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  • 1.
    Bertoni, Alessandro
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Bertoni, Marco
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Assessing the value of product service systems alternatives: a conceptual framework2011In: Design Principles and Practices: An International Journal, ISSN 1833-1874, Vol. 5, no 5, p. 655-672Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper proposes a conceptual framework, linking value-oriented criteria, simulation approaches and knowledge sources, to support the value-driven assessment of Product/Service Systems in the preliminary product development phase. The paper describes the peculiarities of the Multi Attribute Decision Making (MADM) problem in the PSS domain, identifying relevant categories of criteria to guide the preliminary value assessment of Product/Service Systems. Each criteria has been analyzed and linked to the appropriate simulation method, and each method has been further associated to people/roles in the Virtual Enterprise who might possess relevant knowledge to populate the models. The value assessment of an aircraft engine component has been used as case study for the definition of the value attributes. The list of generic value-related criteria, coupled with the respective simulation approaches has to be considered the main result of the paper.

  • 2.
    Bertoni, Alessandro
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Bertoni, Marco
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Effectiveness of colour-coded CAD models value visualisation in PSS conceptual design2013In: Product-Service Integration for Sustainable Solutions: Proceedings of the 5th CIRP International Conference on Industrial Product-Service Systems, Bochum, Germany, March 14th - 15th, 2013 / [ed] Horst Meier, Berlin: Springer Science+Business Media B.V., 2013, p. 495-506Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During the 3rd CIRP IPS2 conference an approach toward communicating the value contribution of different PSS design alternatives using colour-coded CAD models was presented. Building on this work, the paper presents and discusses the results of the testing activity undertaken to verify the effectiveness of the colour-coding approach. The paper describes the setting and the findings of a series of PSS Design Experiments involving 8 design teams composed by master students in product development. Through the application of protocol analysis to the recorded design sessions, the paper compares the behavior of the design teams when using colour-coded CAD models, instead of QFD-like numerical tables, for value communication in PSS conceptual design.

  • 3.
    Bertoni, Alessandro
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Bertoni, Marco
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Modeling ‘ilities’ in early Product-Service Systems design2019In: Procedia CiRP, Elsevier, 2019, Vol. 83, p. 230-235Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Product-Service Systems, like all complex systems, are vulnerable to unpredictable environmental changes that can seriously undermine their ability to continuously deliver value to customers. The long-term consequences of volatile markets, unanticipated technologies, and unpredictable changes in society must be captured, modeled and communicated to decision makers since the earliest stages of the design, so to identify sustainable PSS solutions able to deliver value for years or decades to come. The paper analyses the problem of PSS changeability from the perspective of established medium-large product manufacturers facing the transition toward result-oriented PSS offers. Building on established literature in the systems engineering field, the paper proposes the definition of the changeability criteria, also named ‘ilities’, that are relevant to consider for PSS engineers in the early stages of design. Furthermore, the paper describes a systematic framework for assessing ilities in early PSS design, elaborating on technological enablers for ilities modeling.

  • 4.
    Bertoni, Alessandro
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Bertoni, Marco
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    PSS cost engineering: A model-based approach for concept design2018In: CIRP - Journal of Manufacturing Science and Technology, ISSN 1755-5817, E-ISSN 1878-0016Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Manufacturing companies are increasingly moving toward delivering combinations of products and services to provide higher value to their customers. The development of such Product Service Systems (PSS) escalates in complexity when several products developed by different suppliers need to be integrated into a unique system. For first tier suppliers, it is a great challenge to model and simulate the impact of changing design variables at the micro-level on both hardware properties and governing behaviours of services over the entire life-cycle of the PSS. The paper describes a model-based approach developed to estimate the life cycle cost of a PSS hardware already at a concept design stage.  The proposed approach computes the relative cost efficiency of a set of design variants using as input the data generated by the simulations run in the Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) environment. The approach allows the exploration of the design space of a PSS given by the variation of the geometry of a Computer Aided Design (CAD) model, building on the computation of customised cost modules selected by a generic list of PSS cost dimensions. For each evaluated design case, the model produces as output a unique monetary figure of the cost expected to incur by owning or using the asset throughout the lifetime. The work has been conducted in collaboration with a tier-one aerospace component manufacturer, and the application of the model is exemplified through a case study related to the development of a turbine rear structure (TRS) for commercial jet engines. The approach is most suitable for the development of complex systems in which new products and components are integrated into a shared product platform. The results are discussed in relation to the current literature on PSS cost engineering, highlighting challenges to be addressed to increase cost estimation accuracy and increase uncertainty identification and awareness.

  • 5.
    Bertoni, Alessandro
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Bertoni, Marco
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    SUPPORTING EARLY STAGE SET-BASED CONCURRENT ENGINEERING WITH VALUE DRIVEN DESIGN2019In: Proceedings of the Design Society: International Conference on Engineering Design, Cambridge University Press, 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Set-Based Concurrent Engineering is commonly adopted to drive the development of complex products and systems. However, its application requires design information about a future product that is often not mature enough in the early design stages, and that it is not encompassing a service and lifecycle- oriented perspective. There is a need for manufacturers to understand, since the early design stages, how customer value is created along the lifecycle of a product from a hardware and service perspective, and how to use such information to screen radically new technologies, trade-off promising design configurations and commit to a design concept. The paper presents an approach for the multidisciplinary value assessment of design concepts in sub-systems design, encompassing the high-level concept screening and the trade-off of different design concepts, and enabling the integration of value models results into a Set-based Concurrent Engineering process. The approach is described through its application in the case study of the development of a subsystem component for a commercial aircraft engine.

  • 6. Bertoni, Alessandro
    et al.
    Bertoni, Marco
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Isaksson, Ola
    Communicating the value of PSS design alternatives using color-coded CAD models2011In: Functional Thinking for Value Creation: Proceedings of the 3rd CIRP International Conference on Industrial Product Service Systems, Technische Universität Braunschweig, Braunschweig, Germany, May 5th - 6th, 2011 / [ed] Jürgen Hesselbach; Christoph Herrmann, Encyclopedia of Global Archaeology/Springer Verlag, 2011, p. 51-56Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper proposes an approach to increase the decision makers’ awareness at the gate, when evaluating PSS design alternatives from a lifecycle and value oriented perspective. The paper illustrates a lightweight value visualization tool, running on top of existing CAD systems, supporting value visualization of a given part or assembly, thanks to color coding. Information from value assessment is in this way translated into visual features of the CAD 3D model. Despite the approach is still on a start-up phase, an early mock-up of the tool has been developed and applied to a real aircraft engine component, in order to verify the feasibility of the approach.

