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  • 1.
    Adamczyk, Krzysztof
    et al.
    Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Trondheim, Norway.
    Søndenå, Rune
    Department for Solar Energy, IFE, Kjeller, Norway.
    Stokkan, Gaute
    Sintef Materials and Chemistry, Trondheim, Norway.
    Looney, Erin
    Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA.
    Jensen, Mallory
    Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA.
    Lai, Barry
    Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont, Illinois 60439, USA.
    Rinio, Markus
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Physics (from 2013).
    Di Sabatino, Marisa
    Department of Materials Science and Engineering, NTNU, A. Getz vei 2B, NO-7491 Trondheim, Norway.
    Recombination activity of grain boundaries in high-performance multicrystalline Si during solar cell processing2018In: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 123, no 5, p. 1-6, article id 055705Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work, we applied internal quantum efficiency mapping to study the recombination activity of grain boundaries in High Performance Multicrystalline Silicon under different processing conditions. Wafers were divided into groups and underwent different thermal processing, consisting of phosphorus diffusion gettering and surface passivation with hydrogen rich layers. After these thermal treatments, wafers were processed into heterojunction with intrinsic thin layer solar cells. Light Beam Induced Current and Electron Backscatter Diffraction were applied to analyse the influence of thermal treatment during standard solar cell processing on different types of grain boundaries. The results show that after cell processing, most random-angle grain boundaries in the material are well passivated, but small-angle grain boundaries are not well passivated. Special cases of coincidence site lattice grain boundaries with high recombination activity are also found. Based on micro-X-ray fluorescence measurements, a change in the contamination level is suggested as the reason behind their increased activity.

  • 2.
    Adamczyk, Krzysztof
    et al.
    Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Trondheim, Norway.
    Søndenå, Rune
    Department for Solar Energy, IFE, Kjeller, Norway.
    You, Chang Chuan
    Department for Solar Energy, IFE, Kjeller, Norway.
    Stokkan, Gaute
    Sintef Materials and Chemistry, Trondheim, Norway.
    Lindroos, Jeanette
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Physics (from 2013).
    Rinio, Markus
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Physics (from 2013).
    Di Sabatino, Marisa
    Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Trondheim, Norway.
    Recombination Strength of Dislocations in High-Performance Multicrystalline/Quasi-Mono Hybrid Wafers During Solar Cell Processing2018In: Physica Status Solidi (a) applications and materials science, ISSN 1862-6300, E-ISSN 1862-6319, Vol. 215, no 2, article id 1700493Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wafers from a hybrid silicon ingot seeded in part for High Performance Multicrystalline, in part for a quasi-mono structure, are studied in terms of the effect of gettering and hydrogenation on their final Internal Quantum Efficiency.The wafers are thermally processed in different groups – gettered and hydrogenated. Afterwards, a low temperature heterojunction with intrinsic thin layer cell process is applied to minimize the impact of temperature. Such procedure made it possible to study the effect of different processing steps on dislocation clusters in the material using the Light Beam Induced Current technique with a high spatial resolution. The dislocation densities are measuredusing automatic image recognition on polished and etched samples. The dislocation recombination strengths are obtained by a correlation of the IQE with the dislocation density according to the Donolato model. Different clusters are compared after different process steps. The results show that for the middle of the ingot, the gettering step can increase the recombination strength of dislocations by one order of magnitude. A subsequent passivation with layers containing hydrogen can lead to a decrease in the recombination strength to levels lower than in ungettered samples.

  • 3.
    Bertoni, M. I.
    et al.
    Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, USA .
    Fenning, D. P.
    Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, USA .
    Rinio, Markus
    Fraunhofer ISE, Laboratory and Servicecenter, Auf der Reihe 2, Gelsenkirchen, Germany .
    Rose, V.
    USA.
    Holt, M.
    USA.
    Maser, J.
    USA.
    Buonassisi, Tonio
    USA.
    Nanoprobe X-ray fluorescence characterization of defects in large-area solar cells2011In: Energy & Environmental Science, ISSN 1754-5692, E-ISSN 1754-5706, Vol. 4, p. 4252-4257Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The performance of centimeter-sized energy devices is regulated by inhomogeneously distributednanoscale defects. To improve device efficiency and reduce cost, accurate characterization of thesenanoscale defects is necessary. However, the multiscale nature of this problem presentsa characterization challenge, as non-destructive techniques often specialize in a single decade of lengthscales, and have difficulty probing non-destructively beneath the surface of materials with sub-micronspatial resolution. Herein, we push the resolution limits of synchrotron-based nanoprobe X-rayfluorescence mapping to 80 nm, to investigate a recombination-active intragranular defect in industrialsolar cells. Our nano-XRF measurements distinguish fundamental differences between benign anddeleterious dislocations in solar cell devices: we observe recombination-active dislocations to containa high degree of nanoscale iron and copper decoration, while recombination-inactive dislocationsappear clean. Statistically meaningful high-resolution measurements establish a connection betweencommercially relevant materials and previous fundamental studies on intentionally contaminatedmodel defect structures, pointing the way towards optimization of the industrial solar cell process.Moreover, this study presents a hierarchical characterization approach that can be broadly extended toother nanodefect-limited energy systems with the advent of high-resolution X-ray imaging beamlines

