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  • 1.
    Gräslund, Anne-Sofie
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, Archaeology.
    Hedenstierna-Jonson, CharlotteUppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, Archaeology.Lamm, Jan PederEdberg, Rune
    Fynden från "Svarta jorden" på Björkö: från Hjalmar Stolpes undersökningar. Studier. Äldre uppgifter.2018Collection (editor) (Other academic)
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  • 2.
    Hedenstierna-Jonson, Charlotte
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, Archaeology.
    Bland getingpärlor och Hedebymynt: Spår av danska kontakter i Birka2021In: Glimt fra Vikingetiden / [ed] Iben Skibsted Klæsøe, Jeppe Boel Jepsen, Freddy Arntsen, Benny Staal, Alan Tomlinson, Suzanne Barry, Niels Bødker Thomsen & Severin Tobias Mortensen, Lyngby: Danske Amatørarkæologer (DAA) , 2021, p. 62-68Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Hedenstierna-Jonson, Charlotte
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, Archaeology.
    Entering the Viking Age through the Baltic2020In: Relations and Runes: The Baltic Islands and Their Interactions During the Late Iron Age and Early Middle Ages, Visby: Riksantikvarieämbetet, 2020, p. 11-22Chapter in book (Other academic)
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  • 4.
    Hedenstierna-Jonson, Charlotte
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, Archaeology.
    Farmer, Raider, Trader, Ruler: Society and People of the Eastern Viking World2022In: Norman Connections: Normannische Verflechtungen zwischen Skandinavien und dem Mittelmeer / [ed] Viola Skiba, Nilolas Jaspert & Bernd Schneidmüller, Regensburg: Verlag Schnell + Steiner GmbH, 2022, p. 46-57Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    There are many conceptions about Vikings, some of them possibly true, while others are mere colourful figments of imagination. The one truth we can hold for certain is that the Viking Age and its people, including those we call Vikings, were many different things often at the same time. The result is a multitude of histories rather than one shared history.1 This is perhaps especially apparent when considering the eastern part of the Viking World. The historical narratives of the Vikings are often dominated by actions and events framed by the raids in the North Atlantic and the coasts and rivers of Western Europe. The movement by Scandinavians into the European East, and far beyond, was equally extensive and connected Scandinavia to some of the foremost centres of power of the time. While the western expansion is often characterised by raids, violence and power politics, the eastern counterpart is frequently depicted as more peaceful, with Scandinavians mainly engaging in trade or in agricultural colonialization of sparsely populated regions. But was there really a great discrepancy between the movements, or is this a later construct based on differences in source material and research traditions? Aiming at going beyond the usual preconceptions, this text explores the varieties of roles and identities of the people, hoping to convey some of the richness and complexity that formed the society of the eastern Viking World.

  • 5.
    Hedenstierna-Jonson, Charlotte
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, Archaeology.
    Hjalmar Stolpe (1841-1905)2020In: Svenska arkeologer / [ed] Anne-Sofie Gräslund, Uppsala: Kungl. Gustav Adolfs Akademien för svensk folkkultur , 2020, p. 47-53Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 6.
    Hedenstierna-Jonson, Charlotte
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, Archaeology.
    Holger Arbman (1904-1968)2020In: Svenska arkeologer / [ed] Anne-Sofie Gräslund, Uppsala: Kungl. Gustav Adolfs Akademien för svensk folkkultur , 2020, p. 301-308Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 7.
    Hedenstierna-Jonson, Charlotte
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, Archaeology.
    Interactions and infrastructure: On the driving forces and organisation behind the Viking Age networks of trade in the Baltic and beyond2020In: Iron and the Transformation of Society: Reflexion of Viking Age Metallurgy / [ed] Catarina Karlsson & Gert Magnusson, Stockholm: Jernkontoret , 2020, p. 187-222Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Trade with exotic commodities along far-reaching networks is generally seen as one of the characteristics of the Viking Age. While luxury goods from various parts of the world reached Scandinavia, there was also an extensive export of materials and products, not least from the so-called outland regions of Scandinavia. Iron in different forms constituted an important part of this exchange. But trade operating over extensive geographical areas and routes linking the outlands with the established transport routes required infrastructure and organisation. Different types of sites emerged that all, in their own way, contributed to the interactions between people and areas along the trade route. This paper aims to identify examples of such sites, contextualise some of the traded commodities and discuss the possible driving forces and push factors that lay behind the Viking Age trade networks in the Baltic and beyond.