  • 7. Bertoni, Alessandro
    et al.
    Bertoni, Marco
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Isaksson, Ola
    Value visualization in Product Service Systems preliminary design2013In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 53, p. 103-117Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Emerging from a study in the European aerospace industry, this paper identifies a gap in the way value-related information is communicated to designers of hardware in the preliminary stages of Product Service System (PSS) design. To fit this gap a Lifecycle Value Representation Approach, named LiVReA, that uses color-coded 3D CAD models to enable value information to be translated into visual features, is presented. Such approach aims at enhancing designers' awareness of the value contribution of an early design concept on the overall PSS offer by complementing requirements-based information with criteria reflecting the fulfillment of customers and system value. The paper details the development of the approach, its underlying rationale, the results of preliminary validation activities and the potential for industrial application in the light of the currently available PSS representation tools

  • 8.
    Bertoni, Alessandro
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Bertoni, Marco
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Isaksson, Ola
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Value visualization in product service systems preliminary design2013In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 53, p. 103-117Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Emerging from a study in the European aerospace industry, this paper identifies a gap in the way value-related information is communicated to designers of hardware in the preliminary stages of Product Service System (PSS) design. To fit this gap a Lifecycle Value Representation Approach, named LiVReA, that uses color-coded 3D CAD models to enable value information to be translated into visual features, is presented. Such approach aims at enhancing designers’ awareness of the value contribution of an early design concept on the overall PSS offer by complementing requirements-based information with criteria reflecting the fulfillment of customers and system value. The paper details the development of the approach, its underlying rationale, the results of preliminary validation activities and the potential for industrial application in the light of the currently available PSS representation tools.

  • 9.
    Bertoni, Alessandro
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Bertoni, Marco
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Johansson, Christian
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Analysing the effects of value drivers and knowledge maturity in preliminary design decision-making.2015In: ICED 15, VOL 10: DESIGN INFORMATION AND KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT, Design Society , 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper presents the results of a three-days experiment to test the use of informationfrom a value assessment model and from a knowledge maturity scale in decisionmakingin preliminary design. A visual analogue scale was used to collect individualinformation from designers through questionnaires. Bivariate statistical analysis wasapplied to study the correlations between both the use of value drivers and knowledgematurity and the designers' awareness of the design problem to be addressed. Resultsshow that value drivers and knowledge maturity information increase the decisionmakers’ awareness of (1) the different perceptions of design team members about theneeds to be satisfied and (2) the technical solution to be developed in the productconcept under consideration.

  • 10.
    Bertoni, Alessandro
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Bertoni, Marco
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Massimo, Panarotto
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Christian, Johansson
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Tobias, Larsson
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Expanding Value Driven Design to meet Lean Product Service Development2015In: 7TH INDUSTRIAL PRODUCT-SERVICE SYSTEMS CONFERENCE: IPSS, INDUSTRY TRANSFORMATION FOR SUSTAINABILITY AND BUSINESS / [ed] Xavier Boucher and Daniel Brissaud, Elsevier, 2015, Vol. 30, p. 197-202Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper presents a discussion about gaps and opportunities for cross-pollination between Value Driven Design and Lean Product Service Development to promote the use of value-driven method and tools since the preliminary design stages. In particular the paper discusses how methods and tools developed in Value Driven Design have the potential to be applied in the preliminary design stage in the context of Lean Product Service Development. The paper concludes by defining a research area on Value Innovation method and tools for preliminary Lean Product Service Development.

  • 11.
    Bertoni, Alessandro
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Isaksson, Ola
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Bertoni, Marco
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Larsson, Tobias
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Assessing the value of sub-system technologies including life cycle alternatives2011In: Glocalized Solutions for Sustainability in Manufacturing: Proceedings of the 18th CIRP International Conference on Life Cycle Engineering, 2011, p. 669-674Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Emerging from an industrial case study in the aerospace industry, the paper proposes an approach to evaluate subsystem technology concepts from a life cycle perspective. The approach is composed by 5 main phases that aims to drive product designers towards more value-oriented design decisions. It is shown how different life cycle alternatives, such as the selling of a Product-Service- System instead of a traditional product, deeply impact the value of design alternatives. The described approach has been developed in collaboration with industrial partners and represents a potential instrument to enhance value-driven product design.

  • 12.
    Bertoni, Alessandro
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Isaksson, Ola
    Bertoni, Marco
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Larsson, Tobias
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Assessing the Value of Sub-System Technologies including Life Cycle Alternatives - an aerospace investigation2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Emerging from an industrial case study in the aerospace industry, the paper proposes an approach to evaluate sub- system technology concepts from a life cycle perspective. The approach is composed by 5 main phases that aims to drive product designers towards more value-oriented design decisions. It is shown how different life cycle alternatives, such as the selling of a Product-Service-System instead of a traditional product, deeply impact the value of design alternatives. The described approach has been developed in collaboration with industrial partners and represents a potential instrument to enhance value-driven product design.

  • 13.
    Bertoni, Alessandro
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Marco, Bertoni
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Massimo, Panarotto
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Christian, Johansson
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Larsson, Tobias
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Value-driven product service systems development: Methods and industrial applications2016In: CIRP - Journal of Manufacturing Science and Technology, ISSN 1755-5817, E-ISSN 1878-0016, Vol. 15, p. 42-55Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent times a service-dominant logic is permeating the design of complex systems. However, in spite of their appeal, initiatives such as Product Service Systems (PSS) have not become mainstream, and methods are lacking to support this transition. This paper argues that methodological guidance, as well as tools for decision support, may be found in the research field of Value Driven Design (VDD), which originates in the realm of Systems Engineering. The paper objective is to elaborate on gaps and opportunities for cross-pollination between VDD and PSS. The results of a systematic review of methods and tools for design decision support highlight the opportunity for introducing optimization models derived from VDD in the PSS design process, while the latter can enrich VDD research with a more qualitative value assessment logic. The paper summarizes this integration in a methodological approach, and exemplifies its application in case studies mainly from the aerospace and road construction equipment sector.

