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  • 1.
    Baghaei, Behnaz
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Berglin, Lena
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Tailoring of the mechanical and thermal properties of hemp/PLA hybrid yarn composites2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we worked on improving the orientation of hemp fibres in composites by using our recent development of co-wrapped yarn structures. We investigated the influence of fibre content and wrap density on the properties of composites. Composites were fabricated by compression moulding of 0/90 bidirectional prepregs. Compared to neat PLA, the tensile and flexural modulus and the strength of the PLA-hemp composites were significantly higher as a result of the increased fibre content. Impact strength of the composites decreased initially up to 10 mass % fibre loading, but even higher fibre loading caused an improvement in impact strength. From the DMTA results, it was evident that incorporation of the fibres gives a considerable increase in storage modulus and a decrease in tan δ values. From the general trend in the results obtained, it can be affirmed that co-wrapped hybrid yarn with lower wrapping density leads to lower mechanical properties in the composite. The study performed with DSC revealed that the crystallisation temperature of the hemp-reinforced PLA composites decreased compared to pure PLA, which indicates that the hemp fibres hinder the migration and diffusion of PLA molecular chains to the surface of the nucleus in the composites.

  • 2.
    Baghaei, Behnaz
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Berglin, Lena
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Tailoring of the mechanical and thermal properties of hemp/PLA hybrid yarn composites2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we worked on improving the orientation of hemp fibres in composites by using our recent development of co-wrapped yarn structures. We investigated the influence of fibre content and wrap density on the properties of composites. Composites were fabricated by compression moulding of 0/90 bidirectional prepregs. Compared to neat PLA, the tensile and flexural modulus and the strength of the PLA-hemp composites were significantly higher as a result of the increased fibre content. Impact strength of the composites decreased initially up to 10 mass % fibre loading, but even higher fibre loading caused an improvement in impact strength. From the DMTA results, it was evident that incorporation of the fibres gives a considerable increase in storage modulus and a decrease in tan δ values. From the general trend in the results obtained, it can be affirmed that co-wrapped hybrid yarn with lower wrapping density leads to lower mechanical properties in the composite. The study performed with DSC revealed that the crystallisation temperature of the hemp-reinforced PLA composites decreased compared to pure PLA, which indicates that the hemp fibres hinder the migration and diffusion of PLA molecular chains to the surface of the nucleus in the composites.

  • 3.
    Baghaei, Behnaz
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Berglin, Lena
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Hybrid natural fibre reinforcements and prepregs for thermoplastic composites with improved performance and properties2014Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 4.
    Baghaei, Behnaz
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Berglin, Lena
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Manufacture and characterisation of thermoplastic composites made from PLA/hemp co-wrapped hybrid yarn prepregs2013In: Composites. Part A, Applied science and manufacturing, ISSN 1359-835X, E-ISSN 1878-5840, Vol. 50, p. 93-101Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PLA/hemp co-wrapped hybrid yarns were produced by wrapping PLA filaments around a core composed of a 400 twists/m and 25 tex hemp yarn (Cannabis Sativa L) and 18 tex PLA filaments. The hemp content varied between 10 and 45 mass%, and the PLA wrapping density around the core was 150 and 250 turns/metre. Composites were fabricated by compression moulding of 0/90 bidirectional prepregs, and characterised regarding porosity, mechanical strength and thermal properties by dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Mechanical tests showed that the tensile and flexural strengths of the composites markedly increased with the fibre content, reaching 59.3 and 124.2 MPa when reinforced with 45 mass% fibre, which is approximately 2 and 3.3 times higher compared to neat PLA. Impact strength of the composites decreased initially up to 10 mass% fibre; while higher fibre loading (up to 45 mass%) caused an increase in impact strength up to 26.3 KJ/m2, an improvement of about 2 times higher compared to neat PLA. The composites made from the hybrid yarn with a wrapping density of 250 turns/metre showed improvements in mechanical properties, due to the lower porosity. The fractured surfaces were investigated by scanning electron microscopy to study the fibre/matrix interface.

