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  • 1.
    Calles, Olle
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Griffioen, Ben
    IMARES Wageningen UR, Netherlands.
    Winter, Erwin
    IMARES Wageningen UR, Netherlands.
    Watz, Johan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Nyqvist, Daniel
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Hagelin, Anna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Gustafsson, Stina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Österling, Martin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Piccolo, John
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Greenberg, Larry
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Bergman, Eva
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Fish Migration River Monitoring Plan2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Fish have problems passing the Afsluitdijk Dam that separates the Wadden Sea from Lake IJsselmeer. To re-establish the connectivity and thereby allow fish to pass there is an initiative to build a fishway, the Fish Migration River (FMR), at the Konwerderzand sluice complex. This report proposes a monitoring program to evaluate the functionality of the FMR, but also to monitor passage possibilities through the existing sluices. The goals of the monitoring plan are to estimate 1) The overall passage past the Afsluitdijk dam to and from Lake IJsselmeer, 2) The attraction efficiency, 3) The passage efficiency, and 4) The use of the FMR as habitat and for acclimatization for the transition into freshwater.

    We present an overview of previous and ongoing monitoring in the area to establish the current state of knowledge. The report also includes a presentation of available and suitable methods for a future monitoring program considering the broad spectra of target fish species, and their abundances. The proposed program includes a description of study design and available techniques and cost-estimates of the monitoring program.

    The proposed program will target ten species: European eel (aal), flounder (bot), three-spined stickleback (dreidoornige stekelbaars), twait shad (fint), North Sea houting (houting), river lamprey (rieverprik), smelt (spiering), Atlantic salmon (zalm), brown trout (forel) and sea lamprey (zeeprik). The monitoring program includes plans for how to capture, tag and track the study fish using the most suitable tagging techniques. Furthermore, the most optimal sites for installation of automatic data detection stations are identified.

    The total cost for the proposed project is 3.5 M€ and covers both investments in equipment and costs for personnel. However, if costs for investments in techniques such as RFId-stations and fish counters are excluded, the total cost is reduced to 1 M€ for a program running two years before and four years after the completion of the FMR. The program is considered sufficient to evaluate the FMR at Kornwerederzand from the most important perspectives: the overall passage efficiency and the use of the FMR as habitat.

    It should be noted that this report is the first step towards a full-scale monitoring program, giving insight into possible methods, study design and associated costs. The next important step will be to develop the program in more detail and to start the initial phase of the monitoring project. We predict that such activities will identify the need for, and the relevance of, a more extensive monitoring program to study the effects of the FMR on a population level and on a large geographical scale.

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  • 2.
    Hagelin, Anna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Conservation of landlocked Atlantic salmon in a regulated river: Behaviour of migratory spawners and juveniles2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Hydropower dams represent one of the major threats to river ecosystems today. The dams block migratory routes in many rivers, which is problematic for migratory fish species. Trap-and-transport may be an alternative to fish passage solutions, as a strategy to compensate for lost river connectivity. Stocking of hatchery fish is another mitigating measure often used to compensate for reduced yields in fisheries, but also as supportive breeders in declining populations.

     

    In this thesis, I report the results from radio-telemetry studies where the behavior of migrating Atlantic salmon spawners has been investigated in a regulated river. I also studied the function and success of using hatchery fish as supportive breeders and if there are any effects of migratory timing on migratory success. Further, I evaluated upstream passage performance by Atlantic salmon and brown trout at fishways in rivers Klarälven, Sweden and Gudbrandslågen, Norway. The goal was to determine if prior fishway experience had an effect on passage success. I identified three problems associated with the current river management, namely the high incidence of fallbacks among the early migrating salmon, the negative effects of high river flow and prior experience on fishway efficacy and that the use of hatchery-reared fish as supportive breeders have little, if any, positive effect on reproduction. Finally, I examined the competitive interactions that may occur when reintroducing Atlantic salmon to areas with native grayling and brown trout. I found no evidence of Atlantic salmon affecting grayling or brown trout. Instead, Atlantic salmon were dominated by the other two species, which indicates that reintroduction of salmon may not be successful, especially if habitat diversity is constrained.