  • 4.
    Bertoni, M. I.
    et al.
    Arizona State Univ, USA.
    Sarau, G.
    Germany.
    Fenning, D. P.
    Rinio, Markus
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Physics. Frauenhofer ISE, Germany.
    Rose, V.
    USA.
    Maser, J.
    USA.
    Buonassisi, T.
    USA.
    Nano-XRF and micro-Raman Studies of Metal Impurity Decoration around Dislocations in Multicrystalline Silicon2012In: 2012 38TH IEEE PHOTOVOLTAIC SPECIALISTS CONFERENCE (PVSC), New York, USA: IEEE, 2012, p. 1613-1616Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We push the resolution limits of synchrotron-based nano-X-ray fluorescence mapping below 100 nm to investigate the fundamental differences between benign and deleterious dislocations in multicystalline silicon solar cells. We observe that after processing recombination-active dislocations contain a high degree of nanoscale iron and copper decoration, while recombination-inactive dislocations appear clean. To study the origins of the distinct metal decorations around different dislocations we analyze as-grown samples as well as specimens at different stages of processing. We complement our X-ray studies with micro-Raman mapping to understand the relationship between metallic decoration and stress fields around dislocations.

  • 5. Borchert, Dietmar
    et al.
    Brammer, T.
    Voigt, O.
    Stiebig, H.
    Gronbach, A.
    Rinio, Markus
    Kenanoglu, A.
    Willeke, G.
    Nositschka, A.
    Kurz, H.
    Large area (N) A-Si:H/(P) C-Si heterojunction solar cells with low temperature screen printed contacts2004Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 6. Borchert, Dietmar
    et al.
    Gronbach, Andreas
    Rinio, Markus
    Zippel, Elmar
    Process steps for the production of large area (n) a-Si:H/(p) C-Si heterojunction solar cells2005Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 7. Borchert, Dietmar
    et al.
    Gronbach, Andreas
    Schaefer, B.
    Rinio, Markus
    Abusnina, Mohammed
    Kenanoglu, Ali
    Willeke, Gerhard
    Large area RF deposition of thin films for silicon solar cells2004Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 8. Borchert, Dietmar
    et al.
    Hanke, Martin
    Ban, Q.
    Schmidt, K.
    Rinio, M.
    Microcrystalline silicon films as active layers in crystalline silicon solar cells2006Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 9.
    Borchert, Dietmar
    et al.
    Fraunhofer ISE, Laboratory and Servicecenter Gelsenkirchen,.
    Rinio, Markus
    Fraunhofer ISE, Laboratory and Servicecenter Gelsenkirchen,.
    Interaction between process technology and material quality during the processing of multicrystalline silicon solar cells2009In: Journal of materials science. Materials in electronics, ISSN 0957-4522, E-ISSN 1573-482X, Vol. 20, no 1, p. 487-492Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Multicrystalline silicon is the most used materialfor the production of silicon solar cells. The quality of the asgrown material depends on the quality of the feedstock andthe crystallization process. Bulk impurities, crystal defectslike dislocations and of course the grain boundaries determinethe material quality and thus the solar cell conversionefficiency. Therefore minority carrier lifetime measurementsare often done to characterize the material quality. Butthe measured values are from limited use because it is knownthat the solar cell process itself can dramatically change theminority carrier lifetime and the solar cell efficiency. In orderto obtain more detailed information of the behaviour ofdifferent defect types additionally high-resolution LBIC(light beam induced current)-measurements have been done.Since LBIC needs a pn-junction for photocurrent generationthe LBIC technique has been combined with the a-Si/c-Siheterojunction cell process, which makes it possible tomanufacture solar cells even from as cut wafers withoutchanging the material quality. With this combination ofmeasurement and preparation techniques it was possible toanalyze the influence of the diffusion process and the firingprocess on the behaviour of the three different defect types: grain boundaries, dislocation networks and bulk impurities.

  • 10. Borchert, Dietmar
    et al.
    Rinio, Markus
    Tölle, R.
    Janßen, Lars
    Nositschka, W. A.
    Kurz, H.
    Silicon nitride for backside passivation of multicrystalline solar cells2005Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 11. Breitenstein, Otwin
    et al.
    Langenkamp, Martin
    McIntosh, K. R.
    Honsberg, C. B.
    Rinio, Markus
    Localization of shunts across the floating junction of DSBC solar cells by lock–in thermography2001Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 12.
    Castellanos, Sergio
    et al.
    MIT, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA..
    Hofstetter, Jasmin
    MIT, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA..
    Kivambe, Maulid
    MIT, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA..
    Rinio, Markus
    Lai, Barry
    Argonne Natl Lab, Adv Photon Source, Argonne, IL 60439 USA..
    Buonassisi, Tonio
    MIT, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA..
    Inferring Dislocation Recombination Strength in Multicrystalline Silicon via Etch Pit Geometry Analysis2014In: 2014 IEEE 40TH Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (PVSC), IEEE Press, 2014, p. 2957-2959Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dislocations limit solar cell performance by decreasing minority carrier diffusion length, leading to inefficient charge collection at the device contacts [1]. However, studies have shown that the recombination strength of dislocation clusters within millimeters away from each other can vary by orders of magnitude [2]. In this contribution, we present correlations between dislocation microstructure and recombination activity levels which span close to two orders of magnitude. We discuss a general trend observed: higher dislocation recombination activity appears to be correlated with a higher degree of impurity decoration, and a higher degree of disorder in the spatial distribution of etch pits. We present an approach to quantify the degree of disorder of dislocation clusters. Based on our observations, we hypothesize that the recombination activity of different dislocation clusters can be predicted by visual inspection of the etch pit distribution and geometry.