  • 5.
    Baghaei, Behnaz
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Berglin, Lena
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Ramamoorthy, Sunil Kumar
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Hemp/PLA Co-Wrapped Hybrid Yarns For Structured Thermoplastic Composites2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, natural fibre-reinforced polymer composites have been attracting attention from the viewpoint of reducing the impact on the natural environment. Currently, the use of thermoplastic resins in composites is clearly of higher potential than the use of thermoset. There are many thermoplastic polymers derived from renewable raw materials, which are also biodegradable. Polylactic acid (PLA) is one such candidate, and it shows rather good properties that are suitable for applications that do not require long-term durability or elevated mechanical performance at higher temperatures. In order to make their possible use in many technical applications more attractive, the mechanical properties of the PLA can be enhanced by using reinforcements. Hemp fibres can be considered to be a good choice for reinforcing polymer composites, due to their high stiffness, strength, and aspect ratio. Highly ordered textile reinforcements, such as interlaced woven fabrics and unidirectional fabrics made from natural-fibre yarns, perform considerably better than random non-woven mats in natural-fibre composites. At present, the commercially available plant-fibre yarns are not intended for structural composites, but for textiles, which have entirely different demands on the yarns. Thus, work is needed to tailor-make the best plant-fibre yarn for reinforcement of composites. This also includes investigation of the possibility of combining plant-fibre yarns with the matrix polymer in fibre form into one hybrid yarn (a composite preform), and how to do it (twisting or blending). It is well known that fibres provide the highest strength and stiffness when they are continuous and aligned in the direction of the applied load. Natural fibres are naturally discontinuous and conventional spun staple yarns tend to be highly twisted, which leads to fibre misalignment and poor resin wet-out. The structured natural-fibre composites reported so far are based on twisted yarns produced by long-established conventional spinning methods, mainly ring spinning. In this paper, we report our work on improving the orientation of hemp fibres in composites by using our recent development of co-wrapped yarn structures. This novel co-wrapped yarn consists of low twist and very fine hemp yarns next to PLA filaments in the core part, which are wrapped by PLA filaments. By varying the composition of hybrid yarn, it is possible to vary the hemp fibre content from 10 to 45 wt %. An exciting recent advancement has been a new family of aligned natural-fibre reinforcements, which has overcome these issues by using low twist yarns. We also report the influence of fibre content and wrap density (number of wraps per unit length) on the properties of composites. Before compression moulding, multilayer 0/90 bidirectional hybrid yarn prepregs were prepared by winding the hybrid yarn around a steel rectangular frame. We investigated the mechanical and thermo-mechanical properties of hemp-reinforced PLA composites. Compared to neat PLA, the tensile and flexural modulus and the strength of the PLA-hemp composites were significantly higher as a result of the increased fibre content. Impact strength of the composites decreased initially up to 10 wt % fibre loading, but even higher fibre loading caused an improvement in impact strength. From the DMTA results, it is evident that incorporation of the fibres gives a considerable increase in storage modulus and a decrease in tan δ values. These results show the reinforcing effect of hemp on PLA matrix. From the general trend in the results obtained, it can be affirmed that co-wrapped hybrid yarn with lower wrapping density leads to lower mechanical properties in the composite. The study performed with DSC revealed that the glass transition temperature and the crystalline melting point of PLA were not affected significantly after reinforcement with hemp. The crystallisation temperature of the hemp-reinforced PLA composites decreased compared to pure PLA, which indicates that the hemp fibres hinder the migration and diffusion of PLA molecular chains to the surface of the nucleus in the composites. No noteworthy differences in calorimetric data from DSC for composites were observed between the hybrid yarn preforms with different wrapping density. Future work will concentrate on efforts to evaluate the biodegradability of these developing and promising composites.

  • 6.
    Berglin, Lena
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Body & Space2008Other (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Berglin, Lena
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Designing for extreme conditions2008In: In Proceedings of Cumulus Design Conference 28-31 march 2008, Kyoto, Japan, 2008Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes a project where experimental product design has been used in order to find out how to create textile products with a double function for an extreme context regarding hard weather conditions. A concept was defined using interviews of professional that daily have to survive extreme working conditions. An overall impression from the interviews was that the use of equipment to manage the exposed situation is limited and functional to fulfil a few important needs. The concept was developed into a set of advanced textile structures and products with a double function and the aim to save people in extreme environments. These structures are general which are shown in examples where these textiles maintain ordinary daily live activities.

