced size state-spacemodel, via rational fitting. Numerical results confirm the accuracyof the proposed modeling approach for electrically long cables,with a large number of conductors.

  • 25.
    Delsing, Jerker
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Ekman, Jonas
    Johansson, Jonny
    Intentional EMI considerations for sensor networks2005Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 26.
    Delsing, Jerker
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Ekman, Jonas
    Johansson, Jonny
    Sundberg, Sofia
    Bäckström, Mats
    Swedish Defence Research Agency FOI, Division of Sensor Technology.
    Nilsson, T.
    Swedish Defence Research Agency FOI, Division of Sensor Technology.
    Susceptibility of sensor networks to intentional electromagnetic interference2006In: 2006 17th International Zurich Symposium on Electromagnetic Compatibility: Suntec City, Singapore, 28 February - 3 March 2006, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2006, p. 172-175Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is reasonable to think that sensor networks might be part of society critical systems in the future. Therefor this paper discusses and shows the vulnerabilities of sensor networks to intentional electromagnetic interference (IEMI). Principle ways of sensor network IEMI is addressed and followed by a discussion on schemes for protection. Experimental results for both in-band and exband interference from low- and high- level sources is reported. It is obvious that more emphasis has to be put on sensor networks susceptibility to IEMI, and in particular more experimental data is needed.

  • 27.
    Delsing, Jerker
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Ekman, Jonas
    Lundgren, Urban
    BAE Systems.
    Robust encapsulation for embedded systems with controllable RF channel2005Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 28.
    Delsing, Jerker
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Ekman, Jonas
    Mäkitalo, P.
    Niska, Stefan
    Wisten, Åke
    Sources and propagation of eectromagnetic transients in railway systems, S01-3915/08. Final Report2005Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The railway system is continuously being updated. Upgrading axle loads, introducing new engines with increasing power needs and advanced motor control give unwanted electromagnetic consequences for electronic-, telecommunication-, and signalling systems along the track. This can, for example, lead to failure in detector systems and traffic control systems and increased cost due to corrective maintenance. This research project was initiated with the purpose of understanding origin and propagation of radiated and conducted electromagnetic transients in the railway system. To investigate the problem of radiated and conducted electromagnetic interference, it has been necessary to develop new measuring methods. Measurements have been conducted to determine if the more sensitive low voltage systems are influenced by higher voltage systems. An existing electromagnetic modeling tool has been utilized, to model crosstalk between the rails and the overhead line catenary system, and modified to incorporate a combination of two- and three- dimensional models to reduce time and space complexity. The resulting simulation environment can be used to analyze possible sources of electromagnetic disturbances in the coexisting signaling circuitry of today, and to reduce the influence of these sources. This gives a new application of the measurement method and further development of a simulation tool. One of the objectives in this project has been to find out the tolerance of the low voltage detector systems in presence of the higher voltage system used in the railways. One of the conclusions is that correct installation is important and that failure to comply with installation procedures results in high electromagnetic interference. There is no correlation between the presence of trains and randomly occurring disturbances.

  • 29.
    Ekman, Jonas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Activity: International Zurich Symposium Symposium & Technical Exhibition on Electromagnetic Compatibility: From theory to implementation2005Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 30.
    Ekman, Jonas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Aktivitet: Arbetsmiljökommittén2011Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Ledamot i LTUs arbetsmiljökommitté

  • 31.
    Ekman, Jonas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Aktivitet: Centrum för Distansöverbyggande teknik (CDT)2009Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 32.
    Ekman, Jonas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Aktivitet: EMC Society Technical Committee 9: Computational Electromagnetics2005Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    This committee is concerned with broad aspects of Applied Computational Electromagnetic techniques which can be used to model electromagnetic interaction phenomena in circuits, devices, and systems. The primary focus is with the identification of the modeling methods that can be applied to interference (EMC) phenomena, their validation and delineating the practical limits of their applicability. Included are low and high frequency spectral-domain techniques and time-domain methods.

  • 33.
    Ekman, Jonas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Aktivitet: Fakultetsopponent2011Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Vid Hanif Tavakolis disputation 15 dec. 2011 vid KTH.

  • 34.
    Ekman, Jonas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Aktivitet: Medlem i betygskommitté2012Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Kelin Jia, KTH.