  • 13.
    Castellanos, Sergio
    et al.
    Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Camebridge, MA, USA.
    Hofstetter, Jasmin
    Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Camebridge, MA, USA.
    Kivambe, Maulid
    Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Camebridge, MA, USA.
    Rinio, Markus
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Physics.
    Lai, Barry
    Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois, USA.
    Buonassisi, Tonio
    Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Camebridge, MA, USA.
    Inferring Dislocation Recombination Strength in Multicrystalline Silicon via Etch Pit Geometry Analysis2014Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Dislocations limit solar cell performance bydecreasing minority carrier diffusion length, leading to inefficientcharge collection at the device contacts. However, studieshave shown that the recombination strength of dislocationclusters within millimeters away from each other can vary byorders of magnitude. In this contribution, we present correlations between dislocation microstructure and recombination activity levels which span close to two orders of magnitude. We discuss a general trend observed: higherdislocation recombination activity appears to be correlated witha higher degree of impurity decoration, and a higher degree ofdisorder in the spatial distribution of etch pits. We present anapproach to quantify the degree of disorder of dislocationclusters. Based on our observations, we hypothesize that therecombination activity of different dislocation clusters can bepredicted by visual inspection of the etch pit distribution andgeometry.

  • 14.
    Castellanos, Sergio
    et al.
    Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Massachusetts, USA.
    Kivambe, Maulid
    Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Massachusetts, USA.
    Hofstetter, Jasmin
    Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Massachusetts, USA.
    Rinio, Markus
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Physics (from 2013).
    Lai, Barry
    Argonne Photon Source, Illinois, USA.
    Buonassisi, Tonio
    Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Massachusetts, USA.
    Variation of dislocation etch-pit geometry: An indicator of bulk microstructure and recombination activity in multicrystalline silicon2014In: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 115, no 18, p. 1-7, article id 183511Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dislocation clusters in multicrystalline silicon limit solar cell performance by decreasing minoritycarrier diffusion length. Studies have shown that the recombination strength of dislocation clusterscan vary by up to two orders of magnitude, even within the same wafer. In this contribution, wecombine a surface-analysis approach with bulk characterization techniques to explore theunderlying root cause of variations in recombination strength among different clusters. We observethat dislocation clusters with higher recombination strength consist of dislocations with a largervariation of line vector, correlated with a higher degree of variation in dislocation etch-pit shapes(ellipticities). Conversely, dislocation clusters exhibiting the lowest recombination strength containmostly dislocations with identical line vectors, resulting in very similar etch-pit shapes. Thedisorder of dislocation line vector in high-recombination clusters appears to be correlated withimpurity decoration, possibly the cause of the enhanced recombination activity. Based on ourobservations, we conclude that the relative recombination activity of different dislocation clustersin the device may be predicted via an optical inspection of the distribution and shape variation ofdislocation etch pits in the as-grown wafer.

  • 15. Chuan Chen, Max
    et al.
    Omanakuttan, Giriprasanth
    Hansson, Rickard
    Strömberg, Axel
    Hallén, Anders
    Rinio, Markus
    Lourdudoss, Sebastian
    Sun, Yan-Ting
    Low temperature activation of B implantation of Si subcell fabrication in III-V/Si tandem solar cells2019In: Proc. 36th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, Marseille (2019), 2019Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work, we investigated the Si pre-amorphization implantation (PAI) assisted low temperatureannealing process to activate boron implantation in n-Si in a hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE) reactor, which canbe used for the Si subcell fabrication in the III-V/Si tandem solar cells enabled by the corrugated epitaxial lateralovergrowth (CELOG). A uniform boron activation in Si and a low emitter sheet resistance of 77 /sq was obtained atannealing temperatures of 600-700°C. High-resolution x-ray diffraction was used to study the recrystallization ofamorphous silicon and the incorporation of boron dopants in Si. Hall measurements revealed p-type carrierconcentrations in the order of 1020 cm-3. The n-Si wafers with B implantation activated at 700°C by HVPE wereprocessed to solar cells and characterized by the standard light-current-voltage measurement under AM1.5 spectrumand external quantum efficiency measurements. The developed B implantation and low temperature activationprocesses are applied to the InP/Si seed template preparation for CELOG, on which CELOG GaInP over a Si subcellwith a direct heterojunction was demonstrated.