  • 8.
    Hedenstierna-Jonson, Charlotte
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, Archaeology.
    Internationell handel, tidiga städer och nätverksriken2022In: Situne Dei, ISSN 1653-8498, p. 74-76Article in journal (Other academic)
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  • 9.
    Hedenstierna-Jonson, Charlotte
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History.
    Kvinnan med den gröna bägaren: 800-tal2020In: Begravd på Birka: Tre århundraden, fyra vikingaliv / [ed] Linda Wåhlander, Stockholm: Strömma , 2020, p. 52-89Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 10.
    Hedenstierna-Jonson, Charlotte
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, Archaeology.
    Med utgångspunkt från människorna: Sociala roller och samhälleliga funktioner i Birka med utblick mot Gamla Uppsala2016In: Socioekonomisk mångfald. Ritualer och urbanitet: Rapport från projektseminarium för Ostkustbanan (OKB) genom Gamla Uppsala / [ed] Kerstin Cassel, Stockholm, Uppsala: Statens Historiska Museer, Arkeologerna , 2016, p. 27-38Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    How can we as archaeologists interpret historically important and symbolically charged places like Birka and Gamla Uppsala? The monumentality of the places and their comprehensive research history tend to influence the theories we bring forth and affect the questions we pose. This paper suggests an approach that starts with the people; they who created the place and through their activities filled it with function and meaning? Their material culture and archaeological contexts reflect social roles, concepts and traditions that may cast new light on societal functions and overriding organisation. Using four burials as starting point this study aims to provide new perspectives and a further understanding of the Viking Age town of Birka.

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  • 11.
    Hedenstierna-Jonson, Charlotte
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, Archaeology. The Swedish History Museum, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Not a camp but a garrison: Martial life 'at home'2023In: Viking Camps: Case Studies and Comparisons / [ed] Charlotte Hedenstierna-Jonson;Irene García Losquiño, London: Routledge, 2023, p. 274-293Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    While knowledge of Viking Age military structures such as ditches, camps, and enclosures outside of Scandinavia is growing, possible counterparts in the Scandinavian regions are generally less known. But despite the lack of trenches, camps, and enclosures, other traces of army life and organisation are preserved. In this chapter, it is suggested that the so-called garrison in the Viking-era city of Birka, Sweden, constitutes an interesting counterpart to the camps. Despite the differences between them, not least in terms of temporality and relation to the surrounding region, a more detailed comparison of the archaeological source material also shows important similarities. The structural and material remains of the garrison are here put into context and questions are raised concerning differences in opportunities and needs for a martial organisation operating at home compared to the challenges facing an army acting away from home.

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  • 12.
    Hedenstierna-Jonson, Charlotte
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, Archaeology.
    Review - A Viking Century. Chernihiv area from 900 to 1000 AD2024In: Norwegian Archaeological Review, ISSN 0029-3652, E-ISSN 1502-7678Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 13.
    Hedenstierna-Jonson, Charlotte
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, Archaeology.
    [Review of:] Viking: Ran, ild og sværd2020In: Historisk Tidskrift, ISSN 0345-469X, E-ISSN 2002-4827, Vol. 140, no 3, p. 552-554Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 14.
    Hedenstierna-Jonson, Charlotte
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, Archaeology.
    Spaces and Places of the Urban Settlement of Birka2016In: New aspects on Viking-age urbanism c. AD 750-1100: Proceedings of the the international symposium at the Swedish History Museum, April 17-20th 2013 / [ed] Lena Holmquist; Sven Kalmring; Charlotte Hedenstierna-Jonson, Stockholm: Archaeological Research Laboratory, Stockholm University , 2016, p. 23-34Chapter in book (Other academic)
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  • 15.
    Hedenstierna-Jonson, Charlotte
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, Archaeology.
    Sveer i østerled: Fund fra vikingebyen Birka2022In: Rus: Vikinger i øst / [ed] Pauline Asingh; Kristian Jensen, Højbjerg: Moesgaard Museum , 2022, p. 131-138Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 16.
    Hedenstierna-Jonson, Charlotte
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History.
    Warrior Identities in Viking Age Scandinavia.2020In: Vikings Across Boundaries: Viking Age transformations vol. II / [ed] H. L. Aannestad, U. Pedersen, M. Moen, E. Naumann & H. Lund Berg, London & New York: Routledge, 2020, p. 179-194Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During an era where violence remained constantly present, the life of the warriors was admired and their achievements praised. The way they lived their lives and the identity they held provided guidelines for others and had hearing on how society was structured. Contemporary evidence of warrior identities can be found partly in the archaeological remains and partly in the skaldic poetry and runic inscriptions. Together these materials provide an insight into the ideals and values that formed the life of the warriors and ultimately created their concept of identity and belonging. This chapter aims at exploring some of the elements that formed the Viking warrior identities and how these affected individuals, groups and society as a whole. 