  • 8.
    Berglin, Lena
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Interactive Textile Structures: Creating Multifunctional Textiles based on Smart Materials2008Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Textiles of today are materials with applications in almost all our activities. We wear clothes all the time and we are surrounded with textiles in almost all our environments. The integration of multifunctional values in such a common material has become a special area of interest in recent years. Smart Textile represents the next generation of textiles anticipated for use in several fashion, furnishing and technical textile applications. The term smart is used to refer to materials that sense and respond in a pre-defined manner to environmental stimuli. The degree of smartness varies and it is possible to enhance the intelligence further by combining these materials with a controlling unit, for example a microprocessor. As an interdisciplinary area Smart Textile includes design spaces from several areas; the textile design space, the information technology design space and the design space of material science. This thesis addresses how Smart Textiles affect the textile design space; how the introduction of smart materials and information technology affects the creation of future textile products. The aim is to explore the convergence between textiles, smart materials and information technology and to contribute to providing a basis for future research in this area. The research method is based on a series of interlinked experiments designed through the research questions and the research objects. The experiments are separated into two different sections: interactive textile structures and health monitoring. The result is a series of basic methods for how interactive textile structures are created and a general system for health monitoring. Furthermore the result consists of a new design space, advanced textile design. In advanced textile design the focus is set on the relation between the different natures of a textile object: its physical structure and its structure in the context of design and use.

  • 9.
    Berglin, Lena
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Norm vs Fluidity2015Other (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The piece illustrates how predefined design objects (girls dancing, boys playing football) maintain gender norms compared to a fluid design (a bunch of pearls) that opens up for a variety of interpretation regardless gender, ethnicities etc.

    Norm vs Fluidity has been exhibited at the exhibitions “The Great and Small” HongKong 2014, “Blue+Pink>>>Rethink” at designxport Hamburg and designtransfer Berlin 2015. iGDN – International Gender Design Network, http://genderdesign.org/ 

  • 10.
    Berglin, Lena
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Smart Textiles and Wearable Technology2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report gives an overview of projects combining smart textiles and clothing as a basis for discussions of how smart textiles could be introduced to in fashion. The overview covers different projects, research as well as commercial projects within smart textiles and clothing, with a certain focus on European activities.

  • 11.
    Berglin, Lena
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Textile Sound Structures2008Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 12.
    Berglin, Lena
    et al.
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Cederwall, Sara Lotta
    Hallnäs, Lars
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Jönsson, Birgitta
    Kvaal, Anne Karine
    Lundstedt, Lotta
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Nordström, Maria
    Peterson, Barbro
    Thornquist, Clemens
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Interaction Design Methods in Fashion Design Teaching2007In: The Nordic Textile Journal 2006-07, p. 26-51Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The expressiveness of use is of focal interest in fashion design, which makes the perspective of act design important in learning/teaching. The objective of the project presented here was to introduce interaction design methods in fashion design teaching to make act design explicit throughout the different stages of the design process in a systematic manner; to develop a general workshop curriculum in experimental fashion design focusing on the expressiveness of wearing and use. A series of test workshops were implemented to provide a foundation for reflection and critical discussions. The main results, motivated by workshop evaluations, consist of theoretical models for a systematic development of workshop exercises in fashion design aesthetics.

  • 13.
    Berglin, Lena
    et al.
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Ellwanger, Marion
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Hallnäs, Lars
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Worbin, Linda
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Zetterblom, Margareta
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Smart Textiles: what for and why?2005In: Nordic Textile Journal, ISSN 1404-2487Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 14.
    Berglin, Lena
    et al.
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Zetterblom, Margareta
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Textile Sound Structures2008Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we describe a set of sound sensitive structures based on piezoelectric technique. We have laminated piezoelectric polymer films between layers of different textile fabric structures. The initial results show that these structures register sound and the signal quality depends on the laminate set-up. Textile sound structures offer a variety of possible applications such as active sound absorbers and heart rate monitoring.

  • 15.
    Berlin, Lena
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business. lena.berglin@hb.se.
    Blankout2015Other (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Power is unequally shared in the world, one in four people live without electricity. Art and art production is therefore not only a question of choice but a question of power. 