  • 16. Díaz-Herrera, B.
    et al.
    Montesdeoca-Santana, Amada
    Jiménez-Rodriguez, E.
    González-Díaz, B.
    Hernández Rodríguez, C.
    Guerrero-Lemus, Ricardo
    Rinio, Markus
    Borchert, Dietmar
    Upgraded metallurgical grade silicon for solar cell fabrication2009Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 17.
    Fenning, D. P.
    et al.
    Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA .
    Hofstetter, Jasmin
    Instituto de Energía Solar, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, 28040 Madrid, Spain .
    Bertoni, M. I.
    Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA .
    Hudelson, S.
    Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA .
    Rinio, Markus
    Laboratory and Service Center, Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems (ISE), 45884 Gelsenkirchen, Germany .
    Lelièvre, J. F.
    Ctr Tecnol Silicio Solar CENTESIL, Getafe 28905, Spain.
    Lai, B.
    Argonne Natl Lab, Adv Photon Source, Argonne, IL 60439 USA.
    del Cañizo, C.
    Univ Politecn Madrid, Inst Energia Solar, E-28040 Madrid, Spain.
    Buonassisi, Tonio
    Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA .
    Iron distribution in silicon after solar cell processing: Synchrotron analysis and predictive modelling2011In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 98, p. 162103-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The evolution during silicon solar cell processing of performance-limiting iron impurities isinvestigated with synchrotron-based x-ray fluorescence microscopy. We find that during industrialphosphorus diffusion, bulk precipitate dissolution is incomplete in wafers with high metal content,specifically ingot border material. Postdiffusion low-temperature annealing is not found to alterappreciably the size or spatial distribution of FeSi2precipitates, although cell efficiency improvesdue to a decrease in iron interstitial concentration. Gettering simulations successfully modelexperiment results and suggest the efficacy of high- and low-temperature processing to reduce bothprecipitated and interstitial iron concentrations, respectively.

  • 18. Hahn, Giso
    et al.
    Zechner, C.
    Rinio, Markus
    Fath, Peter
    Willeke, G.
    Bucher, E.
    Enhanced Carrier Collection observed in Mechanically Structured Silicon with Small Diffusion Length1999In: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 86, no 12, p. 43-47 mflArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The diffusion length of minority charge carriers in the silicon bulk Ldiffis an important characteristicof optoelectronic devices fabricated from low cost silicon wafers. In this study computer simulationshave been carried out to calculate the beneficial effects of a macroscopic surface texturization on thecharge carrier generation and the collection probability. Textured solar cells should be able tocollect charge carriers more effectively resulting in an increased current due to the special emittergeometry resulting from the texture, decreased reflection losses, and the inclined penetration of thelight. In order to prove this expected behavior, deeply V-textured solar cells have been processedand characterized on low cost silicon reaching an Ldiffof about 25 mm. Spatially resolved highresolution measurements of the internal quantum efficiency exhibit a strongly increased signal in thetexture tips which is the first experimental proof of the increased charge carrier collectionprobability of deeply textured solar cells. This effect can further be seen in cross sectional electronbeam induced current measurements and the mechanical texture results in an overall gain in shortcircuit current density of about 11% and in efficiency of about 8% relatively.

  • 19. Horzel, Jörg
    et al.
    Seidl, A.
    Buss, W.
    Westram, I.
    Mosel, F.
    Guenther, S.
    Novak, J.
    Sticksel, J.
    Blendin, G.
    Jahn, M.
    Rinio, Markus
    von Campe, H.
    Schmidt, W.
    Inherent material quality advantages for thin EFG si solar cells compared to thick EFG si solar cells2007Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 20. Janßen, Lars
    et al.
    Rinio, Markus
    Borchert, Dietmar
    Windgassen, Horst
    Bätzner, D. L.
    Kurz, H.
    Passivating thin bifacial silicon solar cells for industrial production2007In: Progress in Photovoltaics, ISSN 1062-7995, E-ISSN 1099-159X, Vol. 15, no 6, p. 469-475Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A scheme for passivating thin multi-crystalline silicon solar cells compatible to massproduction is presented. Wafers with a thickness of 180 mm were processed into solarcells. The otherwise severe bowing has been avoided by reduced aluminium coverageon the rear surface. The process scheme includes a silicon nitride firing through stepfor conventional screen printed contacts, where a silicon nitride layer on the rearsurface acts as surface passivation layer and enables a gain in efficiency of 0.6%[abs.].