  • 35.
    Ekman, Jonas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Aktivitet: Opponent vid licentiatseminarium2009Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Hanif Tavakoli vid KTH

  • 36.
    Ekman, Jonas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Aktivitet: Opponent vid licentiatseminarium2012Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    "Analysis and implementation of Switch Mode Power Supplies in MHz frequency region", Abdul Majid at Mid Sweden University.

  • 37.
    Ekman, Jonas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Aktivitet: Opponent vid licentiatseminarium2012Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Abdul Majid, Mid Sweden University

  • 38.
    Ekman, Jonas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Aktivitet: Personalansvarsnämnden2010Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Ledamot i personalansvarsnämnden.

  • 39.
    Ekman, Jonas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Aktivitet: Rymdforskarskolan2010Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Styrelseledamot

  • 40.
    Ekman, Jonas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Aktivitet: Svenska Nationalkommittén för Radiovetenskap (SNRV) - Sektion E2004Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Huvudman för Svenska Nationalkommittén för radiovetenskap (SNRV) är Kungliga Vetenskapsakademien, KVA. SNRV bildades som en nationalkommitté inom KVA genom ett Kungligt brev år 1931. De av akademien fastställda stadgarna anger att SNRV är en expertkommitté under Kungliga Vetenskapsakademiens huvudmannaskap med uppgift att:- främja forskning och utbildning inom det radiovetenskapliga området och att därvid representera Sverige i den internationella radiovetenskapliga unionen, Union Radio-Scientifique Internationale (URSI).- stödja planmässigt samarbete med besläktade vetenskapsgrenar.- stå till förfogande som rådgivande organ åt universiteten och andra delar av utbildningssystemet.- verka som expertorgan åt Vetenskapsakademien.

  • 41.
    Ekman, Jonas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Electromagnetic modeling using the partial element equivalent circuit method2003Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis presents contributions within the field of numerical simulations of electromagnetic properties using the Partial Element Equivalent Circuit (PEEC) method. Numerical simulations of electromagnetic properties are of high industrial interest. The two major fields of use are to ensure compliance with electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) regulations and to verify functionality in electronic designs. International EMC regulations bounds companies that develop or assemble electric products to market products that are electromagnetic compatible with other products in their environment. Failure to comply with regulations can result in products withdrawal and fines. To avoid incompatibility, numerical simulations can be used to improve EMC characteristics in the development and assembly stage in a cost efficient way. Functionality of today's compact high-performance electronic systems can be affected by unwanted internal electromagnetic effects. The result can be degradation of performance, malfunction, and product damage. Numerical simulations are used to predict electromagnetic effects at the design phase, thus minimizing the need for post-production actions delaying product releases and increasing product cost. At the Embedded Internet System Laboratory (EISLAB), Luleå University of Technology, a project concerning numerical simulations of electromagnetic properties in electric systems using the PEEC method is in progress. This thesis focuses on the development of the PEEC method for practical use, thus demanding optimal performance of the basic sections within a PEEC based electromagnetic solver in terms of speed and accuracy. In the PEEC method, the two most demanding sections are the partial element calculations and the solution of the final equation system. The latter problem is a pure mathematical problem with continuous progress while the partial coefficient calculations require further research. This thesis proposes several techniques for efficient partial element calculations. First, a discretization strategy is used for one-layer structures to enable the use of fast analytic formulas and the resulting simplified PEEC models are solved using a freeware version of SPICE, exemplifying the accessibility of the PEEC method. Second, a fast multi- function method is proposed in which different order of numerical integration is used, in the calculation of the partial elements, depending on a predefined coupling factor. Third, the fast multi-function method is further developed and compared to a fast multipole method applied to partial element calculations. Fourth, the calculation of the three- dimensional node coefficients of potential is addressed and three novel approaches are presented and evaluated in terms of speed and accuracy. The thesis includes a paper dealing with nonorthogonal PEEC models. This model extension allows the use of nonorthogonal volume and surface cells in the discretization of objects. This facilitates the modeling of realistic complex structures, improves accuracy by reducing the use of staircase- approximations, and reduces the number of cells in the PEEC model discretizations. The nonorthogonal formulation excludes the use of analytical formulas thus make topical the use of fast multi-function- and multipole-methods. The fundamentals of the PEEC method makes free-space radiation analysis computationally efficient. Radiated field characterization is important in EMC processes and therefore of great interest. One paper in this thesis explore different possibilities to use PEEC model simulations to determine the electric field emissions from objects.

