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  • 1.
    Andersson, Anders
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driving Simulation and Visualization.
    Lidström, Mats
    Peters, Björn
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Rosberg, Tomas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Pavement Technology.
    Thorslund, Birgitta
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Framtagning av loktågsmodell för VTI:s tågsimulator2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Allowing higher speeds for freight trains would provide opportunities for a higher prioritization in the traffic flow by rail traffic management, which in itself is a capacity gain and should generate better flows and higher capacity on the Swedish rail network, especially on the major railways. Simulators are an effective and safe way to investigate the effects of changes in both driver behavior and capacity.

    The purpose of this project was to create capacity-enhancing opportunities and actions by developing a freight train simulator and investigating its possible application areas. The aim of the project was to provide a freight train simulator, consisting of a locomotive and a number of wagons, which can be used in studies to increase capacity through, for example, optimized speed, and thus changing braking profiles, for long trains. The project has delivered knowledge of new test methods, a freight train simulator and a software platform for further testing.

    The project was conducted in three successive stages. In the first phase, a pilot study was carried out with drivers, operators and problem owners, who gave the researchers an understanding of the driving environment. In addition, some of the data needed for the development of the freight train simulator was collected. In the second phase, a freight train (software and hardware) model was developed. Stage three was a validation study together with drivers.

    A Traxx model driver console was purchased from a German manufacturer. The vehicle model was developed from a single unit, Regina type (motorcar train), into a combination of several units. The train in the simulator consists of one or more locomotives and a number of wagons with a total length of up to 750 meters. A locomotive of Traxx model is used. For each device, locomotive and wagon, data is required: length, weight, load, brake, roll and air resistance. In addition, information about noise, driving, braking (re-electrical braking and conventional pneumatic brake) (P-brake), cab equipment and more are added. Currently, the track between Falköping - Jönköping - Forserum is modelled and will be used for ATC trains. The model is configurable using combinations of a locomotive (Traxx) and, currently, four different types of wagons. These can be linked in different combinations.

    Some applications that were discussed at the start of the project were, on the one side, those that could naturally be linked to longer and heavier trains, and, on the other, the ideas that arose because of the equipment purchased. At the Transport Administration winter meeting, a workshop was conducted where further uses were discussed. Among these are applications within education, energy efficient driving or design. Education and certain types of studies could be performed with the existing locomotive model, while others require either validation of parameters or some further development of the model.

    The project has provided knowledge of new test methods, this research report and a product in the form of a freight train simulator and software platform for further testing. The project has also delivered a national resource of simulator software. The software provides for cost-effective testing activities in the freight train domain. A freight train simulator has been developed, which will be valuable as a demonstration tool as well as a platform for training,

  • 2.
    Hedström, Ragnar
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Rosberg, Tomas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Uppkörda spårväxlar: orsak och konsekvens2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A trailing point where the tongues are not in the correct position could be at risk of being worn down when a vehicle passes through the point switch. The data from ”Lupp”, the Swedish Transport Administration’s database, shows that there were a total number of 630 worn point switches during the years 2014–2017. Of these, 16 objects which related to track locks have been disregarded. In cases where a point switch has been worn due to SPAD (a signal passed at danger), 49 incidents in total, these have also been disregarded. The reason for this is because each individual incident of this type is investigated as an individual case. 76 incidents where it could not be determined whether or not the switch was worn due to insufficient information have been disregarded. Of the total number of objects obtained from Lupp, 489 have been identified as worn point switches and have been used as basis for the analyses conducted in this project.

    There are many possible causes as to why a point switch gets worn down, such as work machinery, incorrect handling, switch malfunctions, vehicle malfunctions, lack of maintenance, etc. Because there are multiple possible causes for the wearing down, we also see variation in the consequences depending on the type of switch, where it is placed (e.g. along a main route or along sidings), and the type of vehicles passing the point switch.

    It has generally been difficult to discern any clear pattern regarding worn point switches based on the switch model, operation sites, cause or effect because of the large number of variations concerning these factors. At the same time, it can be noted that there is an issue with worn point switches when looking at traffic aspects (disrupted trains, hours of downtime), as well as costs and time spent repairing the damaged point switch. However, the actual costs associated with worn point switches have not been a point of analysis in this project.

  • 3.
    Hedström, Ragnar
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Rosberg, Tomas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Wikberg, Åsa
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Prognosmodell för framtida resurs- och kompetensbehov inom järnvägsbranschen2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    According to the 2018–2029 National Plan for the Transport System, SEK 125 billion are to be set aside for the operation, maintenance and reinvestments of state railways during that period. This is an increase of about 40 percent compared with the corresponding plan for 2014–2025. Increased funding implies a greater volume of activities and indications have been received from players in the railway industry that all the resources and competences required to carry out planned railway, underground and tramway projects are not available. The Swedish Transport Administration therefore initiated a work process to produce a practical and useful forecast model that would predict the future resource and competence needs of the entire railway industry. Considering the complex structure of the railway industry, the wide variety of areas of activity and all the data (which was gathered manually for this project) needed for a forecast model, it transpired that the work task could not be completed within the framework of the project.

    The purpose of the project and this report has therefore been limited to suggesting a structure for the forecast model and, by using examples of four types of project - replacement of switches, replacement of tracks, building of passing loops, and the extension of double tracks - showing how the demand for resources and competences can be forecast. No analysis has been made of the supply side, that is, the current availability of manpower, retirements and study programmes. The reason for this is because there are no statistics that can be readily used to specify these parameters specifically for all the occupational groups and areas of activity of the railway industry. Because of this, the drafted version of the forecast model cannot be linked to the supply side and therefore it cannot show which occupational groups are expected to have a surplus or deficit of resources and competences.

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