  • 17.
    Hedenstierna-Jonson, Charlotte
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, Archaeology.
    Warriors Wearing Silk2023In: Vikings in the Mediterranean: Proceedings of an International Conference Co-organized by the Norwegian, Swedish, and Danish Institutes at Athens, Athens, 27-30 November 2019 / [ed] Neil Price; Marianne Hem Eriksen; Carsten Jahnke, Athens: Norwegian Institute at Athens , 2023, p. 223-240Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Silk in Viking Age burials has captured the interest of archaeologists and textile researchers since the first fragments were identified during the late 19th century. The delicate and exotic fabric connected Scandinavia to long-distance trade routes and provided a fundamentally different addition and unexpected golden lining to the cloth culture that was dominated by wool and linen fabrics. The archaeological material is highly fragmentary with few preserved larger pieces, and is dominated by fabric cut into long strips with little consideration for the pattern. At times, this has led to a simplified view in which the silk has been reduced to being purely ornamental and an expression of high social standing, wealth, and long-distance trade connections. The study is a reflection on the intangible values that surrounded silk in the silk-producing regions and the extent to which these ideas accompanied the fabric into Scandinavian society. Using the two sites of Birka and Valsgärde as a starting point, I examine the Scandinavian context of silks, their possible origin, and the trade routes of silk to Scandinavia. Although silk is present in various contexts, my focus is on the martial sphere of society, in which the need to express affiliation, status, and rank was fundamental, and clothing offered an opportunity to do so. Subsequently, I discuss some of the martial connotations of silk in its regions of origin and explore how these ideas may have been materialised in the silk itself. By exploring the biographies of the silk, and the ideas, cultures, and people that shaped them on their path to the north, I argue that part of the silk material in Viking-Age Scandinavia represents an intellectual import of the Byzantine, and Arabic, practice of warriors wearing silk.

  • 18.
    Hedenstierna-Jonson, Charlotte
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History.
    With Asia as neighbour: Archaeological evidence of contacts between Scandinavia and Central Asia in the Viking Age and the Tang Dynasty2020In: Bulletin of the Museum of Far Eastern Antiquities, ISSN 0081-5691, Vol. 81, p. 43-64Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With the establishing of crafts- and trade centres along the rivers of Ancient Rus’ from mid-8th century and onwards, the contacts between Scandinavia and “the East” started to flourish. The trade routes of Asia came closer and desirable goods like silver, textiles, spices and other prestige objects became more accessible. Although the Caliphate and the Byzantine Empire were the main destinations for the travels a wealth of archaeological finds indicate that the situation was more complex. Archaeological finds such as silk from China, bronze flasks from Turkmenistan and advanced archery equipment from the Steppes hint at the extent and diversity of contacts. Is it possible that people from Late Iron Age Scandinavia even had direct contact with the Silk route? 

  • 19.
    Hedenstierna-Jonson, Charlotte
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, Archaeology.
    García Losquiño, Irene
    Viking Camps: Case Studies and Comparisons2023Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This book is the coming together of several disciplines under the thematic umbrella of Viking Camps and provides the very latest research presented by the leading researchers in the field, making it the most comprehensive compilation of the phenomenon of Viking camps to date.

    Compiling the current state of research on encampments across the Viking world and their impact on their surroundings, this volume provides an all-encompassing analysis of their characteristics—functions, form, inner workings, and interaction with the landscape and the local population. It initiates a wider discussion on the features and functions that define them, making it possible to identify and understand new sites, also broadening the geographical scope. Sites in Ireland, England, Sweden, Frankia, and Iberia are presented and explored, allowing the reader to understand the camp phenomenon from a comparative, more inclusive perspective. The combination of geographically bound case-studies and in-depth analyses of specific themes, such as economy and religion, bring together an abundance of methodologies and approaches. The volume introduces new interdisciplinary approaches to define and identify Viking encampment sites, combining archaeology, historical documents, metal detecting, landscape analysis, and toponymic research. It builds the methodological foundations for future research on Viking camps, the armies inhabiting them, and their interaction with the surrounding world.

    Viking Camps contributes to a better understanding of the functioning of Viking expeditionary groups, both on campaign and during the early stages of settlement, and will be of use to researchers in Viking archaeology, history, and Viking Studies.