  • 14.
    Bertoni, Marco
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Bottom-up knowledge sharing in PSS design: a classification framework2010In: Design 2010: 11th International Design Conference, Dubrovnik - Croatia, May 17 - 20, 2010 / [ed] D. Marjanovic; M. Storga; N. Pavkovic; N. Bojcetic, Zagreb: Design Research Society, 2010, p. 1461-1470Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper presents an approach to visualize the knowledge sharing capabilities of Web 2.0 tools and mash-ups in the design of Product Service Systems. Drawing on data from the Swedish manufacturing industry, it proposes 12 dimensions on which bottom-up to...

  • 15.
    Bertoni, Marco
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Introducing Sustainability in Value Models to Support Design Decision Making: A Systematic Review2017In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 9, no 6, article id 994Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Manufacturing organizations shall recognize sustainability as a business occasion to capitalize on, rather than an undesirable pressing situation. Still, empirical evidence shows that this opportunity is hard to capture and communicate in global strategic decisions, through planning by tactical management, to daily operational activities. This paper systematically reviews the modeling challenges at the crossroad of value and sustainability decisions making, spotlighting methods and tools proposed in literature to link sustainability to customer value creation at strategic, tactical and operational level. While statistical results show that the topic of sustainability and value modeling is trending in literature, findings from content analysis reveal that recent attempts to promote a value-based view in the sustainability discussion remain at a strategic level, with most of the proposed indicators being suited for managerial decision-making. The lack of support at operational level points to the opportunity of cross-pollinating sustainability research with value-centered methodologies originating from the aerospace sector. The Value Driven Design framework is proposed as main hub from which to derive models supporting engineers and technology developers in the identification of win-win-win situations, where sustainable improvements are aligned with business advantages.

  • 16.
    Bertoni, Marco
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Multi-Criteria Decision Making for Sustainability and Value Assessment in Early PSS Design2019In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 11, no 7, p. 1952-1979, article id 1952Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sustainability is increasingly recognized as a key innovation capability in the organization. However, it is not always evident for manufacturers how sustainability targets shall be “mixed and matched” with more traditional objectives—such as quality, time, cost, and performances—when designing and developing solutions. The emergence of “servitization” and product-service systems (PSS) further emphasizes the need for making thoughtful trade-offs between technical aspects, business strategies, and environmental benefits of a design. The objective of this paper is to investigate how multi-criteria decision making (MCDM) models shall be applied to down-select PSS concepts from a value perspective, by considering sustainability as one of the attributes of a design contributing to the overall value of a solution. Emerging from the findings of a multiple case study in the aerospace and construction sector, the paper presents a five-step iterative process to support decision making for sustainable PSS design, which was further applied to design an electrical load carrier. The findings show that the proposed approach creates a “hub” where argumentations related to “value” and “sustainability” of PSS solution concepts can be systematically captured in a way that supports the discussion on the appropriate quantification strategy.

  • 17.
    Bertoni, Marco
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    WORK INTEGRATION SOCIAL ENTERPRISES: A TESTBED FOR CHALLENGE-BASED LEARNING?2019In: Proceedings of the 15th international CDIO Conference, Aarhus university , 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Work Integration Social Enterprises (WISE) are a particular enterprise form permeated by a so-called ‘double business idea’. Besides the commercial imperative of providing product and services, WISE offer employment and training opportunities for individuals considered less able to compete in mainstream labour markets. The paper argues that this multiple goal structure makes WISE an ideal testbed for Challenge-Based Learning (CBL). The latter deepens both problem-based learning and CDIO, by featuring open-ended problems that stress an entrepreneurial, value-driven and sustainable approach to problem formulation and decision-making. The aim of this paper is to describe how real-life design projects conducted in collaboration with WISE take CBL a step forward compared with those involving more ‘traditional’ enterprise forms. Evidence is gathered along 4 main lines of thought, which are: 1) iterative problem formulating and designing; 2) entrepreneurial mindset and of value-driven learning; 3) social sustainability-aware designing; and 4) social-constructed learning. The findings indicate that WISE-based design experiences bring forward additional characteristics compared with more ‘traditional’ engineering ones. Students are able to expand the scope and depth of their problem identification and formulation activities, due to the continuous dialogue with a broad range of stakeholders, enthusiasts, and volunteers. They become more aware of the multifaceted meaning of the word ‘value’ in engineering, realizing the existence of competing value systems for the design problem. Eventually their decision-making activities emphasizes the pursuit of different goals and objectives (e.g., technical feasibility, business viability, and sustainable development) in the design process.

  • 18.
    Bertoni, Marco
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Bertoni, Alessandro
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Models for Value-driven engineering design2016In: Proceedings of the International Design Conference / [ed] Marjanovic, D; Storga, M; Bojcetic, N; Skec, S, DESIGN SOC, UNIV STRATHCLYDE , 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nowadays, it is a great challenge to understand what models shall be used to iteratively translate customer desires into terms that are meaningful for engineering design decision-making. This paper proposes a framework illustrating the iterative evolution of model-based enablers for value during conceptual system design. The framework is developed from the analysis of four case studies in the Swedish manufacturing industry. The paper discusses the learning from the cross-case study, and elaborates on how value models may complement existing Systems Engineering practices.

  • 19.
    Bertoni, Marco
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Bertoni, Alessandro
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Nonlinear Quality Function Deployment: an experimental analysis2017In: DS87-4 PROCEEDINGS OF THE 21ST INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON ENGINEERING DESIGN (ICED 17), VOL 4: DESIGN METHODS AND TOOLS / [ed] Maier, A; Skec, S; Kim, H; Kokkolaras, M; Oehmen, J; Fadel, G; Salustri, F; VanDerLoos, M, The Design Society, 2017, p. 99-108Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Quality Function Deployment (QFD) is a common model to frontload engineering design activities with, linking the characteristics of a product vs. the voice of the customer using linear relationships. This approximation is often claimed to be misleading when dealing with the design of complex engineering systems. The paper presents the results of experimental activities aimed at verifying usability and effectiveness of nonlinear functions as extension of the QFD logic. A total of 40 experiments was conducted in a given design episode, involving 139 participants, to analyse the trade-off between the benefit of introducing nonlinearity vs. effort and cost triggered by increased complexity in the modelling. The results show that nonlinear functions, while improving the granularity of the QFD mapping, keeps the method simple enough to work as ‘boundary object’ in cross-functional design teams, irrespectively from the experience of design team members. The experiments also highlight how users’ cognitive attention in the task is dependent from the format by which nonlinear merit functions are presented.