  • 16.
    Biswas, Tuser
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Infirri, Rosalinda Sardo
    Hagman, Susanna
    Berglin, Lena
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    An assistive sleeping bag for children with autism spectrum disorder2018In: Fashion and Textiles, ISSN 2198-0802, Vol. 5, no 1, article id 18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Children suffering from autism spectrum disorder are often reported to encounter sleeping disorder several causes such as hypersensitivity as a result of irregular brain and muscle functions. Disturbance in sleep affects not only their health but also daytime activities including the risk of other cognitive and behavioral impairments. Such hindrance in sleep has been demonstrated to treat therapeutically by measures like the application of deep pressure touch and full body vibration which can be beneficially integrated into the sleeping environment such as on the textile-based platform around the bed. With such a vision, this pilot design project aimed to develop a smart textile based sleeping bag incorporated with sensors to detect awakening stage of the child and thereby actuating stimuli for assuaging the child to fall asleep. To serve the purpose, a micro-controllable body movement detection sensor, based on conductive yarns connected to a vibrating motor was prosperously embedded at the interior of the sleeping bag along with weighted slots to exert deep touch and soothing sensation in the form of wearable technology.

  • 17.
    Eriksson, Siw
    et al.
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Berglin, Lena
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Gunnarsson, Emanuel
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Guo, Li
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Lindholm, Hanna
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Sandsjö, Leif
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Three-dimensional multilayer fabric structures for interactive textiles2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract. The integration of performances in interactive textile fabric system has so far been rather complicated since they are based on multilayer or three-dimensional principles. These structures are today mainly put together by means of several processes, which is laborious and time consuming. In this interdisciplinary study we have combined the principle of a three-dimensional multilayer weaving process and interactive textiles structures in order to enable the manufacturing of interactive textile structure in one process. The process is investigated using a manual reconstructed loom and the approach has been to use the 3D structures in order to integrate and organize conductive and compressive spacer layers as a textile capacitive structure. Measurements on such a structure was done by construction a first order passive high pass filter and using the fabric sample as the capacitor and a 1MΩ resistor. The behavior of the measurement of the capacitive sensor is quite close to the theoretical calculation and already at this stage the structure might be used to indicate the presence of a pressure. In this project we have shown that a three-dimensional structure enables the development of interactive textiles in one process. Further the concept of using a rebuilt manual loom has shown great potential in early research stages. It is considerable saving time and resources since, in this case, it is easy to reconstruct the loom design compared to performing similar reconstruction on a machine. Future research will focus on developing other types of interactive structures. Another issue will be to scale down the size of the structures in order to get thinner and more flexible qualities.

  • 18.
    Eriksson, Siw
    et al.
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Berglin, Lena
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Gunnarsson, Emanuel
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Guo, Li
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Lindholm, Hanna
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Sandsjö, Leif
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Tredimensionell vävteknik med möjliga tillämpningar inom medicinsk teknik2011Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Integreringen av interaktiva egenskaper i teknisk textil har rönt stort intresse inom textil-forskningen de senaste åren. Med interaktiva textila strukturer avses textila system som interagerar med sin omgivning i någon mening. Ett sätt att åtadkomma dessa interaktiva strukturer är att foga samman lager av olika struktur eller material där varje lager tillför textilen/det textila systemet olika egenskaper. Det typiska tillvägagångssättet för att sammanfoga olika lager av textila material är att använda någon form av lamineringsteknik. Föreliggande projekt rör en ny vävteknik som möjliggör att flera textila lager med olika egenskaper vävs samman i en och samma process utan de tillsatser eller extra hantering som krävs vid laminering. Utöver de uppenbara produktionstekniska fördelarna möjliggör kombinationen av olika egenskaper i en lagerstruktur också att speciella krav på slutprodukten lättare kan tillgodoses. Det medicintekniska området förväntas ha stor nytta av textila strukturer som kan utformas i tre dimensioner eller kombinera olika egenskaper i en och samma struktur. Syftet är att demonstrera hur en nyutvecklad vävteknik för tredimensionella strukturer kan tillämpas för att tillverka interaktiva textila strukturer i en och samma tillverkningsprocess. I detta delprojekt har den tredimensionella tekniken använts för att utveckla en kapacitiv struktur utformad helt i textil. Genom mindre modifieringar av och tillägg till en 16-skaftad datorstyrd manuell prototypvävstol har två ledande och ett isolerande skikt kombinerats för att realisera en textilbaserad kondensator. I ett första test realiserades ett enkelt högpassfilter med den kapacitiva textila strukturen som kondensator. Filtrets egenskaper visade sig väl följa den förväntade filterkarakteristiken. Den nyutvecklade tredimensionella vävtekniken förväntas ha stora tillämpningsmöjligheter inom det medicintekniska området.