  • 20.
    Hedenstierna-Jonson, Charlotte
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, Archaeology. Archaeological Research Laboratory, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Kjellström, Anna
    Archaeological Research Laboratory, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; Osteoarchaeological Research Laboratory, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Zachrisson, Torun
    Archaeological Research Laboratory, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Krzewińska, Maja
    Archaeological Research Laboratory, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sobrado, Veronica
    Archaeological Research Laboratory, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Price, Neil
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, Archaeology.
    Günther, Torsten
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Evolution and Developmental Biology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Jakobsson, Mattias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Evolution and Developmental Biology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Götherström, Anders
    Archaeological Research Laboratory, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Storå, Jan
    Osteoarchaeological Research Laboratory, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    A female Viking warrior confirmed by genomics2017In: American Journal of Physical Anthropology, ISSN 0002-9483, E-ISSN 1096-8644, Vol. 164, no 4, p. 853-860Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study has been to confirm the sex and the affinity of an individual buried in a well-furnished warrior grave (Bj 581) in the Viking Age town of Birka, Sweden. Previously, based on the material and historical records, the male sex has been associated with the gender of the warrior and such was the case with Bj 581. An earlier osteological classification of the individual as female was considered controversial in a historical and archaeological context. A genomic confirmation of the biological sex of the individual was considered necessary to solve the issue.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Genome-wide sequence data was generated in order to confirm the biological sex, to support skeletal integrity, and to investigate the genetic relationship of the individual to ancient individuals as well as modern-day groups. Additionally, a strontium isotope analysis was conducted to highlight the mobility of the individual.

    RESULTS: The genomic results revealed the lack of a Y-chromosome and thus a female biological sex, and the mtDNA analyses support a single-individual origin of sampled elements. The genetic affinity is close to present-day North Europeans, and within Sweden to the southern and south-central region. Nevertheless, the Sr values are not conclusive as to whether she was of local or nonlocal origin.

    DISCUSSION: The identification of a female Viking warrior provides a unique insight into the Viking society, social constructions, and exceptions to the norm in the Viking time-period. The results call for caution against generalizations regarding social orders in past societies.

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  • 21.
    Hedenstierna-Jonson, Charlotte
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History.
    Linderholm, Anna
    Kjellström, Anna
    Viking Mobility in the Baltic Sea Region2020In: Viking Encounters: Proceedings of the 18th Viking Congress / [ed] Anne Pedersen & Søren Sindbaek, Aarhus: Aarhus University Press , 2020, p. 57-66Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tough mobility and migration could be regarded as diagnostic features of the Viking Age, it is not possible to generalize and treat the Viking World as a homogenous society. Patterns of mobility and migration were linked to social structures and contexts. Studying the composition of the material culture within a site or individual context has been the prevailing method within archaeology to approach issues of mobility. Although this approach has acknowledged restrictions, it has been the method at hand. However, migration and mobility are not necessarily reflected in the material culture, meaning other approaches are called for. The first question to ask is: what variations in mobility patterns between urban and rural contexts are there, and are there indications of significant differences between various geographical regions? Even between sites characterized as trading posts (i.e. not rural), with similar material evidence of long-distance trade and advanced crafts, we might have significant differences, relating to the seasonal or permanent character of the site. In the following paper, we present the results from strontium isotope analyses on archaeological materials from a number of Viking-Age sites within present-day Sweden. The results of the analyses conducted within the ATLAS project will be compared to other isotope studies from Scandinavia, and discussed in relation to local, regional and supra-regional contexts. On a more local level, the possible cultural influence of migrants is investigated.

  • 22.
    Hedenstierna-Jonson, Charlotte
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, Archaeology.
    Ljungkvist, John
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, Archaeology.
    Elite Burials with Bohemian Garnets in Vendel Period Sweden2023In: Royal Insignia of Late Antiquity from Mšec and Řevničov: Magnificent Finds from the Migration Period from Central Bohemia / [ed] Jaroslav Jiřík; Kateřina Blažková; Jana Bezáková; Barry Ager et al., Rakovník: Museum in Rakovník , 2023, p. 194-199Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper is a short note on two elite burilas from present day Sweden. Dated to the Vendel period, i.e. the equivalent of the Merovingian period in Swedish historical writing, these two burials contain the only known examples of Bohemian garnets in the Swedish archaeological material. In the text, the two burials will be presented and the garnets contexualised and discussed.