  • 21. Janßen, Lars
    et al.
    Rinio, Markus
    Borchert, Dietmar
    Windgassen, Horst
    Bätzner, D. L.
    Kurz, H.
    Thin bifacial multicrystalline silicon solar cells for industrial production2006Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 22. Janßen, Lars
    et al.
    Rinio, Markus
    Windgassen, Horst
    Nositschka, W. A.
    Borchert, Dietmar
    Kurz, H.
    Double sided silicon nitride passivated thin screen printed multicrystalline silicon solar cells2005Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 23. Joy, R. Mary
    et al.
    Gautero, L.
    Keipert-Colberg, Sinje
    Rinio, Markus
    Strola, S. A.
    Hanssen, M. S.
    van de Sanden, M. C. M.
    Borsa, D. M.
    Bosch, R. C. M.
    Fast industrial rear surface passivation dielectric stack deposition and low cost metallisation2011Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 24. Keipert, Sinje
    et al.
    Wang, P.
    Borchert, Dietmar
    Müller, S.
    Kühnemann, L.
    Rinio, Markus
    Influence of different wet chemical cleaning procedures prior to silicon nitride deposition on solar cell performance and surface passivation2008Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 25. Keipert-Colberg, Sinje
    et al.
    Ickler, B.
    Belledin, U.
    Krause, S.
    Kopfer, J. M.
    Botchak-Mouafi, Y. P.
    Kerscher, B.
    Müller, S.
    Biro, D.
    Rinio, Markus
    Borchert, Dietmar
    Investigation and development of industrial feasible cleaning sequences prior to silicon nitride deposition enhancing multicrystalline solar cell efficiency2009Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 26. Kenanoglu, Ali
    et al.
    Borchert, Dietmar
    Ballif, Christoph
    Peters, Stefan
    Zerres, Thomas
    Rinio, Markus
    Huljic, D. M.
    New large area PECVD-system for a-SiN:H deposition at 13.56 MHz2003Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 27. Kenanoglu, Ali
    et al.
    Borchert, Dietmar
    Rinio, Markus
    Abusnina, Mohammed
    Diez, S.
    Deposition of a-SiNx:H on solar cells at 13.56 MHz2004Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 28. Lawerenz, Alexander
    et al.
    Rinio, Markus
    Riedel, Stephan
    Ghosh, Michael
    Werner, Martina
    Möller, Hans Joachim
    Measurement of the electrical activity of defects in multicrystalline silicon2000Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 29.
    Lindroos, Jeanette
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Physics (from 2013).
    Petter, Kai
    Hanwha Q CELLS GmbH.
    Sporleder, Kai
    Fraunhofer Center for Silicon Photovoltaics CSP.
    Turek, Marko
    Fraunhofer Center for Silicon Photovoltaics CSP.
    Pacho, Paolo
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Physics (from 2013).
    Rinio, Markus
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Physics (from 2013).
    Light beam induced current of light-induced degradation in high-performance multicrystalline Al-BSF cells.2017In: Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Silicon Photovoltaics, SiliconPV 2017, 3-5 April 2017, Freiburg, Germany / [ed] Ralf Preu, Elsevier, 2017, Vol. 124, p. 99-106Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sponge-LID decreases the Al-BSF cell efficiency by up to 10 %rel. and is only partially recoverable at 200°C. This contributionshows that Sponge-LID occurs at and near most grain boundaries, but only in the centre of the affected cell.  Furthermore,Sponge-LID is not the only type of LID in the silicon bulk. High-resolution Light Beam Induced Current mapping reveals localinternal quantum efficiency losses of up to 8 %rel. at dislocation clusters and small angle grain boundaries, which recover(nearly) fully at 200°C. Nevertheless, this dislocation-related LID appears to reduce the Al-BSF efficiency by less than 1 %rel.

  • 30. McHugo, S. A.
    et al.
    Thompson, A. C.
    Lamble, G.
    MacDowell, A.
    Celestre, R.
    Padmore, H.
    Imaizumi, M.
    Yamaguchi, M.
    Perichaud, I.
    Martinuzzi, S.
    Werner, M.
    Rinio, Markus
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science.
    Möller, H. J.
    Sopori, B.
    Hieslmair, H.
    Flink, C.
    Istratov, A.
    Weber, E. R.
    Direct correlation of solar cell performance with metal impurity distributions in polycrystalline silicon using synchroton–based x–ray analysis1998Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 31. McHugo, S. A.
    et al.
    Thompson, A. C.
    Mohammed, A.
    Lamble, G.
    Perichaud, I.
    Martinuzzi, S.
    Werner, M.
    Rinio, Markus
    Institute for Experimental Physics, TU Bergakademie Freiberg, Silbermannstr. 1, D-09596 Freiberg, Germany .
    Koch, Wolfgang
    Hoefs, H.-U.
    Häßler, Christian
    Nanometer–scale metal precipitates in multicrystalline silicon solar cells2001In: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 89, no 8, p. 4282-4288Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we have utilized characterization methods to identify the nature of metal impurityprecipitates in low performance regions of multicrystalline silicon solar cells. Specifically, we haveutilized synchrotron-based x-ray fluorescence and x-ray absorption spectromicroscopy to study theelemental and chemical nature of these impurity precipitates, respectively. We have detectednanometer-scale precipitates of Fe, Cr, Ni, Cu, and Au in multicrystalline silicon materials from avariety of solar cell manufacturers. Additionally, we have obtained a direct correlation between theimpurity precipitates and regions of low light-induced current, providing direct proof that metalimpurities play a significant role in the performance of multicrystalline silicon solar cells.Furthermore, we have identified the chemical state of iron precipitates in the low-performanceregions. These results indicate that the iron precipitates are in the form of oxide or silicatecompound. These compounds are highly stable and cannot be removed with standard siliconprocessing, indicating remediation efforts via impurity removal need to be improved. Futureimprovements to multicrystalline silicon solar cell performance can be best obtained by inhibitingoxygen and metal impurity introduction as well as modifying thermal treatments during crystalgrowth to avoid oxide or silicate formation.