     

    Conservation and management of migratory salmonids requires an understanding of their ecology and life-histories. In the regulated river Klarälven, populations of landlocked Atlantic salmon and migratory brown trout have declined due to river exploitation. The results presented in this thesis originate from concerns regarding salmonid conservation in regulated rivers, with a focus on the difficulties migratory spawners may face in these altered environments.

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    Forskningspodden med Anna Hagelin
  • 3.
    Hagelin, Anna
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Bergman, Eva
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Reintroducing Atlantic salmon to once native areas: Competition between Atlantic salmon, brown trout and graylingManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Worldwide declines in salmonid populations have generated major interest in conservation and restoration of wild populations and riverine habitats. Plans to re-introduce species to rivers where they previously occurred raises questions as to their potential impact on these systems after so many years. In the River Klarälven, Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) has been extinct from the upper reaches of its former distribution for more than 50 years due to the construction of hydropower dams. Here we study competitive interactions between Atlantic salmon and two other salmonids, grayling (Thymallus thymallus) and brown trout (Salmo trutta), that presently occur in the upper reaches of the river. We examine foraging rates, aggression and activity of juvenile Atlantic salmon, grayling and brown trout in allopatry at three different densities and in sympatry with one or both potential competitors in laboratory flumes. We found that Atlantic salmon captured prey less frequently in the presence of brown trout and grayling, whereas grayling and brown trout affected each other, but were unaffected by Atlantic salmon. Rates of aggression initiated by salmonids in allopatry versus sympatry revealed differences between fish species, with grayling being the most aggressive and salmon the least. There was also a difference in activity, i.e. time spent cruising or holding position, between the species, with grayling being the most active and salmon the least. These results suggest that re-introduction of Atlantic salmon probably will have little impact on grayling and brown trout, whereas high densities of grayling and brown trout could affect the success of re-introducing Atlantic salmon.

  • 4.
    Hagelin, Anna
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Calles, Olle
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Greenberg, Larry
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Nyqvist, Daniel
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Bergman, Eva
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    The Migratory Behaviour and Fallback Rate of Landlocked Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar) in a Regulated River: does Timing Matter?2016In: Rivers Research and Applications: an international journal devoted to river research and management, ISSN 1535-1459, E-ISSN 1535-1467, Vol. 32, no 6, p. 1402-1409Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The behavior of early (June-July) and late (August-September) migrating, adult Atlantic salmon, in The River Klaralven, Sweden, was analyzed using radio telemetry. River Klaralven is a regulated river without functioning fishways, instead upstream migrating salmon are trapped and trucked past eight hydropower plants before released back to the river. We distinguished two parts of the spawning migration, that is, one part being the migration from the place where the fish was released to the spawning grounds. The other part was a holding phase on the spawning grounds with little or no movements before spawning. The late salmon spent less of their total time on holding, 36.2%, and more on migration, 63.8%, compared with early migrating salmon, which distributed their time rather evenly between migration, 47.5%, and holding, 52.5%. In total, early salmon used 30% more time migrating and 156% more time holding than late salmon. Some Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) fell back over the hydropower plant after release and got excluded from spawning. The fallback rates of transported, tagged spawners were higher in the early than in the late group in both years. The fallback rate in 2012 was 42.8% of the early group and 15.1% in the late. In 2013, there were 51.7 % fallbacks in the early group and 3.4% in the late. The salmon fell back on average 9days after being released in 2012 and 16days in 2013. A high mean daily discharge on the day of release increased the probability of becoming a fallback. Copyright (c) 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  • 5.
    Hagelin, Anna
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Calles, Olle
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Greenberg, Larry
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Piccolo, John J.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Bergman, Eva
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Spawning migration of wild and supplementary stocked landlocked atlantic salmon (Salmo Salar)2016In: Rivers Research and Applications: an international journal devoted to river research and management, ISSN 1535-1459, E-ISSN 1535-1467, Vol. 32, no 3, p. 383-389Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Upstream migration by adult salmonids is impeded by dams in many regulated rivers, as is the case for landlocked Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, in the River Klarälven, Sweden. There, the salmon cannot reach the spawning grounds due to the presence of eight dams. Hence, hatchery-reared smolts are released downstream of the dams, and upstream migrating spawners are caught in a trap at the lowermost dam before transported by truck to the spawning grounds past the dams. To identify the spawning grounds and compare the behavior of wild and hatchery-reared Atlantic salmon during upstream migration and spawning, 34 wild and 28 hatchery-reared, radio-tagged Atlantic salmon were followed during their spawning migration from August to October 2011. Half (50%) of the hatchery fish, but only 11,8% of the wild fish ended up as fallbacks, i.e. they migrated past the first downstream power station, and did not spawn. A significantly higher proportion (21.4%) of hatchery- reared salmon moved in an erratic way, with several up and down stream movements, when compared to the wild salmon (5.9%). When looking at the salmon that stayed in the river (exc. fallbacks), wild individuals exhibited a holding behavior (little or no movements before presumed spawning) more often (86.7%) than the reared ones (50%). The wild salmon also held position (and presumably spawned) for longer time (25.4 days) than the reared salmon (16.1 days). Reared salmon held position, on average, 10 km further upstream than wild salmon, passing the presumed best-quality spawning habitat. The migration speed (average 17.4 km/day) between two logger stations did not differ between wild and reared fish or between sexes. Our results suggest that the reproductive success of hatchery-reared Atlantic salmon is relatively low and their capacity as supplementary spawners to the wild population in the Klarälven, is probably small.