  • 23.
    Hedenstierna-Jonson, Charlotte
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, Archaeology.
    Ljungkvist, John
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, Archaeology.
    Horses and Burials in Late Iron-Age Central Sweden: The Examples of Valsgärde and Birka2021In: Horse and Rider in the late Viking Age: Equestrian burial in perspective / [ed] Anne Pedersen & Merethe Schifter Bagge, Aarhus: Aarhus Universitetsforlag, 2021, p. 223-243Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The inclusion of horses in burials is a well-known aspect of Scandinavian funerary prac­tices. Among so-called warrior burials of the late Scandinavian Iron Age in central Sweden, i.e. the Vendel and Viking periods (c. AD 556/70–1100), horses and horse equipment constitute some of the most prominent objects in the graves. In com­bination with full weapon sets, horse equipment is a key indicator of high-status warriors, and has been found buried in boats, chambers and various kinds of cremation burials (Pedersen 2014; Sun­dkvist 2001). In some regions, horse burials are mainly an elite phenomenon, while in others they occur more frequently. There are also differences in how they are furnished. Riding equipment can be relatively common, while buried horses them­selves are few (Pedersen 2014, 176–222). In the Lake Mälaren Region of central Swe­den, horses in burials are not unusual, and the practice can be identified in most burial grounds, particularly those dated to the Vendel Period (AD 560/70–750/800) (Petré 1984; 1999; 2000; 2011; Seiler 2001; Magnell et al. 2017, fig. 90). In rich graves from the Viking Age, such as the cham­ber burials from Birka and the boat graves from Vendel and Valsgärde, horses appear to have been a necessary component of the funerary assem­blage. While Vendel and Valsgärde could be seen as particular expressions of a regional society and rooted in tradition, Birka represents a new form of social structure and setting, i.e. an urban milieu on a small island in Lake Mälaren (Fig. 1). This contribution is a product of the Swedish Research Council-funded ‘Viking Phenomenon’ project, part of which is a detailed study of all boat burials from the Valsgärde cemetery. This has presented us with an opportunity to identify larger patterns in the deposition of horses and/ or horse equipment in Valsgärde and other rural sites north of Lake Mälaren (Valsgärde, Vendel, Tuna in Alsike and Gamla Uppsala). These graves represent places that have unique characteristics, but also have enough in common to be considered a group of elite rural burials that can be compared with those from Birka – particularly the chamber graves. Though well-known and often referred to, the horses and horse equipment in the elaborate burials in Birka have not yet been examined in depth. In fact, a comprehensive study of horses in all of Birka’s contexts has yet to be made. The Valsgärde and Vendel horse equipment has been partially discussed in several cases (see for exam­ple Arwidssson 1942; 1954; 1977; Sundkvist 2001), but we still lack comprehensive studies of horse equipment, particularly with regards to how dif­ferent kinds of equipment are related to individ­ual horses. A study that combines genetic and osteological analyses with careful examination of the equipment could reveal more about the prac­tical and funerary role of a horse, and also create biographies of individual horses. The aim of this chapter is twofold. First, we will present and compare depositional patterns of horse-related equipment from the Valsgärde and Vendel boat graves. We will then discuss these in comparison to the use of horses and horse equip­ment in burials at Birka, and in doing so pose a number of questions for future consideration concerning the way in which horse-related items reflect the roles played by horses in funerary set­tings. It is necessary to state at the outset that we will focus primarily on the evidence from various forms of inhumation burials. Although cremation was the predominate burial rite in Scandinavia for much of the late Iron Age, the inevitable destruc­tion of burial goods during the cremation process itself prevents us from exploring this material within the context of this initial study.