  • 32.
    Montesdeoca-Santana, Amada
    et al.
    Universidad de La Laguna, Avda Astrofísico Fco Sánchez, 2, 38206 La Laguna, Spain.
    Jiménez-Rodríguez, E.
    González-Díaz, Benjamin
    Departamento de Física Básica, Universidad de La Laguna (ULL), Avenida Astrofísico Francisco Sánchez 2, 38206 La Laguna, S/C de Tenerife, Spain.
    Díaz-Herrera, B.
    Departamento de Física Básica, Universidad de La Laguna (ULL), Avenida Astrofísico Francisco Sánchez 2, 38206 La Laguna, S/C de Tenerife, Spain.
    Rinio, Markus
    Fraunhofer Institut für Solare Energiesysteme ISE, Laboratory and Servicecenter Gelsenkirchen, Auf der Reihe 2, 45884 Gelsenkirchen, Germany.
    Borchert, Dietmar
    Fraunhofer Institut für Solare Energiesysteme ISE, Laboratory and Servicecenter Gelsenkirchen, Auf der Reihe 2, 45884 Gelsenkirchen, Germany.
    Guerrero-Lemus, Ricardo
    Departamento de Física Básica, Universidad de La Laguna (ULL), Avenida Astrofísico Francisco Sánchez 2, 38206 La Laguna, S/C de Tenerife, Spain.
    Phosphorous gettering in acidic textured multicrystalline solar cells2011In: Physica Status Solidi. C, Current topics in solid state physics, ISSN 1610-1634, E-ISSN 1610-1642, Vol. 8, no 3, p. 743-746Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The influence of phosphorus gettering is studied in thiswork applied to an acidic textured multicrystalline siliconsubstrate. The texturization was achieved with an HF/HNO3 solution leading to nanostructures on the silicon surface. It has been demonstrated in previous works that this textured surface decreases the reflectance on the solar cell and increases the surface area improving the photon collection and enhancing the short circuit current.

    The present study investigates the effect on the minoritycarrier lifetime of the phosphorous diffusion when it is carried out on this textured surface. The lifetime is measured by means microwave photoconductance decay and quasi steady state phototoconductance devices. The diffused textured wafers are used to fabricate solar cells and their electrical parameters are analyzed.

  • 33.
    Möller, Hans Joachim
    et al.
    Institute for Experimental Physics, Technische Universität Bergakademie Freiberg, Germany.
    Funke, Claudia
    Rinio, Markus
    Scholz, Sandra
    Multicrystalline silicon for solar cells2005In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 487, no 1-2, p. 179-187Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Crystal growth processes of multicrystalline silicon and their potential for further development are reviewed. Important parameters for theassessment of the final efficiency of the solar cells and the production yield are the bulk lifetime and the mechanical stability. The distributionand morphology of lattice defects can be related to the electrical properties. In particular oxygen in multicrystalline ingots and carbon in EFGribbons and their interaction with extended defects such as dislocations and grain boundaries will be discussed. The fracture strength dependson microcracks that are introduced through wafer slicing. The current understanding will be reviewed here.

  • 34. Möller, Hans Joachim
    et al.
    Ghosh, Michael
    Rinio, Markus
    Riedel, Stephan
    Yang, Deren
    Oxygen – Induced Microdefects in Multicrystalline Silicon1995Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 35. Möller, Hans Joachim
    et al.
    Long, Li
    Riedel, Stephan
    Rinio, Markus
    Yang, Deren
    Werner, Martina
    Oxygen precipitation in polycrystalline ingot and ribbon solar silicon1997Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 36.
    Pacho, Aleo Paolo
    et al.
    Karlstad University.
    Petrelius, Beppe
    Karlstad University.
    Rinio, Markus
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Physics (from 2013).
    Quantifying the impact of grain boundaries on standard and high performance mc-silicon solar cells2018In: Proc. 35th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, Brussels, EU PVSEC , 2018, p. 535-538Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Crystal defects such as grain boundaries affect the overall performance of a solar cell. The light beam induced current method allows for the localized quantification of the impact on the internal quantum efficiency of such defects. This work presents a method to estimate the separate impact of grain boundaries on the internal quantum efficiency (IQE) of multicrystalline silicon solar cells by correlating LBIC topographs with optical images of etched samples. Segmenting the impact of the grain boundaries on the IQE against those of other defects in our samples showed that the grain boundaries remain the most detrimental. The average IQE at 826 nm was reduced by up to 1.29 % (vs 0.25 % for other defects) absolute for standard multicrystalline and up to 1.15 % (vs 0.28 % for other defects) absolute for high performance multicrystalline silicon.