  • 6.
    Hagelin, Anna
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Museth, Jon
    Norsk institutt for naturforskning NINA, NOR.
    Greenberg, Larry
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Kraabol, Morten
    Multiconsult, NOR.
    Calles, Olle
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Bergman, Eva
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Upstream fishway performance by Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and brown trout (Salmo trutta) spawners at complex hydropower dams – is prior experience a success criterion?2021In: Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, ISSN 0706-652X, E-ISSN 1205-7533, Vol. 78, no 2, p. 124-134Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Passage of hydropower plants by upstream-migrating salmonid spawners is associated with increased mortality, delays, injuries and reduced migration success, and consequently the need for a more comprehensive understanding of fish behavior downstream of dams is widely recognized. Studies of passage typically involve tagging fish, and in many cases, the fish used in these studies are caught in the fishways, and hence have prior experience negotiating them. In this study, we studied fishway passage of tagged landlocked Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in the River Klarälven, Sweden and brown trout (Salmo trutta) in the River Gudbrandslågen, Norway, and the influence of prior experience on passage success in 2012 and 2013. In the River Klarälven, fishway efficacy varied from 18 (2012) to 88% (2013). Most salmon (81%) entered the fishway trap on days without spill, and salmon moved from the turbine area to the spill zone when there was spill, with small individuals showing a stronger reaction than large fish. Analysis of fish with and without prior trap experience showed that a higher percentage of the “naïve” fish (70% of salmon and 43% of the trout) entered the fishway traps than the “experienced” ones (25% of the salmon and 15 % of the trout). Delays for fish that entered the trap ranged from 3-70 days for salmon and 2-47 days for trout, and there was no difference in median delay between naïve and experienced fish for each species. Manual positioning of radio-tagged salmon revealed that 11% of the naïve fish and 50% of the experienced fish ceased migration after tagging and release. In addition, a greater percentage of the salmon that were captured, marked and released in the lake attempted to enter the fishway (70%) than lake-caught salmon that were also transported 10km to the stream before release (33%). The data based on manual positioning and lake caught salmon indicate that differences in behavior of naïve and experienced individuals are likely stress-related. Moreover, our results suggest that estimates of fishway efficacy using fish with prior fishway experience may be biased, and based on our study, efficacy is underestimated.