  • 19.
    Gunnarsson, Emanuel
    et al.
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Berglin, Lena
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Guo, Li
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Karlsteen, Magnus
    Contact resistance measurements on multifilament silver yarn2010Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 20.
    Guo, L
    et al.
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Soroudi, A.
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Berglin, L.
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Mattila, H.
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Skrifvars, M.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Torstensson, H.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Fibre-based single-wire keyboard: the integration of a flexible tactile sensor into e-textiles2011In: AUTEX Research Journal, ISSN 1470-9589, E-ISSN 2300-0929, Vol. 11, no 4Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 21.
    Guo, Li
    et al.
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Berglin, Lena
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Conductive coated force sensor in cargo transportation security system2010Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 22.
    Guo, Li
    et al.
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Berglin, Lena
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Knitted strain sensor for respiration measurement: The Improvement of Sensor Characteristics by Intarsia Knitting2010Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 23.
    Guo, Li
    et al.
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Berglin, Lena
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Test and Evaluation of Textile based Stretch Sensors2009Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This project has focused on test and evaluation of three different textile sensors. The project includes the development of sensors, the exploration of suitable measurement methods and devices and finally the evaluation of the sensors according to three different applications. Four results were given in order to characterize sensor performance and to verify the effective working ranges. Further the sensors were integrated in three applications such as force sensor, breath sensor and movement sensor in order to test the sensor functionality by application. Future research orientation has suggested by the end of the paper.

  • 24.
    Guo, Li
    et al.
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Berglin, Lena
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Mattila, Heikki
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Improvement of Electro-Mechanical Properties of Strain Sensors made of elastic-conductive hybrid yarns2012In: Textile research journal, ISSN 0040-5175, E-ISSN 1746-7748, Vol. 82, no 19, p. 1937-1947Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fabric-based strain sensors have been developed using different technologies, among which flat knitting is one of the most effective and economical methods. However, knitted strain sensors are not often used in practical applications because the sensors usually exhibit large elastic hysteresis when they are deformed and subjected to stress during application. One possible approach to overcome these shortcomings is to introduce elastic properties at the yarn level by combining the conductive materials with elastic materials. In this paper, we demostrate a hybrid yarn made of a conductive yarn that winds around an elastic core yarn in a direct twisting device. The electro-mechanical properties of strain sensors knitted from the hybrid yarns were tested in order to characterize the sensors. This study consisted of two stages: the yarn preparation and the sensor characterization. In the first stage, two kinds of elastic core components (polyamide/Lycra and polyamide) and two kinds of conductive winding yarns (Bekinox BK50/1 and Bekinox BK50/2) were selected for twisting. The twisting was done with a constant twisting speed and four different numbers of twists. Mechanical properties, that is, the tenacity, force at break and elongation at break, were tested in order to determine the optimal parameters for producing the hybrid yarns. The results indicated that among the tested yarns those with a polyamide core and Bekinox BK50/1 winding yarns at 450 twist/meter and with a polyamide/Lycra core and Bekinox BK 50/2 winding yarns at 600 twist/meter had the best properties. These were thus selected as the materials for producing knitted strain sensors. In the second stage, electro-mechanical properties of the knitted strain sensors were determined under tensile stress and multi-cyclic tensile stress. The results show that the hybrid yarns can effectively enhance the

  • 25.
    Guo, Li
    et al.
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Berglin, Lena
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Mattila, Heikki
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Textile Strain Sensors Characterization- Sensitivity, Linearity, Stability and Hysteresis2010In: Nordic Textile Journal, no 2, p. 51-63Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper 4 different textile based strain sensors for measuring different level of strains were presented. Sensor consist a conductive part formed by coating or weaving technique. Both elastic and inelastic textile substrates were selected to achieve the required stains in applications. Sensor configuration was characterized using a tensile tester and measuring the resistance parallel by microprocessor. A linear working range with transfer function of each sensor was found. Coated sensor gives a good stability, while woven sensor was relative less stable. Inelastic textile substrate reduces the hysteresis error caused by refraction and construction of materials. The sensitivities were between 2.5 to 9 vary with different sensors. This paper finished by a discussion of how to choose sensors with different applications, among which sensor function and processability are most important aspects to be considering.