  • 20.
    Bertoni, Marco
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Bertoni, Alessandro
    Broeze, Henk
    Dubourg, Gilles
    Sundhurst, Clive
    Using 3D CAD models for value visualization: an approach with SIEMENS NX HD3D Visual Reporting2014In: Computer-Aided Design and Applications, ISSN 1686-4360, Vol. 11, no 3, p. 284-294Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent literature in Systems Engineering has suggested the use of “value” to drive decision-making activities during preliminary design, in particular when choosing technologies and components for a complex system. However, to correctly evaluate design trade-offs, a visual link has to be established between the results of the value model and a product shape/geometry. This paper proposes the use of color-coded 3D CAD models to support the visualization of value analysis results in a Stage-Gate® process. The approach has been developed and exemplified within a case study related to the design of an aero-engine component, and has been demonstrated using SIEMENS NX HD3D Visual Reporting. The results of verification activities conducted in a laboratory setting show that the use of color-coded 3D CAD models increases the decision makers’ awareness of value-related information in a Stage-Gate process.

  • 21.
    Bertoni, Marco
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Bertoni, Alessandro
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Broeze, Henk
    SIEMENS PLM.
    Dubourg, Gilles
    SIEMENS PLM.
    Sundhurst, Clive
    SIEMENS PLM.
    Using 3D CAD models for value visualization: an approach with SIEMENS NX HD3D Visual Reporting2014In: Computer-Aided Design and Applications, ISSN 1686-4360, Vol. 11, no 3, p. 284-294Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent literature in Systems Engineering has suggested the use of “value” to drive decision-making activities during preliminary design. Here the choice of a technology for a system/component is often oriented by the outcomes of a value analysis. However, to correctly evaluate design trade-offs, a visual link has to be established between these results and the product requirements/geometry. The paper proposes the use of color-coded 3D CAD models to support the visualization of value analysis results in a Stage-Gate® process. The approach has been developed and exemplified within a case study related to the design of an aero-engine component, and has been demonstrated using SIEMENS NX HD3D Visual Reporting. Eventually, the paper presents the results of verification activities conducted in academia.

  • 22.
    Bertoni, Marco
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Bertoni, Alessandro
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Eres, Murat Hakki
    University of Southampton, GBR.
    Value Driven Design revisited: emerging modelling concepts and applicatons2019In: Proceedings of the Design Society: International Conference on Engineering Design, 2019, p. 2407-2416Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Extended product warranties, leasing, and pay-per-use schemes are few examples of how manufacturing companies are shifting their focus from selling products to offering “solutions”, combining products and services to maximise customer value. The idea of optimising a system towards the best ‘value’ is both "intuitive and sensible", and processes such as Value Driven Design (VDD), have been proposed to supplement traditional engineering design methodologies. Yet, value-driven initiatives struggle to communicate their benefits and to demonstrate how value models can solve actual problems. The aim of this paper is to shed light on the evolution of the VDD toolbox, mapping research clusters, applications and case studies from the perspective of how much (and how well) recent contributions have answered the five top-level questions of the VDD research agenda published in 2012. The results of the systematic literature review reveal the emergence of innovative modelling constructs, methods, and tools that help VDD in taking a leap forward in supporting organizations and teams in achieving the long-sought objective of designing for 'value'.

  • 23.
    Bertoni, Marco
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Bertoni, Alessandro
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Isaksson, Ola
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Experiences with value visualisation in preliminary design: results from an aero-engine component study2012In: Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Through-life Engineering Services: (TESConf 2012), 5 - 6 November 2012, Cranfield University Press , 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 24.
    Bertoni, Marco
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Bertoni, Alessandro
    Isaksson, Ola
    Amnell, Henrik
    Johansson, Christian
    Value-oriented concept selection in aero-engine sub-systems design: the EVOKE approach2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Value Driven Design methodologies extend the Requirements Management and Systems Engineering processes to reduce time and costs needed to identify the right solution direction to be pursued in detailed design. Emerging from the findings of an EU FP7 research project, the paper describes an approach, named EVOKE, that uses value as a basis for preliminary concept selection in the design of system components. EVOKE takes as input a list of value dimensions and drivers communicated by the system integrators, together with information about the high-level engineering characteristics of a candidate design, to enable early stage value analysis to be executed the by sub-system manufacturers. The approach and its technological enablers are described in detail through the use of a case study related to the design of new intermediate compressor case for turbofan engines.

  • 25.
    Bertoni, Marco
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Bertoni, Alessandro
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Isaksson, Ola
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Amnell, Henrik
    GKN Aerospace Systems Sweden.
    Johansson, Christian
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Value-oriented concept selection in aero-engine sub-systems design: the EVOKE approach2013In: 23rd Annual International Symposium of the International Council on Systems Engineering, INCOSE 2013: Philadelphia, PA, 24-27 June 2013, 2013, Vol. 2, p. 977-991Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The design of complex systems requires detailed analysis to be moved earlier in the design process. Value Driven Design methodologies extend the Requirements Management and Systems Engineering processes to reduce time and costs needed to identify the right solution direction to be pursued in detailed design. Emerging from the findings of an EU FP7 research project, the paper describes an approach for preliminary concept selection, named EVOKE, that uses value as a basis for decision. EVOKE enables quick value analysis to be executed by component manufacturers by taking as input a set of value dimensions and drivers communicated by the system integrators, together with information about the high-level engineering characteristics of the sub-systems under consideration. The approach and its technological enablers are described in detail through the use of a case study related to the design of new intermediate compressor case for turbofan engines.

  • 26.
    Bertoni, Marco
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Bertoni, Alessandro
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Johansson, Christian
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Knowledge Enabled Engineering2015In: International Workshop of Advanced Manufacturing and Automation, Trans Tech Publications Inc., 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The development of complex product-service combinations challenges the existing practices for engineering knowledge management. The objective of the paper is to highlight how such practices need to change to meet the engineers’ demand for knowledge when developing “functions” instead of merely hardware. It further proposes Knowledge Enabled Engineering (KEE) as an umbrella term that collects engineering knowledge management methods and tools inspired by the second wave of knowledge management, and that are aimed to meet needs of today’s modern knowledge workers in engineering organizations. The current state of readiness of these approaches is eventually described together with results from verification and validation activities.

