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  • 1.
    Adermon, Adrian
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Ek, Simon
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Graetz, Georg
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Yakymovych, Yaroslav
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Understanding occupational wage growthManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Using a new identification strategy, we jointly estimate the growth in occupationalwage premia as well as time-varying occupation-specific life-cycle profiles for Swedishworkers 1996–2013. We document a substantial increase in between-occupation wageinequality due to differential growth in premia. The association of wage premiumgrowth and employment growth is positive, suggesting that premium growth ispredominantly driven by demand side factors. We also find that wage growth dueto occupation-specific skill acquisition was more dispersed in the early years of thesample period. Our results are robust to allowing for occupation-level changes inreturns to cognitive and psycho-social skills.

  • 2.
    Edin, Per-Anders
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics, Uppsala Center for Labor Studies (UCLS).
    Evans, Tiernan
    Graetz, Georg
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Hernnäs, Sofia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Michaels, Guy
    Individual Consequences of Occupational Decline2023In: Economic Journal, ISSN 0013-0133, E-ISSN 1468-0297, Vol. 133, no 654, p. 2178-2209Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We assess the career earnings losses that individual Swedish workers suffered when their occupations' employment declined. High-quality data allow us to overcome sorting into declining occupations on various attributes, including cognitive and non-cognitive skills. Our estimates show that occupational decline reduced mean cumulative earnings from 1986-2013 by no more than 2%-5%. This loss reflects a combination of reduced earnings conditional on employment, reduced years of employment and increased time spent in unemployment and retraining. While on average workers successfully mitigated their losses, those initially at the bottom of their occupations' earnings distributions lost up to 8%-11%.

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  • 3.
    Feng, Andy
    et al.
    Singapore Minist Trade & Ind, 100 High St, Singapore 179434, Singapore..
    Graetz, Georg
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics. Ctr Econ Performance, London, England.;IZA, Bonn, Germany..
    A question of degree: The effects of degree class on labor market outcomes2017In: Economics of Education Review, ISSN 0272-7757, E-ISSN 1873-7382, Vol. 61, p. 140-161Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    How does performance at university affect labor market outcomes? Employing a regression discontinuity design, we show that university degree class causally affects graduates' industry, wages, and earnings. Our sample consists of students at the London School of Economics, and our data combine administrative records with the Destinations of Leavers from Higher Education survey. We estimate that receiving a First Class degree instead of an Upper Second increases the probability of working in a high-wage industry by fourteen percentage points, leads to three percent higher wages, and yields two percent higher annual salaries. For the comparison between Upper and Lower Seconds, the corresponding figures are ten, seven, and four. Effects are larger for males and graduates of math-intensive degree programs. We show that this is consistent with a model of statistical discrimination, in which employers attach more importance to the degree class signal if it is more informative about underlying ability. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 4.
    Feng, Andy
    et al.
    Singapore Minist Trade & Ind, Singapore, Singapore.
    Graetz, Georg
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics. Singapore Minist Trade & Ind, Singapore, Singapore.
    Training requirements, automation, and job polarisation2020In: Economic Journal, ISSN 0013-0133, E-ISSN 1468-0297, Vol. 130, no 631, p. 2249-2271Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We analyse how job training requirements interact with engineering complexity in shaping firms' automation decisions. A model that distinguishes between a task's engineering complexity and its training requirements predicts that when two tasks are equally complex, firms automate the task that requires more training. Under plausible conditions this leads to job polarisation, and in particular to polarisation of employment by initial training requirements. US data provide empirical support for the model's implications. Training requirements and a measure of engineering complexity account for much of US job polarisation from 1980 to 2008.

