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  • 1.
    Aas, Tor Helge
    et al.
    University of Agder, Norway.
    Hjemdahl, Kirsti
    University of Agder, Norway.
    Högberg, Johan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013).
    Nordgård, Daniel
    University of Agder, Norway.
    Olsson Ramberg, Marcus
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013).
    Wästlund, Erik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013).
    Contextualizing mobile advertisement using location based services: A field experiment2019Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 2.
    Angulo, Julio
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Information Systems and Project Management. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    Wästlund, Erik
    Johan, Högberg
    What Would It Take for You to Tell Your Secrets to a Cloud?: Studying decision factors when disclosing information to cloud services2014In: Secure IT Systems: 19th Nordic Conference, NordSec 2014, Tromsø, Norway, October 15-17, 2014, Proceedings, Springer, 2014, Vol. 8788, p. 129-145Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigate the end users’ behaviours and attitudes with regards to the control they place in the personal information that they disclose to cloud storage services. Three controlled experiments were carried out to study the influence in users’ decisions to retain or surrender control over their personal information depending on different factors. The results of these experiments reveal, among other things, the users’ willingness to surrender control over personal information that is perceived as non-sensitive in exchange for valuable rewards, and that users would value the possibility of knowing and controlling the parties who are granted access to their data in the cloud. Based on the results from the experiments we provide implications for the design of end-user tools that can promote transparency and accountability in cloud computing environments.

  • 3.
    Högberg, Johan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Gameful experiences: The not so painful road to gainful behavior2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this work is to investigate the experiences that users make when using gamified services and the effect that such experiences have on the targeted behavioral outcomes. Considerable attention is dedicated to the gameful experience, since this experience is necessary for gamification to affect the target behavior. Moreover, the effectiveness of gamification at triggering different motivational mechanisms and the role of engagement is investigated.

    This dissertation contains three papers. Paper 1 uses a mixed-methods approach to develop a model and a measure of the gameful experience. Paper 2 uses a field experimental approach to investigate the effect of gamification on a decision to use offers in a store, and the role of engagement for this effect to occur. Finally, Paper 3 uses a field experiment to investigate the contribution of gamification to value creation in stores and how such value creation relates to brand engagement.

    The first main finding is a model of the gameful experience that includes the dimensions of accomplishment, challenge, competition, guided, immersion, playfulness, and social experience, and the instrument for measuring this experience. The second main finding is that challenge-based gamification can induce positive affect, which can influence evaluative judgments (thus utilizing the affective quality of System 1 to change the target behavior) and, ultimately, brand engagement. However, such challenge-based gamification does not seem to be effective when aiming to affect the biased System 1 through effort justification. The third main finding is the results that indicate that a user needs to be engaged in order for a gamified service to work properly.

  • 4.
    Högberg, Johan
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Hamari, Juho
    Tampere University, Finland; University of Turku, Finland.
    Wästlund, Erik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Gameful Experience Questionnaire (GAMEFULQUEST): An instrument for measuring the perceived gamefulness of system use2019In: User modeling and user-adapted interaction, ISSN 0924-1868, E-ISSN 1573-1391, Vol. 29, no 3, p. 619-660Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we present the development and validation of an instrument for measuring users’ gameful experience while using a service. Either intentionally or unintentionally, systems and services are becoming increasingly gamified and having a gameful experience is progressively important for the user’s overall experience of a service. Gamification refers to the transformation of technology to become more game-like, with the intention of evoking similar positive experiences and motivations that games do (the gameful experience) and affecting user behavior. In this study, we used a mixed-methods approach to develop an instrument for measuring the gameful experience. In a first qualitative study, we developed a model of the gameful experience using data from a questionnaire consisting of open-ended questions posed to users of Zombies, Run!, Duolingo, and Nike+ Run Club. In a second study, we developed the instrument and evaluated its dimensionality and psychometric properties using data from users of Zombies, Run! (N = 371). Based on the results of this second study, we further developed the instrument in a third study using data from users of Duolingo (N = 507), in which we repeated the assessment of dimensionality and psychometric properties, this time including confirmation of the model. As a result of this work, we devised GAMEFULQUEST, an instrument that can be used to model and measure an individual user’s gameful experience in systems and services, which can be used for user-adapted gamification and for informing user-modeling research within a gamification context.