  • 26.
    Guo, Li
    et al.
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Berglin, Lena
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Mattila, Heikki
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Mehrjerdi, Adib
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Disappearing Sensors. Textile Based Sensors for Monitoring Breathing2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Textile based sensors were developed and used for remote monitoring of breathing. The breathing is simulated by using a new cyclic tester device. In the simulated a cyclic force is applied along the length of the textile sensor. However due to the morphology of human body, in real situation the sensor is not only under stretching but also under a certain degree of bending. A prototype garment with the sensor situated on the chest area was made. The prototype was worn by 10 persons, and breathing was recorded as the persons were sitting still, walking and jogging. Deep breathing in the supine position and breathing with a method called athletic breathing were used to evaluate the sensor. A testing circuit and a Labview program were made for preliminary test. The sensor is wearable, washable and comfortable. Sensor construction is totally ‘disappearing’ and visualize as printed pattern onto the surface of garment.

  • 27.
    Guo, Li
    et al.
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Berglin, Lena
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Wiklund, Urban
    Mattila, Heikki
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Design of a Garments-Based Sensing System for Breathing Monitoring2013In: Textile research journal, ISSN 0040-5175, E-ISSN 1746-7748, Vol. 85, no No 5, p. 499-509Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The long-term monitoring of biophysiological signals requires new types of sensor systems that are wearable and at the same time convenient for the users. This paper describes the design of a novel garment-based sensing system for the long-term monitoring of breathing rhythm. The system concept was realized in a prototype garment, integrated with coated piezoresistive sensors. The prototype garment was tested by five subjects, and compared with a standard piezoelectric respiratory belt. Each signal was quantitatively and qualitatively evaluated in the time and frequency domain to make sure that no medical and diagnostic information was lost. The results showed a good agreement between the garment-based sensors and the standard reference, where errors occurred only when the breathing rate was extremely high. The garment-based sensor system could also distinguish the predominance breathing compartment (chest versus abdominal breathing). The system could detect a 10 s pause in breathing, which could be of importance in studies of sleep apnea. A garment-based sensing system maintains the accuracy of the signal quality without reducing the comfort for the user. It makes possible long-term ambulatory monitoring and has home-based healthcare applications.

  • 28.
    Guo, Li
    et al.
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Peterson, Joel
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Qureshi, Waqas
    Kalantar Mehrjerdi, Adib
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Berglin, Lena
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Knitted Wearable Stretch Sensor for Breathing Monitoring Application2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 29.
    Guo, Li
    et al.
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Ratnarathorn, Suchawadee
    Berglin, Lena
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Wiklund, Urban
    Sandsjö, Leif
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Disappearing sensor: Textile based sensor for monitoring breathing2011Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The monitoring and interpretation of respiration pattern plays an important role for the early detection and the prevention of serious illness, such as asthma, sleeping apnea, bronchitis, and lung cancer. In this interdisciplinary project a system based on a smart shirt with integrated textile sensor for personal respiratory monitoring was developed. Due to the fact that textile products are flexible, washable and bring no discomfort to wearers, the smart shirtis an excellent interface for performing long term respiratory monitoring in real life situations outside the clinic. Two stripe liked sensors located on the chest and abdomen position respectively were integrated in a smart shirt. The sensors were made by coating with conductive silicone on the fabric surface of the smart shirt. Conductive silicone reflects compression or extension by resistance change and in this application resistance change can be utilized to indicate the respiratory pattern of the wearer. A prototype system was made to record the resistance change in real time and transmission to a PC or PDA for further processing. Snap button and conductive threads were used as the interface and transmission wires between the smart shirt and the recording system. To verify the performance, test were made with 10 subjects, whose spontaneous respiratory patterns were recorded during sitting still, walking and jogging. In addition, a number of abnormal respiratory conditions, such as deep breathing, hyperventilation and sleeping apnea were simulated. The results show the smart shirt performed in a very good manner, the system can sense and record the person's breathing during normal daily activities. The sleeping apnea simulation indicates potential application in diagnosis and clinical treatment. The smart shirt is soft and comfortable to use and enables long-term monitoring to be performed outside the laboratory.

  • 30.
    Hernández, Niina
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Berglin, Lena
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    A Systematic Model for Improving Theoretical Garment Fit2018In: Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management, ISSN 1361-2026, Vol. 22, no 4, p. 527-539Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    The purpose of this paper is to use a systematic model for detecting misfit between the garment and the target group.