  • 37. Raue, Peter
    et al.
    Lawerenz, Alexander
    Long, Li
    Rinio, Markus
    Buhrig, E.
    Möller, Hans Joachim
    Multicrystalline Si1–XGeX Alloys for Solar Cell Applications1997Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 38. Riedel, Stephan
    et al.
    Rinio, Markus
    Möller, Hans Joachim
    Scanning Infrared Microscope Investigation of Precipitates Decorating Dislocations in Silicon Solar Cell Material2001Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 39.
    Rinio, Markus
    Fakultät für Chemie und Physik, der Technischen Universität Bergakademie Freiberg, Deutschland.
    Untersuchung der prozessabhängigen Ladungsträgerrekombination an Versetzungen in Siliziumsolarzellen2004Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [de]

    Die Dissertation demonstriert ein Verfahren zur Messung der normalisierten Rekombinationsstärke (Gamma) von Versetzungen in blockerstarrten Siliziumsolarzellen. Es basiert auf der topografischen Messung der internen Quanteneffizienz IQE und der Versetzungsdichte. Unter Verwendung des theoretischen Modells von Donolato und Simulationen mit dem Programm PC1D werden für einzelne Versetzungscluster aus dem gemessenen Zusammenhang zwischen der IQE und der Versetzungsdichte die Gamma-Werte bestimmt. Zur Messung der Versetzungsdichte wurden neue Methoden der automatischen Bildanalyse zur Erkennung von angeätzten Kristalldefekten mit dem Computer entwickelt. Die in den Solarzellen gemessenen Gamma-Werte variieren über ca. eine Größenordnung innerhalb weniger Millimeter. Regelmäßig angeordnete Versetzungen haben kleinere Gamma-Werte gegenüber ungeordneteren Verteilungen. Der Gamma-Wert korreliert signifikant mit den Prozesstemperaturen bei der Solarzellherstellung. Es wird gezeigt, in welcher Weise eine Remote-Plasma-Wasserstoffpassivierung die lokale IQE und die Gamma-Werte beeinflusst.

  • 40. Rinio, Markus
    et al.
    Ballif, Christoph
    Buonassisi, Tonio
    Borchert, Dietmar
    Defects in the deteriorated border layers of block-cast multicrystalline silicon ingots2004Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 41. Rinio, Markus
    et al.
    Borchert, Dietmar
    Müller, S.
    Riepe, S.
    Tölle, R,
    Janßen, Lars
    Kurz, H.
    Industrial rear SiN-passivated multicrystalline silicon solar cells2006Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 42. Rinio, Markus
    et al.
    Hauser, Alexander
    Möller, Hans Joachim
    Topography correlation – a powerful tool applied to the visualisation of remote plasma hydrogen passivation effects2003Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 43. Rinio, Markus
    et al.
    Käs, Martin
    Hahn, Giso
    Borchert, Dietmar
    Hydrogen passivation of extended defects in multicrystalline silicon solar cells2006Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 44.
    Rinio, Markus
    et al.
    Institute for Experimental Physics, TU Freiberg, Silbermannstr. 1, 09596 Freiberg, Germany,.
    Möller, Hans Joachim
    Werner, Martina
    LBIC investigations of the lifetime degradation by extended defects in multicrystalline solar silicon1998In: Solid State Phenomena, ISSN 1012-0394, E-ISSN 1662-9779, Vol. 63-64, p. 115-122Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A calibrated measurement of the short circuit current and the surface reflection coefficient can be directly converted into the internal quantum efficiency(IQE) of a solar cell. The IQE at a wavelength of 833 nm were measured on ingot, EFG and RGS silicon solar cells with a spatial resolution of 6 μm. Ingot solar cells were found to be predominantly influenced by a homogeneous distribution of recombination centers. However, if the dislocation densities exceeded a certain limit the IQE was reduced by recombination at dislocations. This limit varied in different parts of the wafer. EFG solar cells only showed a lifetime reduction by dislocations whereas the investigated solar cells made of RGS silicon were dominated by recombination at grain boundaries. The RGS silicon was further investigated by TEM- measurements, which showed that the extended defects were highly decorated with SiO2- and SiC precipitates.

  • 45.
    Rinio, Markus
    et al.
    Institute for Experimental Phusics Germany.
    Peters, S.
    Werner, Martina
    Lawerenz, Alexander
    Möller, Hans Joachim
    Measurement of the normalized recombination strength of dislocations in multicrystalline silicon solar cells2002In: Solid State Phenomena, ISSN 1012-0394, E-ISSN 1662-9779, Vol. 82-84, p. 701-706Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An improved technique is presented to measure the normalized recombination strength Gat dislocations in silicon solar cells that were fabricated of cast grown silicon. G is the number ofrecombinations per unit time, length, and excess carrier density divided by the minority carrierdiffusion coefficient D. The measurement is based on fitting the theoretical correlation betweeninternal quantum efficiency IQE at a single wavelength and dislocation density r to the measureddata. The IQE is measured topographically by the light beam induced current (LBIC) method. Foreach point of the LBIC map a dislocation density is determined by analysing the etched samplesurface with an image recognition programme. The theory for IQE(r) combines Donolato'sprediction for L(r) with a calculation of IQE(L) made by the computer programme PC1D. L is thediffusion length of the minority carriers. The programme PC1D takes special properties of the solarcell process into account. The method was applied to solar cells made by a conventional furnaceprocess as well as a rapid thermal process (RTP). In the latter case a correlation between G and theemitter diffusion temperature was found. Finally TEM measurements were made to investigatedislocations with different values of G.