  • 27.
    Bertoni, Marco
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Bertoni, Alessandro
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Johansson, Christian
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Towards assessing the value of aerospace components: a conceptual scenario2011In: Impacting society through engineering design: ICED 11 København, the 18th International Conference on Engineering Design; 15th - 18th August 2011, Technical University of Denmark (DTU), Copenhagen, Denmark; proceedings volumes / [ed] Steve Culley; Ben Hicks; Tim McAloone; T.J. Howard, Glasgow: Design Research Society, 2011, Vol. 9 : Design methods and tools, p. 226-235Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The development of complex products, characterized by long lifecycles and deep supply chains, requires enhanced capabilities to assess, in an early design stage, the value of a solution not merely from a requirement fulfillment perspective. The paper proposes a conceptual scenario, described in terms of activities, inputs, outputs, actors and mechanisms, which details how aircraft components can be developed and assessed with a focus on their value contribution at system level. The scenario proposes a set of methodological and technological tools needed to enable value assessment in preliminary design, and has been created and preliminary validated together with major European aerospace manufacturers. The importance of being able to communicate the lifecycle value contribution of design solutions during the development work emerged clearly from the study. In this spirit, an approach to visualize such contribution directly in a 3D CAD model (across a set of value criteria, dimensions and drivers) has been proposed and it is currently under development.

  • 28.
    Bertoni, Marco
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Bertoni, Alessandro
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Ola, Isaksson
    Chalmers, SWE.
    EVOKE: A Value-Driven Concept Selection Method for Early System Design2018In: Journal of Systems Science and Systems Engineering, ISSN 1004-3756, E-ISSN 1861-9576, Vol. 27, no 1, p. 46-77Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The development of new technologically advanced products requires the contribution from a range of skills and disciplines, which are often difficult to find within a single company or organization. Requirements establishment practices in Systems Engineering (SE), while ensuring coordination of activities and tasks across the supply network, fall short when it comes to facilitate knowledge sharing and negotiation during early system design. Empirical observations show that when system-level requirements are not available or not mature enough, engineers dealing with the development of long lead-time sub-systems tend to target local optima, rather than opening up the design space. This phenomenon causes design teams to generate solutions that do not embody the best possible configuration for the overall system. The aim of this paper is to show how methodologies for value-driven design may address this issue, facilitating early stage design iterations and the resolution of early stage design trade-offs. The paper describes how such methodologies may help gathering and dispatching relevant knowledge about the ‘design intent’ of a system to the cross-functional engineering teams, so to facilitate a more concurrent process for requirement elicitation in SE. The paper also describes EVOKE (Early Value Oriented design exploration with KnowledgE maturity), a concept selection method that allows benchmarking design options at sub-system level on the base of value-related information communicated by the system integrators. The use of EVOKE is exemplified in an industrial case study related to the design of an aero-engine component. EVOKE’s ability to raise awareness on the value contribution of early stage design concepts in the SE process has been further verified with industrial practitioners in ad-hoc design episodes.

  • 29.
    Bertoni, Marco
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Bordegoni, Monica
    Politecnico di Milano.
    Cugini, Umberto
    Politecnico di Milano.
    Regazzoni, D.
    Università degli Studi di Bergamo.
    Rizzi, C.
    Università degli Studi di Bergamo.
    PLM paradigm: how to lead BPR within product development field2009In: Computers in industry (Print), ISSN 0166-3615, E-ISSN 1872-6194, Vol. 60, no 7, p. 476-484Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The design and implementation of a PLM solution in a cross-company environment is a complex and labour intensive operation, which is often coupled with a Business Process Re-engineering (BPR) project to better deploy technologies as well as methodologies and to target the system implementation on the real company needs. Enterprise Modelling (EM) languages are typically used to collect and share process knowledge among the BPR participants. Plenty of techniques are actually available at this scope and it is not always easy to understand how to select and use them in the different steps of re-engineering. The main purpose of this paper is to perform a qualitative analysis of three well known EM languages (IDEF, UML and ARIS) and to propose a new methodology, based on their integrated use, supporting BPR efforts in the Product Development domain.

  • 30. Bertoni, Marco
    et al.
    Bordegoni, Monica
    Johansson, Christian
    Luleå Technical University.
    Larsson, Tobias
    Luleå Technical University.
    Pilot specifications definition guidelines for the implementation of a KEE solution in the aeronautical domain2008In: CIRP Design Conference 2008 / [ed] Fred J. A. M. van Houten, Laboratory of Design, Production and Management, Faculty of Engineering Technology, Univ. of Twente , 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Designing and implementing a Knowledge Management System (KMS) in a Virtual Enterprise is a labour intensive and risky task. Solution prototypes (Pilots) are usually built to verify system effectiveness prior to final implementation. The paper proposes a methodology to guide this Pilot specifications definition process. These guidelines support engineers and knowledge experts in collaboratively defining functionalities, services, software components and performance indicators of the prototype. The methodology has been conceived and applied within the European project VIVACE, to support the development of a Knowledge Enabled Engineering (KEE) system in the aeronautical domain.

  • 31.
    Bertoni, Marco
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Bordegoni, Monica
    Politecnico di Milano.
    Johansson, Christian
    Larsson, Tobias
    Pilot specifications definition guidelines for the implementation of a KEE solution in the aeronautical domain2008In: CIRP Design Conference 2008: April 7 - 9, 2008, Enschede / [ed] Fred J. A. M. van Houten, Enschede: Laboratory of Design, Production and Management, Faculty of Engineering Technology, Univ. of Twente , 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The design and implementation of a new Knowledge Enabled Engineering (KEE) in the context of a Virtual Enterprise is a labour intensive and risky task. In order to check, before embarking on a full-scale implementation, if the system will satisfy initial expectations, physical prototypes (Pilots) have to be tested in a near real usage environment to obtain qualitative and quantitative information for the final tuning activity. This paper proposes a methodology to guide this Pilot specifications definition process. The main aim of the roadmap proposed is to support the KMS design team in configuring a Pilot solution able to provide valid feedbacks of final system behaviour both from a software and non-software point of view.On one side the methodology guides the definition of Pilot implementation specifications from a technical perspective. It helps engineers and knowledge experts in selecting, refining, merging and cascading down the initial heterogeneous Pilot high level objectives to a lower level, and in elaborating a functional description of the KMS prototype. It proposes, moreover, a structured framework to classify KMS' performance indicators to help the Pilot task force in properly carry out the validation task.The methodology, on the other side, pushes the design team in considering those behavioural and methodological issues that arise from the necessary change in work practice as a result of implementing the KMS within a Virtual design environment. In parallel with the definition of technical specifications, the roadmap supports knowledge experts in developing and testing a set of Knowledge Management guidelines, intended as a list of Best Practices and Lesson Learned aiming to help users in utilizing the potentialities of the new solution.The methodology has been developed within the European project VIVACE to support the design and implementation of a new KEE system in the aeronautical domain.