  • 24.
    Holmquist, Lena
    et al.
    Arkeologiska forskningslaboratoriet, Stockholms Universitet.
    Kalmring, SvenHedenstierna-Jonson, CharlotteUppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, Archaeology.
    New aspects on Viking-age Urbanism, c. 750-1100 AD: Proceedings of the the international symposium at the Swedish History Museum, April 17-20th 20132016Collection (editor) (Refereed)
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  • 25.
    Kitzler Åhfeldt, Laila
    et al.
    Riksantikvarieämbetet.
    Hedenstierna-Jonson, CharlotteUppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, Archaeology.Widerström, PerGotlands Museum.Raffield, BenjaminUppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, Archaeology.
    Relations and Runes: The Baltic Islands and Their Interactions During the Late Iron Age and Early Middle Ages2020Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 26.
    Klevnäs, Alison
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Arkeologi.
    Hedenstierna-Jonson, CharlotteStockholms universitet, Arkeologiska forskningslaboratoriet.
    Own and be owned: archaeological approaches to the concept of possession2015Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 27.
    Margaryan, Ashot
    et al.
    Univ Copenhagen, GLOBE Inst, Lundbeck Fdn GeoGenet Ctr, Copenhagen, Denmark.;Natl Acad Sci, Inst Mol Biol, Yerevan, Armenia.;Univ Copenhagen, GLOBE Inst, Sect Evolutionary Genom, Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Lawson, Daniel J.
    Univ Bristol, MRC Integrat Epidemiol Unit, Bristol, Avon, England.;Univ Bristol, Sch Stat Sci, Bristol, Avon, England..
    Sikora, Martin
    Univ Copenhagen, GLOBE Inst, Lundbeck Fdn GeoGenet Ctr, Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Racimo, Fernando
    Univ Copenhagen, GLOBE Inst, Lundbeck Fdn GeoGenet Ctr, Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Rasmussen, Simon
    Univ Copenhagen, Fac Hlth & Med Sci, Novo Nordisk Fdn, Ctr Prot Res, Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Moltke, Ida
    Univ Copenhagen, Dept Biol, Bioinformat Ctr, Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Cassidy, Lara M.
    Trinity Coll Dublin, Smurfit Inst Genet, Dublin, Ireland..
    Jorsboe, Emil
    Univ Copenhagen, Dept Biol, Bioinformat Ctr, Copenhagen, Denmark.;Univ Copenhagen, Fac Hlth & Med Sci, Novo Nordisk Fdn, Ctr Basic Metab Res, Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Ingason, Andres
    Univ Copenhagen, GLOBE Inst, Lundbeck Fdn GeoGenet Ctr, Copenhagen, Denmark.;Univ Copenhagen, Dept Clin Med, Copenhagen, Denmark.;Mental Hlth Serv Copenhagen, Inst Biol Psychiat, Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Pedersen, Mikkel W.
    Univ Copenhagen, GLOBE Inst, Lundbeck Fdn GeoGenet Ctr, Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Korneliussen, Thorfinn
    Univ Copenhagen, GLOBE Inst, Lundbeck Fdn GeoGenet Ctr, Copenhagen, Denmark.;Russian Federat Natl Res Univ, HSE Univ, Higher Sch Econ, Moscow, Russia..
    Wilhelmson, Helene
    Lund Univ, Dept Archaeol & Ancient Hist, Lund, Sweden.;Sydsvensk Arkeol AB, Kristianstad, Sweden..
    Bus, Magdalena M.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medicinsk genetik och genomik.
    de Barros Damgaard, Peter
    Univ Copenhagen, GLOBE Inst, Lundbeck Fdn GeoGenet Ctr, Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Martiniano, Rui
    Univ Cambridge, Dept Genet, Cambridge, England..
    Renaud, Gabriel
    Univ Copenhagen, GLOBE Inst, Lundbeck Fdn GeoGenet Ctr, Copenhagen, Denmark.;Tech Univ Denmark DTU, Sect Bioinformat, Dept Hlth Technol, Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Bherer, Claude
    McGill Univ, Dept Human Genet, Montreal, PQ, Canada..
    Moreno-Mayar, J. Victor
    Univ Copenhagen, GLOBE Inst, Lundbeck Fdn GeoGenet Ctr, Copenhagen, Denmark.;Natl Inst Genom Med INMEGEN, Mexico City, DF, Mexico..
    Fotakis, Anna K.
    Univ Copenhagen, GLOBE Inst, Sect Evolutionary Genom, Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Allen, Marie
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medicinsk genetik och genomik.
    Allme, Raili
    Tallinn Univ, Archaeol Res Collect, Tallinn, Estonia..
    Molak, Martyna
    Polish Acad Sci, Museum & Inst Zool, Warsaw, Poland..
    Cappellini, Enrico
    Univ Copenhagen, GLOBE Inst, Sect Evolutionary Genom, Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Scorrano, Gabriele
    Univ Copenhagen, GLOBE Inst, Sect Evolutionary Genom, Copenhagen, Denmark..
    McColl, Hugh
    Univ Copenhagen, GLOBE Inst, Lundbeck Fdn GeoGenet Ctr, Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Buzhilova, Alexandra
    Moscow MV Lomonosov State Univ, Anuchin Res Inst, Moscow, Russia.;Moscow MV Lomonosov State Univ, Museum Anthropol, Moscow, Russia..
    Fox, Allison