  • 5.
    Högberg, Johan
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013).
    Hamari, Juho
    Tampere University, Finland.
    Wästlund, Erik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013).
    Gameful Experience Questionnaire: Measuring the Gamefulness of Service Use2019Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Högberg, Johan
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013).
    Olsson, Marcus
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013).
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013).
    Wästlund, Erik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013).
    Gamified in-store shopping: A field experiment integrating gamification with location based services2016In: 23rd Recent Advances in Retailing & Services Science Conference, July 11-14, 2016, Edinburgh, Scotland: Book of abstracts / [ed] S. Rasouli & H.J.P. Timmermans, Eindhoven: Technische Universiteit Eindhoven, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Högberg, Johan
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Olsson, Marcus
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013).
    Wästlund, Erik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Gamified in-store shopping: A field experiment investigating the effect off gamification2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 8. Högberg, Johan
    et al.
    Ramberg, M. O.
    Karlstad University.
    Gustafsson, A.
    BI Norwegian Business School.
    Wästlund, Erik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013).
    Creating brand engagement through in-store gamified customer experiences2019In: Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, ISSN 0969-6989, E-ISSN 1873-1384, Vol. 50, p. 122-130Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to understand how gamification contributes to customers’ value creation in a retail context and how this value creation relates to brand engagement. The study builds on a field experiment using a two-group between-subjects design combined with correlational research. The experiment involved 378 participants recruited at a major European sports retailer. Participants were exposed to one of two conditions: one with a gamified activity in a store, and one in which the participants performed the same activity without being exposed to any game elements. The findings show that gamification affects the hedonic value of an activity and that this effect can be partly explained by positive affect. When this hedonic value was compared to the satisfaction with a reward, the hedonic value was found to be a better predictor of continued engagement intention. Finally, gamification through continued engagement intention is positively associated with brand engagement.

  • 9.
    Högberg, Johan
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013).
    Shams, Poja
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013).
    Wästlund, Erik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Gamified in-store mobile marketing: The mixed effect of gamified point-of-purchase advertising2019In: Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, ISSN 0969-6989, E-ISSN 1873-1384, Vol. 50, p. 298-304Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the effect of gamification on in-store mobile advertisement. More specifically, it investigates the effect of gamification on the inclination to act on offers gained at point of purchase. For this purpose, a field experiment was conducted at a supermarket, where real customers were recruited. Eye tracking, smartphone activity logging and choice were used to investigate the customers’ behaviour. The results reveal that gamification is not always useful for increasing the tendency to act on offers. In fact, engagement in a gamified shopping task is needed; otherwise, the tendency to act on offers might even decrease when gamifying.

  • 10.
    Olsson, Marcus
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School.
    Högberg, Johan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Wästlund, Erik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center. BI Norwegian Sch Management, Oslo, Norway.
    In-Store Gamification: Testing a Location-Based Treasure Hunt App in a Real Retailing Environment2016In: 2016 49TH HAWAII INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON SYSTEM SCIENCES (HICSS), 2016, p. 1634-1641Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Traditional retailers are facing strong competition from e-commerce. One way to meet this challenge is to follow the marketing movement of focusing on customer experiences. This transformation is based on the notion of engaging customers and one way to drive this engagement is through gamification to support value creation. In this study, we have identified variables affecting intentions to use gamified services and in what ways. For this purpose, we developed an app that generated different levels of gamification by varying the number of game elements. The data from a survey distributed during a field experiment indicates that an increasing level of gamification and technology experience have direct positive associations with intrinsic motivation. Furthermore, intrinsic motivation has a positive direct association with satisfaction, although this is partly mediated by mood. Finally, satisfaction has a positive direct relation with intention to use.

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