  • 42.
    Ekman, Jonas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Electromagnetic simulations using the partial element equivalent circuit (PEEC) approach2003Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 43.
    Ekman, Jonas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Experimental verification of PEEC based electric field simulations2001In: 2001 IEEE EMC International Symposium: symposium record : August 13-17, 2001, Montreal, Canada : EMC 2001 international rendez-vous, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2001, Vol. 1, p. 351-355Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Different ways to simulate the measured radiated electric field for printed circuit boards using partial element equivalent circuit (PEEC) models has been investigated. Full and simplified PEEC models have been used with post-processing algorithms and an electric field sensor directly incorporated in the PEEC simulations. Calculated and simulated field strengths for a simple PCB are compared to measurements taken in an anechoic EMC chamber. It is shown that the post-processing equations compare better to measurements then the electric field sensor

  • 44.
    Ekman, Jonas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Internationally recognised ICT research: in close cooperation with users and industry2010In: Public Service Review. European Union, ISSN 1472-3395Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 45.
    Ekman, Jonas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Projekt: Utveckling av stabilitetskrav för fullständig integralekvationsbaserad elektromagnetisk lösare2012Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    PostDoc projekt utfört vid Univ. of L'Aquila finansierat av Vetenskapsrådet.

  • 46.
    Ekman, Jonas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Recent progress and applications in partial element equivalent circuit modeling2004In: Proceedings of EMB04, Gothenburg, Sweden, Oct., 2004, 2004Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 47.
    Ekman, Jonas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Simplified PEEC models for PCB structures and comparison to experimental data2001Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 48.
    Ekman, Jonas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    The partial element equivalent circuit method: modeling and experimental verification of PCB structures2001Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    To help products comply with international Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC)regulations or as a help in a design process numerical simulation of electromagnetic (EM) characteristics are a valuable tool. With the development of high-speed computers the complexity of EM simulation programs and the systems they can simulate has increased considerable. But still, problems must be partitioned due to computer resource and/or EM simulation technique limitations. In this thesis, four different EM simulation techniques are described and the nature of these are discussed. The focus is on the partial element equivalent circuit (PEEC) method for which the following improvements and investigations have been proposed in the enclosed papers. First, a recent proposed formulation for the direct simulation of the radiated electric field from a device is compared against traditional post-processing equations and measurements. The results show that the proposed direct method, the electric field sensor, is unreliable for arbitrarily implementations since the length of the sensor strongly affects the results. Second, a technique to obtain simplified PEEC models are presented. The first step is to use a discretisation procedure where partial elements with small effect on the complete PEEC model are excluded. Then, instead of using numerical integration, closed-form equations are used to calculate the partial elements. The obtained simplified PEEC models are shown to comply well against measurements. Third, an introductory paper to the PEEC method is presented. The international interest for the method has been gaining rapidly for the past years resulting in considerable progress for the technique. But, in the Nordic countries the research effort has been low. The paper presents the technique using simple antenna examples, both printed and free space, and illustrations. For verification, simulations have been compared against analytical solutions and measurements.

  • 49.
    Ekman, Jonas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Use of fast time domain PEEC simulations for improved frequency domain modeling2004Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 50.
    Ekman, Jonas
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Antonini, G.
    University of L’Aquila.
    Ruehli, A.E.
    T. J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, NY.
    Toward improved time domain stability and passivity for full-wave PEEC models2006In: 2006 IEEE International Symposium on Electromagnetic Compatibility: [2006 IEEE EMC] ; Portland, Oregon, USA, 14 - 18 August 2006, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2006, Vol. 2, p. 544-549Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is well known that time domain integral equation techniques may suffer from stability problems and frequency domain models may provide non-passive results. A main source of these issues is the delay of the coupled elements. In the classical Partial Element Equivalent Circuit (PEEC) method, a single delay was used for each couple of partial element which results in a delay differential equation with reduced stability and accuracy. In this paper, we consider multiple delay coefficients which can be used for both the time and frequency domain. Also, filters are introduced which remove unwanted eigenvalues or resonances in the partial element couplings. This can substantially improve the response of the frequency domain and the time domain models. Stability improvements also means passivity improvements.

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