    Manx Natl Heritage, Douglas, Man, England..
    Albrechtsen, Anders
    Univ Copenhagen, Dept Biol, Bioinformat Ctr, Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Schutz, Berit
    Upplandsmuseet, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Skar, Birgitte
    NTNU Univ Museum, Dept Archaeol & Cultural Hist, Trondheim, Norway..
    Arcini, Caroline
    Natl Hist Museums, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Falys, Ceri
    Thames Valley Archaeol Serv TVAS, Reading, Berks, England..
    Hedenstierna-Jonson, Charlotte
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, Archaeology.
    Blaszczyk, Dariusz
    Univ Warsaw, Inst Archaeol, Warsaw, Poland..
    Pezhemsky, Denis
    Moscow MV Lomonosov State Univ, Anuchin Res Inst, Moscow, Russia.;Moscow MV Lomonosov State Univ, Museum Anthropol, Moscow, Russia..
    Turner-Walker, Gordon
    Natl Yunlin Univ Sci & Technol, Dept Cultural Heritage Conservat, Touliu, Taiwan..
    Gestsdottir, Hildur
    Inst Archaeol, Reykjavik, Iceland..
    Lundstrom, Inge
    Univ Copenhagen, GLOBE Inst, Sect Evolutionary Genom, Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Gustin, Ingrid
    Lund Univ, Dept Archaeol & Ancient Hist, Lund, Sweden..
    Mainland, Ingrid
    Univ Highlands & Islands, UHI Archaeol Inst, Kirkwall, Scotland..
    Potekhina, Inna
    Natl Acad Sci Ukraine, Dept Bioarchaeol, Inst Archaeol, Kiev, Ukraine..
    Muntoni, Italo M.
    Soprintendenza Archeol Belle Arti & Paesaggio Pro, Foggia, Italy..
    Cheng, Jade
    Univ Copenhagen, GLOBE Inst, Lundbeck Fdn GeoGenet Ctr, Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Stenderup, Jesper
    Univ Copenhagen, GLOBE Inst, Lundbeck Fdn GeoGenet Ctr, Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Ma, Jilong
    Univ Copenhagen, GLOBE Inst, Lundbeck Fdn GeoGenet Ctr, Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Gibson, Julie
    Univ Highlands & Islands, UHI Archaeol Inst, Kirkwall, Scotland..
    Peets, Juri
    Tallinn Univ, Archaeol Res Collect, Tallinn, Estonia..
    Gustafsson, Jorgen
    Jönköping Cty Museum, Jönköping, Sweden..
    Iversen, Katrine H.
    Univ Copenhagen, Fac Hlth & Med Sci, Novo Nordisk Fdn, Ctr Prot Res, Copenhagen, Denmark.;Tech Univ Denmark DTU, Sect Bioinformat, Dept Hlth Technol, Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Simpson, Linzi
    Trinity Coll Dublin, Dublin, Ireland..
    Strand, Lisa
    NTNU Univ Museum, Dept Archaeol & Cultural Hist, Trondheim, Norway..
    Loe, Louise
    Heritage Burial Serv, Oxford Archaeol, Oxford, England..
    Sikora, Maeve
    Natl Museum Ireland, Dublin, Ireland..
    Florek, Marek
    Maria Curie Sklodowska Univ Lublin, Inst Archaeol, Lublin, Poland..
    Vretemark, Maria
    Vastergotlands Museum, Skara, Sweden..
    Redknap, Mark
    Amgueddfa Cymru Natl Museum Wales, Dept Hist & Archaeol, Cardiff, Wales..
    Bajka, Monika
    Trzy Epoki Archaeol Serv, Klimontow, Poland..
    Pushkina, Tamara
    Moscow MV Lomonosov State Univ, Hist Fac, Moscow, Russia..
    Sovso, Morten
    Museum Southwest Jutland, Ribe, Denmark..
    Grigoreva, Natalia
    Russian Acad Sci, Inst Hist Mat Culture, Dept Slav Finnish Archaeol, St Petersburg, Russia..
    Christensen, Tom
    Natl Museum Denmark, Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Kastholm, Ole
    Roskilde Museum, Dept Res & Heritage, Roskilde, Denmark..
    Uldum, Otto
    Langelands Museum, Langeland, Denmark..
    Favia, Pasquale
    Univ Foggia, Dept Humanities, Foggia, Italy..
    Holck, Per
    Univ Oslo, Dept Mol Med, Fac Med, Oslo, Norway..
    Sten, Sabine
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, Archaeology.
    Arge, Simun V.
    Tjoosavnio Faroe Isl Natl Museum, Torshavn, Faroe Islands, Denmark..
    Ellingvag, Sturla
    Univ Copenhagen, GLOBE Inst, Lundbeck Fdn GeoGenet Ctr, Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Moiseyev, Vayacheslav
    Russian Acad Sci, Peter Great Museum Anthropol & Ethnog Kunstkamera, St Petersburg, Russia..
    Bogdanowicz, Wieslaw
    Polish Acad Sci, Museum & Inst Zool, Warsaw, Poland..
    Magnusson, Yvonne
    Malmö Museum, Malmö, Sweden..
    Orlando, Ludovic
    Univ Paul Sabatier, Univ Toulouse, CNRS, Lab Anthropobiol Mol & Imagerie Synth,UMR 5288, Toulouse, France..
    Pentz, Peter
    Natl Museum Denmark, Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Jessen, Mads Dengso
    Natl Museum Denmark, Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Pedersen, Anne
    Natl Museum Denmark, Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Collard, Mark
    Simon Fraser Univ, Dept Archaeol, Burnaby, BC, Canada..
    Bradley, Daniel G.
    Trinity Coll Dublin, Smurfit Inst Genet, Dublin, Ireland..
    Jorkov, Marie Louise
    Univ Copenhagen, Dept Forens Med, Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Arneborg, Jette