    Design/methodology/approach

    Using an empirical–analytical methodology, the systematic model was tested. The input data were run through the model to generate the output data, which were analysed, including basic statistics. The purpose of the analysis was to detect misfit and improve the garment measurement chart. This procedure was repeated until a clear result was reached.

    Findings

    The result of this study is an optimised garment measurement chart, which considers the garment’s ease, different sizes/proportions in relation to a target group. The results show that it is possible to use a systematic model to define the shortcomings of a garment´s range of sizes and proportions.

    Research limitations/implications

    Further studies are needed to verify the results of the theoretical garment fit and their values in relation to real garment fit.

    Practical implications

    If the systematic model is implemented to improve the theoretical garment fit, this may have effects on the available garment sizes and its proportions, resulting in increased theoretical garment fit for the target group.

    Originality/value

    The paper presents a systematic model for detecting and eliminating theoretical fitting; the model includes both garment ease allowance and defined points of misfit.

  • 31.
    Hernández, Niina
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Mattila, Heikki
    Berglin, Lena
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Can virtual try-on help in selecting the correct size?In: Clothing & Textiles Research Journal, ISSN 0887-302XArticle in journal (Refereed)
  • 32.
    Hernández, Niina
    et al.
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Mattila, Heikki
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Berglin, Lena
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Garment fit by numbers: Statistical identification of a garment's misfit2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A challenge for manufacturers of garments is to decide which sizes to make available for a potential target group. Mismatches between the garment’s sizes/proportions and a target group will decrease its fit and increase loss of sales. The purpose of this study is to develop a systematic model to identify and optimize the distribution of a garment’s sizes and proportions in order to provide a target group appropriate fit. This study is based on sample-garment measurements, experienced-based values and data containing body measurements of 2208 individuals. Statistical data from the case were analysed to find a model to detect mismatches between standard garments and a target group. The results show that it is possible to use a systematic model to define the shortcomings of a garment´s range of sizes and proportions. If implemented, this could have effects on the available garment sizes and its proportions, resulting an increased garment fit for a target group.

  • 33. McGreevy, Paul Damien
    et al.
    Sundin, Maria
    Karlsteen, Magnus
    Berglin, Lena
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Ternström, Johanna
    Hawson, Lesley
    Richardsson, Helena
    McLean, Andrew N
    Problems at the human: horse interface and prospects for smart textile solutions2014In: Journal of Veterinary Behavior: Clinical Applications and Research, ISSN 1558-7878, E-ISSN 1878-7517, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 34-42Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The significant potential for so-called “smart textiles” in the design of the next generation of devices that measure pressure, tension, moisture, and heat at the humanehorse interface is discussed in this article. Research techniques from theoretical and experimental physics laboratories, combined with wireless technology, can be readily adapted to measure and store metrics for numerous variables in equine structure and function. Activities, such as breathing, the extension and flexion of joints, limb kinematics, and cardiac function, can be logged as indicators of physiological and behavioral conditioning (training). Such metrics may also, one day, support veterinary diagnostics but also play a role in safeguarding sporthorse welfare, especially in elite contexts where the horse may be pushed to its functional limits. As such, they are likely to emerge as an area of great interest to equitation and welfare scientists. It is important to note that smart textiles sense and react to exogenous stimuli via integrated sensors. So, beyond the equitation science laboratory, the emergence of polymers and smart materials may enhance the effectiveness of, or challenge us to completely rethink, traditional items of saddlery, thus improving equitation. The integration of smart textiles in all sorts of extant and emergent equipment for everyday equestrians could, in the future, lead to equipment that responds appropriately to the demands of equitation in its various forms. Rethinking equitation through physics and the use of smart textiles seems to have merit in that it is a novel means of both investigating and addressing problems that compromise the welfare and performance of horses. The purpose of this article is to envision the use of smart textiles in research, clinical, equestrian, and horse care contexts.