  • 32.
    Bertoni, Marco
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Carulli, Marina
    Politecnico di Milano.
    Rovida, Edoardo
    Politecnico di Milano.
    About the use of TRIZ for product-service development2009In: Design has never been this cool: ICED 09, the 17th International Conference on Engineering Design ; 24 - 27 August 2009, Stanford University, Stanford, California, USA ; proceedings volume / [ed] Margareta Norell Bergendahl, Glasgow: Design Research Society, 2009, p. 133-144Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to understand how the Theory of Inventor's Problem Solving (TRIZ) may be applied in the development of product-service combinations. The authors have analyzed TRIZ modules and tools under a PSS (Product Service System) perspective to extract some principles of particular interest for their development. Basing on the outcomes of such investigation, the authors propose a framework for the use of TRIZ-based tools in product-service design.

  • 33.
    Bertoni, Marco
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Chirumalla, Koteshwar
    Engineering 2.0: leveraging a bottom-up and lightweight knowledge sharing approach in cross-functional product development teams2010In: Proceedings of I-KNOW 2010: 1-3 September 2010, Graz, Austria, 2010, p. 105-116Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores the application of Web 2.0 based technologies in the area of engineering product development. Growing on data collected from a case study in the Swedish manufacturing industry, the paper analyses the dichotomy between the prevailing hierarchical structure of CAD/PLM/PDM systems and the emerging principles of the Social Web, e.g. the self-organization of its users. It introduces the concept of Engineering 2.0, intended as a more bottom up and lightweight knowledge sharing approach supporting early stage design decisions within cross-functional product development teams. A set of scenarios related e.g. to the application of blogs, wikis, forums and tags in the engineering domain are eventuallypresented, highlighting opportunities, challenges and no-go areas.

  • 34.
    Bertoni, Marco
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Chirumalla, Koteshwar
    Leveraging Web 2.0 in new product development: lesson learned from a company study2011In: Journal of universal computer science (Online), ISSN 0948-695X, E-ISSN 0948-6968, Vol. 17, no 4, p. 548-564Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper explores the application of Web 2.0 technologies to support product development efforts in a global, virtual and cross-functional setting. It analyses the dichotomy between the prevailing hierarchical structure of CAD/PLM/PDM systems and the principles of the Social Web under the light of the emerging product development trends. Further it introduces the concept of Engineering 2.0, intended as a more bottom up and lightweight knowledge sharing approach to support early stage design decisions within virtual and cross-functional product development teams. The lessons learned collected from a cross-company study highlight how to further developblogs, wikis, forums and tags for the benefit of new product development teams, highlighting opportunities, challenges and no-go areas

  • 35.
    Bertoni, Marco
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Chirumalla, Koteshwar
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Johansson, Christian
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Social technologies for cross-functional product development: SWOT analysis and implications2012In: Proceedings of the Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, Los Alamos, CA, USA: IEEE conference proceedings, 2012, Vol. 45, p. 3918-3927Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Innovation is triggered by the cross-pollination of fields and disciplines. In product development, this means bringing together people with different expertise to develop breakthrough product and service offers. In spite of their great potential, cross-functional efforts are not yet adequately supported from a knowledge perspective, asking for a more open and bottom-up open approach to knowledge management. The paper aims to investigate how social technologies can enhance collaboration and knowledge sharing in complex, cross-functional and cross-organizational product development projects. It initially highlights the role of weak ties as enablers for more innovative design processes, especially when manufacturing companies move towards developing integrated offers mixing hardware, software and services. Emerging from data collected in two case studies conducted within the European aeronautical industry, it applies the Strength-Weaknesses-Opportunities-Threats (SWOT) framework to highlight how tools such as wikis, blogs, forum and microblogs can shorten and increase the quality of early design decisions. Furthermore it elaborates on how the design team can enhance its perception of the needs to be addressed and leverage its capability to develop solutions for the task at hand.

  • 36.
    Bertoni, Marco
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Chirumalla, Koteshwar
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Johansson, Christian
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Social technologies for cross-functional product development: SWOT analysis and implications2012In: 45th Hawaii International Conference on System Science (HICSS), Los Alamos, Calif.: IEEE Communications Society, 2012, p. 3918-3927Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Innovation is triggered by the cross-pollination of fields and disciplines. In product development, this means bringing together people with different expertise to develop breakthrough product and service offers. In spite of their great potential, cross-functional efforts are not yet adequately supported from a knowledge perspective, asking for a more open and bottom-up open approach to knowledge management. The paper aims to investigate how social technologies can enhance collaboration and knowledge sharing in complex, cross-functional and cross-organizational product development projects. It initially highlights the role of weak ties as enablers for more innovative design processes, especially when manufacturing companies move towards developing integrated offers mixing hardware, software and services. Emerging from data collected in two case studies conducted within the European aeronautical industry, it applies the Strength-Weaknesses-Opportunities-Threats (SWOT) framework to highlight how tools such as wikis, blogs, forum and microblogs can shorten and increase the quality of early design decisions. Furthermore it elaborates on how the design team can enhance its perception of the needs to be addressed and leverage its capability to develop solutions for the task at hand.

  • 37.
    Bertoni, Marco
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Chowdhery, Syed Azad
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Bellini, Anna
    Tetra Pak .
    Model-driven value assessment: a case from the food packaging industry2018In: Proceeedings of the International DESIGN Conference / [ed] D. Marjanović, M. Štorga, S. Škec, N. Bojčetić, N. Pavković (eds.), The Design Society, 2018, Vol. 1, p. 161-170Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Consumer perception of food packaging solutions is driven by early design decisions on paperboard configuration and manufacturing technologies. Simulation Driven Design is common to frontload design activities, but is confined to the engineering field and fails to capture higher-level value aspects. This paper presents an assessment framework connecting customer value dimensions with simulations conducted on the mechanical properties of the packaging material, and discusses how value modelling results can be visualised to support collaborative decision making in cross-functional teams.

  • 38.
    Bertoni, Marco
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Cugini, Umberto
    Politecnico di Milano.
    Representing and sharing knowledge in PLM systems design2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The main aim of this paper is to contribute in leveraging the rate of success of BPR in a Virtual Enterprise environment by proposing a framework supporting PLM system designers in selecting the best communication tool to be used in reengineering. The aim of the framework is to enhance interoperability between users, process owners and knowledge experts in design, by proposing a set of guidelines for the use of process modelling languages when dealing with the definition of PLM system specifications. This work has been conducted within the EU 6th Framework Programme VIVACE Project (Value Improvement through a Virtual Aeronautical Collaborative Enterprise) with the purpose to support the design and implementation of a Knowledge Enabled Engineering system able to improve product development process performances by leveraging past design experience.