  • 46. Rinio, Markus
    et al.
    Tao, L
    Keipert-Colberg, Sinje
    Borchert, Dietmar
    Double sided inline diffusion of multicrystalline silicon wafers2010Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 47.
    Rinio, Markus
    et al.
    Fraunhofer ISE, Laboratory and Servicecenter, Auf der Reihe 2, 45884 Gelsenkirchen, Germany.
    Yodyunyong, Arthit
    Fraunhofer ISE, Laboratory and Servicecenter, Auf der Reihe 2, 45884 Gelsenkirchen, Germany.
    Keipert-Colberg, Sinje
    Fraunhofer ISE, Laboratory and Servicecenter, Auf der Reihe 2, 45884 Gelsenkirchen, Germany.
    Borchert, Dietmar
    Fraunhofer ISE, Laboratory and Servicecenter, Auf der Reihe 2, 45884 Gelsenkirchen, Germany.
    Montesdeoca-Santana, Amada
    Universidad de La Laguna, Avda Astrofísico Fco Sánchez, 2, 38206 La Laguna, Spain.
    Recombination in ingot cast siliconsolar cells2011In: Physica Status Solidi (a) applications and materials science, ISSN 1862-6300, E-ISSN 1862-6319, Vol. 208, no 4, p. 760-768Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Minority carrier recombination is studied in multicrystalline ingot cast silicon solar cells. The normalized recombination strength G of dislocations is obtained by correlating topogramsof the internal quantum efficiency (IQE) with those of the dislocation densityr.G is obtained by fitting an extended theory of Donolato to the experimental data. The measured G-values vary significantly between adjacent dislocation clusters and correlate with the spatial pattern of the dislocations. All G-values are strongly dependent on the parameters of the solar cell process. The influence of phosphorus diffusion and hydrogenation is shown. After solidification of the silicon, impurities from the crucible enter the ingot and deteriorate its border regions during cooling to room temperature. These deteriorated border regions can be significantly improved byan additional low temperature anneal that is applied after phosphorus diffusion. The experiments indicate that the mechanism of the anneal is external phosphorus gettering into the emitter.

  • 48.
    Rinio, Markus
    et al.
    Laboratory and Service Center, Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems ISE, Auf der Reihe 2, 45884 Gelsenkirchen, Germany.
    Yodyunyong, Arthit
    Laboratory and Service Center, Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems ISE, Auf der Reihe 2, 45884 Gelsenkirchen, Germany.
    Keipert-Colberg, Sinje
    Laboratory and Service Center, Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems ISE, Auf der Reihe 2, 45884 Gelsenkirchen, Germany.
    Botchak Mouafi, Y. P.
    Laboratory and Service Center, Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems ISE, Auf der Reihe 2, 45884 Gelsenkirchen, Germany.
    Borchert, Dietmar
    Laboratory and Service Center, Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems ISE, Auf der Reihe 2, 45884 Gelsenkirchen, Germany.
    Montesdeoca-Santana, Amada
    Universidad de La Laguna, Avda Astrofísico Fco Sánchez, 2, 38206 La Laguna, Spain.
    Improvement of multicrystalline silicon solar cells by a low temperature anneal after emitter difusion2011In: Progress in Photovoltaics, ISSN 1062-7995, E-ISSN 1099-159X, Vol. 19, p. 165-169Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The influence of an annealing step at about 500 degree celsius after emitter diffusion of multicrystalline solar cells is investigated. Neighboring wafers from a silicon ingot were processed using different annealing durations and temperatures. The efficiency of the cells was measured and detailed light beam induced current measurements were performed. These show that mainly areas with high contents of precipitates near the crucible walls are affected by the anneal. An efficiency increase from 14.5 to 15.4% by a 2h anneal at 500 degree celsius was observed. The effect seems to be more likely external than internal gettering.

  • 49. Rinio, Markus
    et al.
    Yodyunyong, Arthit
    Pirker, M.
    Zhang, C.
    Günther, D.
    Botchak-Mouafi, Y. P.
    Keipert, Sinje
    Borchert, Dietmar
    Heuer, Martin
    Montesdeoca-Santana, Amada
    New results using a low temperature anneal in processing of multicrystalline solar cells2009Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 50. Rinio, Markus
    et al.
    Yodyunyong, Arthit
    Pirker, Maik
    Keipert, Sinje
    Wang, P.
    Buonassisi, Tonio
    Borchert, Dietmar
    Defect redistribution by low temperature annealing in ingot silicon solar cells2008Conference paper (Other academic)
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