  • 34. Persson, Maria
    et al.
    Berglin, Lena
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Finnilä, Mikko A J
    Cho, Sung-Woo
    Tuukkanen, Juha
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Thermal and Mechanical Properties of PLA-HA Composite Fibres for Biomedical Applications2013Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 35. Persson, Maria
    et al.
    Berglin, Lena
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Finnilä, Mikko
    Cho, Sung-Woo
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Tuukkanen, Juha
    3D Woven Scaffolds of Melt-spun PLA Composite Fibres for Bone Regeneration2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Fibres are the basic units of textiles and are desirable as scaffold matrix material since they provide a large surface area to volume ratio. Using the textile technology, fibres can also be processed to form a variety of shapes and sizes, thus be used in different biological and medical applications. Poly(lactic acid) is a widely investigated material for use as scaffold matrix material and may be transformed into fibres either by melt spinning or solution spinning [1]. However, its lack of cell recognition signal has limited its use in tissue engineering applications [2]. Hydroxyapatite (HA) particles, which mimics the natural bone mineral has been proven to stimulate and promote cell attachment [3]. From that point of view, the aim of this study was to produce a PLA/HA composite fibres that could be used in a 3D woven scaffold for bone regeneration.

  • 36. Persson, Maria
    et al.
    Cho, Sung-Woo
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Berglin, Lena
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Tuukkanen, J
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Poly (Lactid Acid)/Hydroxipatite Composite Fibres for 3D Osteoconductive Woven Scaffolds2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study presents a method to melt-spun biocompatible composite fibres from poly(lactic acid) (PLA) and nano-sized hydroxyapatite (HAp) particles. Different loading concentrations of HAp particles in the PLA fibres and solid-state draw-ratios (SSDR) were evaluated in order to study their influence on the mechanical, thermal and morphological properties. The results showed that the incorporation of the HAp particles was homogeneously distributed in the PLA fibres towards their surface and that the SSDR played an important role in order to improve the mechanical properties. The melt-spun PLA/HAp composite fibres, produced in this study, had also the potential to be processed into a fibrous scaffold, which was demonstrated by a 3D woven structure.

  • 37.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Baghaei, Behnaz
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Kumar Ramamoorthy, Sunil
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Berglin, Lena
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Development of hybrid natural fibre reinforcements for structural composites: Concepts and opportunities2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 38.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Baghaei, Behnaz
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Kumar Ramamoorthy, Sunil
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Rajan, Rathish
    Berglin, Lena
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Regenerated cellulose fibres for structural composites2014Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 39.
    Soroudi, Azadeh
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Hernández, Niina
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Berglin, Lena
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Nierstrasz, Vincent
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Electrode placement in electrocardiography smart garments: A review2019In: Journal of Electrocardiology, ISSN 0022-0736, E-ISSN 1532-8430, Vol. 57, p. 27-30-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wearable Electrocardiography (ECG) sensing textiles have been widely used due to their high flexibility, comfort, reusability and the possibility to be used for home-based and real-time measurements. Textile electrodes are dry and non-adhesive, therefor unlike conventional gel electrodes, they don't cause skin irritation and are more user-friendly especially for long-term and continuous monitoring outside the hospital. However, the challenge with textile electrodes is that the quality and reliability of recorded ECG signals by smart garments are more sensitive to different factors such as electrode placement, skin humidity, user activities and contact pressure. This review will particularly focus on the research findings regarding the influence of electrode placement on the quality of biosignal sensing, and will introduce the methods used by researchers to measure the optimal positions of the electrodes in wearable ECG garments. The review will help the designers to take into account different parameters, which affect the data quality, reliability and comfort, when selecting the electrode placement in a wearable ECG garment.

  • 40. Wiklund, Urban
    et al.
    Karlsson, Marcus
    Berglin, Lena
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Eriksson, Siw
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Guo, Li
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Bäcklund, Tomas
    Sandsjö, Leif
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Rytm och formanalys av EKG från textila sensorer2010Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 41. Wiklund, Urban
    et al.
    Karlsson, Marcus
    Östlund, Nils
    Berglin, Lena
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Lindecrantz, Kaj
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Karlsson, Stefan
    Sandsjö, Leif
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Adaptive spatio-temporal filtering of disturbed ECGs: a multi-channel approach to heartbeat detection in smart clothing2007In: Medical and Biological Engineering and Computing, ISSN 0140-0118, E-ISSN 1741-0444, Vol. 45, no 6Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 42.
    Zetterblom, Margareta
    et al.
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Berglin, Lena
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Textile microphone elements2008Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Paper "Textile microphone elements" and oral presentation at the conference on the 23 of June 2008.

1 - 42 of 42
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