  • 39.
    Bertoni, Marco
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Eres, Hakki
    University of Southampton.
    Isaksson, Ola
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Criteria for assessing the value of Product Service System design alternatives: an aerospace investigation2011In: Functional thinking for value creation: Proceedings of the 3rd CIRP International Conference on Industrial Product Service Systems / [ed] Jürgen Hesselbach; Christoph Herrmann, Springer Science+Business Media B.V., 2011, p. 141-146Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Growing from data collected within a major EU research project in the aerospace domain, the paper proposes a candidate approach to assess the value of Product Service System design alternatives in a preliminary design phase. A framework composed of six main families of value criteria is proposed to support the product/service development team in evaluating the responsiveness and trade-off between alternative designs that target lifecycle commitment, withrespect to the impact on perceived values and stated needs and expectations. A visualization approach is also proposed to quickly communicate the value contribution of the design alternatives at the decision gate.

  • 40.
    Bertoni, Marco
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Eres, Hakki
    Scanlan, Jim
    Co-creation in complex supply chains: the benefits of a Value driven Design approach2014In: Product Development in the Socio-sphere: Game Changing Paradigms for 21st Century Breakthrough Product Development and Innovation / [ed] Schaefer, Dirk, Switzerland: Springer International Publishing , 2014Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the last decade, as the manufacturing companies have reconsidered the overall concept of goods production, their focus shifted from developing ‘products’ to ‘solutions’. In complex supply chains, the combination of products and services that maximize customers’ and stakeholders’ value can be identified only if manufacturers improve their ability to co-create, establishing more interactive relationships with end users, clients and sub-contractors. Methodologies for Value Driven Design (VDD) are emerging as enablers for cross-functional and cross-organizational knowledge sharing, reinforcing early stages design iterations to emphasize the maturation of the requirements across supply chain levels. This chapter highlights the uptake of VDD in a traditionally protective domain, such as the aerospace sector. It describes methods and tools for value assessment, and points toward the most relevant initiatives in this domain. Eventually, it discusses areas of further research to promote the effective use of the VDD methodology while designing complex engineering systems.

  • 41.
    Bertoni, Marco
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Ericson, Åsa
    Introducing PSS thinking in product-based organizations: a case study in the Swedish manufacturing industry2010In: Industrial product-service systems (IPS²): proceedings of the 2nd CIRP IPS² Conference [2010, Linköping, 14-15 April] / [ed] Tomohiko Sakao, Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For traditional product-based companies PSSs represent a huge jump in the dark. Thus the introduction of PSS-like features, aiming to extend the artefact-based offering, is done gradually in the earliest stages, focusing on some value-adding aspects while excluding others. The main aim of this paper is to understand how the transition to PSS is initiated from a company perspective and how these PSS embryos are supported in everyday design activities. The authors have conducted a case study in the Swedish manufacturing industry to collect issues, challenges and opportunities related to the development of service-based offering in their early beginning. As a result they introduce the concept of knowledge-intensive products, seen as an intermediate step towards the full integration of products, software and services, and discuss their implication from a product development point of view.

  • 42.
    Bertoni, Marco
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Ericson, Åsa
    Larsson, Tobias
    Needs and requirements: how TRIZ may be applied in product-service development2009In: Proceedings of the 2nd Nordic Conference on Product Lifecycle Management - NordPLM'09 / [ed] Johan Malmqvist; Göran Gustafsson, Göteborg: Chalmers tekniska högskola. Institutionen för produkt- och produktionsutveckling , 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Product-Service Systems development, understanding of the customers' use of goods seems vital, since the product per se is not sold but rather the performance it brings to the customers' processes in terms of added value. This changed business scenario insists on an integration of a service and a product perspectives in early design phases. However, the approaches to understand customers diverge. In this paper, a need matrix, from the economic theory of needs, and a requirement matrix, from the TRIZ methodology, are used to elaborate on integration aspects to understand customer statements. The comparison of these matrixes made the distinct logics apparent, and gave an indication for the necessity of another type of specification for PSS products. Also, the knowledge base for PSS methodologies has to be extended to encompass a part that visualizes non measurable aspects such as needs.

  • 43.
    Bertoni, Marco
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Hallstedt, Sophie
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Isaksson, Ola
    GKN Aerospace Sweden.
    A model-based approach for sustainability and value assessment in the aerospace value chain2015In: Advances in Mechanical Engineering, ISSN 1687-8132, E-ISSN 1687-8140, Vol. 7, no 6, p. 1-19Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the aerospace industry, systems engineering practices have been exercised for years, as a way to turn high-level design objectives into concrete targets on system functionality (e.g. range, noise, and reliability). More difficult is to decompose and clarify sustainability implications in the same way and to compare them against performance-related capabilities already during preliminary design. This article addresses the problem of bringing the important—yet typically high level and complex—sustainability aspects into engineering practices. It proposes a novel integrated model-based method that provides a consistent way of addressing the well-known lack of generic and integrated ways of clarifying both cost and value consequences of sustainability in early phases. It further presents the development and implementation of such approach in two separate case studies conducted in collaboration with a major aero-engine sub-system manufacturer. The first case concerns the assessment of alternative business configurations to maintain scarce materials in closed loops, while the second one concerns the production technology of an aero-engine component. Eventually, this article highlights the learning generated by the development and implementation of these approaches and discusses opportunities for further development of model-based support.

  • 44.
    Bertoni, Marco
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Hallstedt, Sophie
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Isaksson, Ola
    Value assessment of sustainability hotspots in conceptual design: an aerospace study.2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nowadays, when designing structural aero-engine components, the engineering team does not only deal with aerodynamics and structural mechanics criteria. Rather, it needs to make more informed decisions based on the value and sustainability contribution of a design concept. This paper proposes a novel approach that combines qualitative sustainability assessment techniques, which are Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and Strategic Sustainability Assessment (SSA), with Net Present Value (NPV) analysis to facilitate early stage decision-making in design. A case study, related to the development of a new high-temperature aero-engine component, illustrates how EIA and SSA identify sustainability hotspots for a new product technology, and how NPV is used to assess alternative solution strategies within the hotspot. Within the studied case, the milling process was identified as a sustainability hotspot, therefore two process options - Electro-Chemical Milling (ECM) and Mechanical Milling (MM) - where benchmarked by calculating their NPV in alternative future scenarios, featuring different market and regulatory assumptions. The approach and its constituting models have been preliminarily verified with designers and process owners in co-located industrial workshops.