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  • 5.
    Graetz, Georg
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    On the interpretation of diploma wage effects estimated by regression discontinuity designs2021In: Canadian Journal of Economics, ISSN 0008-4085, E-ISSN 1540-5982, Vol. 54, no 1, p. 228-258Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Several recent papers employ regression discontinuity (RD) designs to estimate the causal effect of a diploma or similar credentials on wages. I build a model of knowledge acquisition, test-taking, and labour market careers that mimics the settings studied in these papers. I show that a positive RD estimate is evidence for information frictions in the labour market, but caution that the relative importance of acquired knowledge and innate talent in the production function cannot be separately identified. While a positive RD estimate does not reveal whether students study too much or too little compared to the social optimum, the rate at which RD estimates decline with labour market experience indicates the speed of employer learning, a parameter that is critical for the extent of inefficiency in study choices. Resume Interpretation des effets salariaux d'un diplome : evaluations par modeles de regression sur discontinuite. Plusieurs articles recents utilisent des modeles de regression sur discontinuite (RD) afin d'evaluer l'incidence salariale d'un diplome ou de toute autre qualification similaire. Ici, j'ai elabore un modele relatif a l'acquisition des connaissances, au passage des examens et aux carrieres professionnelles dont les parametres sont calques sur ceux des RD etudies dans cet article. Je montre que lorsqu'un modele RD etablit une relation positive, cela soutient l'idee qu'il existe des frictions informationnelles sur le marche du travail, meme si l'importance relative des connaissances acquises et des talents innes en rapport avec la fonction productive ne peut etre distinguee. Et tandis qu'un modele RD positif n'indique en aucun cas si les etudiants ont suffisamment travaille ou non par rapport a l'optimum social, la rapidite a laquelle les modeles RD decroissent avec l'experience professionnelle montrent la vitesse a laquelle les employeurs jaugent les aptitudes des employes, un parametre essentiel pour comprendre l'ampleur de l'inefficacite des choix en matiere d'etudes.

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  • 6.
    Graetz, Georg
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Karimi, Arizo
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Gender gap variation across assessment types: Explanations and implications2022In: Economics of Education Review, ISSN 0272-7757, E-ISSN 1873-7382, Vol. 91, article id 102313Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using Swedish population data, we document that girls outperform boys by a third of a standard deviation in school grades, whereas a gap of similar magnitude but opposite sign persists in SAT scores in the sample of non-randomly selected test takers. We establish that grades capture different attributes than SAT scores, which accounts for much of the variation in gender gaps. A model of SAT participation illustrates how women's greater participation-driven by traits not rewarded by higher scores-leads to their negative selection on observed and unobserved traits. We explore the quantitative importance of this mechanism and conclude that while selection is important, it fails to account for a substantial fraction of the gender gap in SAT scores, suggesting the possibility that the SAT penalizes women.

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  • 7.
    Graetz, Georg
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Michaels, Guy
    London School of Econonomics.
    Is Modern Technology Responsible for Jobless Recoveries?2017In: The American Economic Review, ISSN 0002-8282, E-ISSN 1944-7981, Vol. 107, no 5, p. 168-173Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Graetz, Georg
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Michaels, Guy
    London Sch Econ, London, England.
    Robots at Work2018In: Review of Economics and Statistics, ISSN 0034-6535, E-ISSN 1530-9142, Vol. 100, no 5, p. 753-768Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We analyze for the first time the economic contributions of modern industrial robots, which are flexible, versatile, and autonomous machines. We use novel panel data on robot adoption within industries in seventeen countries from 1993 to 2007 and new instrumental variables that rely on robots' comparative advantage in specific tasks. Our findings suggest that increased robot use contributed approximately 0.36 percentage points to annual labor productivity growth, while at the same time raising total factor productivity and lowering output prices. Our estimates also suggest that robots did not significantly reduce total employment, although they did reduce low-skilled workers' employment share.

  • 9.
    Graetz, Georg
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Nordström Skans, Oskar
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, The Institute for Evaluation of Labour Market and Education Policy (IFAU). Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics, Uppsala Center for Fiscal Studies.
    Öckert, Björn
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, The Institute for Evaluation of Labour Market and Education Policy (IFAU). Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Family background and the responses to higher SAT scores [Elektronisk resurs]2020Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Using discontinuities within the Swedish SAT system, we show that additional admission opportunities causally affect college choices. Students with high-educated parents change timing, colleges, and fields in ways that appear rational and informed. In contrast, very talented students with low-educated parents react to higher scores by increasing overall enrolment and graduation rates. Remarkably, most of this effect arises from increased participation in college programs and institutions that they could have attended even with a lower score. This suggests that students with low-educated parents face behavioral barriers even in a setting where colleges are tuition-free, student grants are universal and application systems are simple.

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  • 10.
    Graetz, Georg
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Restrepo, Pascual
    Boston Univ, Boston, MA USA..
    Nordström Skans, Oskar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics, Uppsala Center for Labor Studies (UCLS).
    Technology and the labor market2022In: Labour Economics, ISSN 0927-5371, E-ISSN 1879-1034, Vol. 76, article id 102177Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This article introduces the Special Issue on "Technology and the Labor Market ". We summarize the included articles and offer some lessons for policy and future research. The articles cover central issues such as how technology changes the nature of labor demand, the impact of technology on individual workers, the role of policy, as well as emerging phenomena such as Artificial Intelligence and the "Gig " economy.

1 - 10 of 10
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  • fi-FI
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