  • 7.
    Lundström, Jan O
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet.
    Schäfer, Martina L
    Uppsala universitet.
    Hesson, Jenny
    Uppsala universitet.
    Blomgren, Erik
    Section of Environment and Biosecurity, Department of Chemistry, Environment and Feed Hygiene, National Veterinary Institute.
    Lindström, Anders
    Section of Environment and Biosecurity, Department of Chemistry, Environment and Feed Hygiene, National Veterinary Institute.
    Wahlqvist, Pernilla
    Uppsala universitet.
    Halling, Arne
    Högskolan Kristianstad.
    Hagelin, Anna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences.
    Alm, Clas
    Umeå universitet.
    Evander, Magnus
    Umeå universitet.
    Broman, Tina
    CBNR Defense and Security, Swedish Defense Research Agency.
    Forsman, Mats
    CBNR Defense and Security, Swedish Defense Research Agency.
    Persson Vinnersten, Thomas Z
    Uppsala universitet.
    The geographic distribution of mosquito species in Sweden2013In: Journal of the European Mosquito Control Association, ISSN 1460-6127, Vol. 31, p. 21-35Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Nyqvist, Daniel
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Calles, Olle
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Bergman, Eva
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Hagelin, Anna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Greenberg, Larry
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Post-Spawning Survival and Downstream Passage of Landlocked Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar) in a Regulated River: Is There Potential for Repeat Spawning?2016In: Rivers Research and Applications: an international journal devoted to river research and management, ISSN 1535-1459, E-ISSN 1535-1467, Vol. 32, no 5, p. 1008-1017Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Repeat salmonid spawners may make large contributions to total recruitment and long term population stability. Despite their potential importance, relatively little is known about this phase of the life history for anadromous populations, and nothing has been reported for landlocked populations. Here, we studied post-spawning behaviour and survival of landlocked Atlantic salmon in relation to downstream dam passage in the River KlarÀlven, Sweden. Eight hydropower stations separate the feeding grounds in Lake VÀnern from the spawning grounds in the River KlarÀlven, and no measures to facilitate downstream migration are present in the river. Forty-nine percent of the salmon survived spawning and initiated downstream migration. Females and small fish had higher post-spawning survival than males and large fish. The post-spawners migrated downstream in autumn and spring and remained relatively inactive in the river during winter. Downstream migration speed in the free flowing part of the river was highly variable with a median of 9.30km/day. Most fish passed the first hydropower station via upward-opening spill gates after a median residence time in the forebay of 25min. However, no tagged fish survived passage of all eight hydropower stations to reach Lake VÀnern. This result underscores the need for remedial measures to increase the survival of downstream migrating kelts.

  • 9.
    Watz, Johan
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Bergman, Eva
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Calles, Olle
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Enefalk, Åsa
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Gustafsson, Stina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Hagelin, Anna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Nilsson, P. Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Norrgård, Johnny
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013). Fortum generation.
    Nyqvist, Daniel
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Österling, Martin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Piccolo, John J.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Schneider, Lea Dominique
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Greenberg, Larry
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Jonsson, Bror
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013). Norsk institutt for naturforskning, Oslo.
    Ice cover alters the behavior and stress level of brown trout Salmo trutta2015In: Behavioral Ecology, ISSN 1045-2249, E-ISSN 1465-7279, Vol. 26, no 3, p. 820-827Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Surface ice in rivers and lakes buffers the thermal environment and provides overhead cover, protecting aquatic animals from terrestrial predators. We tested if surface ice influenced the behavior (swimming activity, aggressive encounters, and number of food items eaten) and stress level (coloration of eyes and body) of stream-living brown trout Salmo trutta at temperatures of 3–4 °C in indoor experimental flumes. We hypothesized that an individual’s resting metabolic rate (RMR, as measured by resting ventilation rate) would affect winter behavior. Therefore, groups of 4 trout, consisting of individuals with high, low, or mixed (2 individuals each) RMR, were exposed to experimental conditions with or without ice cover. Ice cover reduced stress responses, as evaluated by body coloration. Also, trout in low RMR groups had a paler body color than those in both mixed and high RMR groups. Trout increased their swimming activity under ice cover, with the highest activity found in high RMR groups. Ice cover increased the number of aggressive encounters but did not influence the number of drifting food items taken by each group. In mixed RMR groups, however, single individuals were better able to monopolize food than in the other groups. As the presence of surface ice increases the activity level and reduces stress in stream-living trout, ice cover should influence their energy budgets and production. The results should be viewed in light of ongoing global warming that reduces the duration of ice cover, especially at high latitudes and altitudes.

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