  • 45. Bertoni, Marco
    et al.
    Johansson, Christian
    Larsson, Tobias
    Methods and Tools for Knowledge Sharing in Product Development2011In: Innovation in Product Design: From CAD to Virtual Prototyping / [ed] Bordegoni, Monica; Rizzi, Caterina, New York: Springer , 2011, p. 37-53Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The emerging industrial business partnerships, which feature cross-functional and cross-company development efforts, raise the barrier for the establishment of effective knowledge sharing practices in the larger organization. This chapter aims to highlight the role of knowledge as a key enabler for effective engineering activities in the light of such emerging enterprise collaboration models. Knowledge Enabled Engineering (KEE) is presented as an approach to enhance the extended organization’s capability to establish effective collaboration among its parts, in spite of different organizational structures, technologies or processes. KEE is analysed in its constituent parts, highlighting areas, methods and tools that are particularly interesting for leveraging companies’ knowledge sharing capabilities.

  • 46. Bertoni, Marco
    et al.
    Johansson, Christian
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    Larsson, Tobias
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Methods and tools for knowledge sharing in product development2011In: Innovation in Product Design: from CAD to virtual prototyping, London: Encyclopedia of Global Archaeology/Springer Verlag, 2011, p. 37-53Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The emerging industrial business partnerships, which feature cross-functional and cross-company development efforts, raise the barrier for the establishment of effective knowledge sharing practices in the larger organization. This chapter aims to highlight the role of knowledge as a key enabler for effective engineering activities in the light of such emerging enterprise collaboration models. Knowledge Enabled Engineering (KEE) is presented as an approach to enhance the extended organization’s capability to establish effective collaboration among its parts, in spite of different organizational structures, technologies or processes. KEE is analysed in its constituent parts, highlighting areas, methods and tools that are particularly interesting for leveraging companies’ knowledge sharing capabilities.

  • 47. Bertoni, Marco
    et al.
    Johansson, Christian
    Luleå Technical University.
    Larsson, Tobias
    Luleå Technical University.
    Isaksson, Ola
    A methodology for KEE systems target cascading2008In: Proceedings of the 7th International Symposium on Tools and Methods of Competitive Engineering - TMCE 2008 / [ed] I. Horváth and Z. Rusák, Delft University of Technology , 2008, Vol. 2Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The main aim of this paper is to present a methodology developed within the European Project VIVACE to guide the design and implementation of a Knowledge Enabled Engineering (KEE) system in a Virtual Enterprise. The proposed methodology tries to overcome some of the limitations which characterise traditional methods for Target Cascading, promoting a more collaborative and iterative approach to derive system specifications (in terms of advanced knowledge functionalities) from initial high-level targets. Social and behavioural aspects of Knowledge Management play a crucial role when many different users, knowledge experts, and process owners are involved in the Knowledge Management System (KMS) development. A well designed methodology is needed, therefore, to enhance communication and information sharing among design teams, to promote requirements merging and to take care both of the technological and behavioural aspects of the implementation. Initial business targets have been step-by-step decomposed into a set of sub-problems (Service Requirements, Knowledge Issues, and Knowledge Challenges) in the form of simple sentences in natural language. Then Quality Function Deployment (QFD) matrixes have been used to identify the set of functionalities to be implemented in the system, addressing the most important knowledge-related problems outlined in the cascading activity.

  • 48. Bertoni, Marco
    et al.
    Johansson, Christian
    Larsson, Tobias
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Isaksson, Ola
    A methodology for KEE systems target cascading2008In: Tools and methods of competitive engineering: proceedings of the seventh international symposium on tools and methods of competitive engineering - TMCE 2008 / [ed] Imre Horváth; Zoltán Rusák, Delft: Delft university of technology , 2008, Vol. 2Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 49.
    Bertoni, Marco
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Larsson, Andreas
    Coping with the knowledge sharing barriers in Product Service Systems design2010In: Proceedings of TMCE 2010 Symposium: Eighth international symposium on Tools and methods of competitive engineering ; April 12-16, 2010, Ancona, It / [ed] I. Horvath; F. Mandorli; Z. Rusak, Delft: Faculty of Industrial Design of Engineering, University of Technology, , 2010, p. 903-915Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyzes the knowledge sharing process that characterizes Product Service Systems (PSS) design, drawing on data from an in-depth study in the Swedish manufacturing industry. It categorizes and describes the most relevant knowledge sharing barriers affecting early PSS development phases, discussing them in terms of capabilities to be included in a knowledge engineering system to fulfil the increasing need for knowledge in product-service design. To cope with these barriers, the authors introduce the concept of Engineering 2.0, which borrows the general Web 2.0 concept and translates it into engineering terms, going into the details of how functional product development may benefit from the possibility to integrate bottom-up and "lightweight" knowledge sharing techniques with traditional PLM/PDM/CAD solutions, and highlighting the most relevant challenges for the Engineering 2.0 research.

  • 50.
    Bertoni, Marco
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Larsson, Andreas
    Department of Design Sciences, Faculty of Engineering, Lund University.
    Engineering 2.0: an approach to support cross-functional teams in overcoming the knowledge sharing barriers in PSS design2011In: International Journal of Product Development, ISSN 1477-9056, E-ISSN 1741-8178, Vol. 15, no 1/2/3, p. 115-134Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper discusses the key enabling mechanisms introduced byWeb 2.0 technologies that can support Product Service Systems (PSSs)development teams in increasing the quality of early design decisions.The paper collects success stories and lessons learned from two empirical casestudies in the aeronautical supply chain, and from a set of questionnairesforwarded to major automotive manufacturers, about the implementation ofEngineering 2.0 tools, such as wikis, blogs and forums, to overcomeknowledge-sharing barriers between cross-functional design teams. The studyreveals that bottom-up and lightweight technologies can enable theimplementation of more value-driven development processes, providing meansfor locating expertise in the extended organisation, for capturing the ‘context’of the information managed, and for assessing and validating knowledge assetsin a more collaborative fashion. Eventually, it points to the most relevant issuesthat currently prevent the implementation of Web 2.0 technologies in a productdevelopment setting.

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