    Natl Museum Denmark, Copenhagen, Denmark.;Univ Edinburgh, Sch GeoSci, Edinburgh, Midlothian, Scotland..
    Lynnerup, Niels
    Univ Copenhagen, Dept Forens Med, Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Price, Neil
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, Archaeology.
    Gilbert, M. Thomas P.
    Univ Copenhagen, GLOBE Inst, Sect Evolutionary Genom, Copenhagen, Denmark.;Norwegian Univ Sci & Technol NTNU, Dept Nat Hist, Trondheim, Norway..
    Allentoft, Morten E.
    Univ Copenhagen, GLOBE Inst, Lundbeck Fdn GeoGenet Ctr, Copenhagen, Denmark.;Curtin Univ, Sch Mol & Life Sci, Trace & Environm DNA TrEnD Lab, Perth, WA, Australia..
    Bill, Jan
    Univ Oslo, Museum Cultural Hist, Oslo, Norway..
    Sindbaek, Soren M.
    Aarhus Univ, Sch Culture & Soc, Ctr Urban Network Evolut UrbNet, Hojbjerg, Denmark..
    Hedeager, Lotte
    Inst Archaeol Conservat & Hist, Oslo, Norway..
    Kristiansen, Kristian
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Hist Studies, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Nielsen, Rasmus
    Univ Copenhagen, GLOBE Inst, Lundbeck Fdn GeoGenet Ctr, Copenhagen, Denmark.;Univ Calif Berkeley, Dept Integrat Biol, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA.;Univ Calif Berkeley, Dept Stat, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Werge, Thomas
    Univ Copenhagen, GLOBE Inst, Lundbeck Fdn GeoGenet Ctr, Copenhagen, Denmark.;Univ Copenhagen, Dept Clin Med, Copenhagen, Denmark.;Mental Hlth Serv Copenhagen, Inst Biol Psychiat, Copenhagen, Denmark.;Lundbeck Fdn Initiat Integrat Psychiat Res, iPSYCH, Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Willerslev, Eske
    Univ Copenhagen, GLOBE Inst, Lundbeck Fdn GeoGenet Ctr, Copenhagen, Denmark.;Univ Cambridge, Dept Zool, Cambridge, England.;Univ Southern Denmark, Danish Inst Adv Study, Odense, Denmark.;Wellcome Trust Sanger Inst, Cambridge, England..
    Population genomics of the Viking world2020In: Nature, ISSN 0028-0836, E-ISSN 1476-4687, Vol. 585, no 7825, p. 390-+Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The maritime expansion of Scandinavian populations during the Viking Age (about ad 750–1050) was a far-flung transformation in world history1,2. Here we sequenced the genomes of 442 humans from archaeological sites across Europe and Greenland (to a median depth of about 1×) to understand the global influence of this expansion. We find the Viking period involved gene flow into Scandinavia from the south and east. We observe genetic structure within Scandinavia, with diversity hotspots in the south and restricted gene flow within Scandinavia. We find evidence for a major influx of Danish ancestry into England; a Swedish influx into the Baltic; and Norwegian influx into Ireland, Iceland and Greenland. Additionally, we see substantial ancestry from elsewhere in Europe entering Scandinavia during the Viking Age. Our ancient DNA analysis also revealed that a Viking expedition included close family members. By comparing with modern populations, we find that pigmentation-associated loci have undergone strong population differentiation during the past millennium, and trace positively selected loci—including the lactase-persistence allele of LCT and alleles of ANKA that are associated with the immune response—in detail. We conclude that the Viking diaspora was characterized by substantial transregional engagement: distinct populations influenced the genomic makeup of different regions of Europe, and Scandinavia experienced increased contact with the rest of the continent.

  • 28.
    Price, Neil
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, Archaeology.
    Hedenstierna-Jonson, Charlotte
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, Archaeology.
    Zachrisson, Torun
    Upplandsmuseet, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Kjellström, Anna
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Archaeol & Class Studies, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Storå, Jan
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Archaeol & Class Studies, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Krzewińska, Maja
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Archaeol & Class Studies, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Günther, Torsten
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Human Evolution.
    Sobrado, Verónica
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Archaeol & Class Studies, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Jakobsson, Mattias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Human Evolution.
    Götherström, Anders
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Archaeol & Class Studies, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Viking warrior women?: Reassessing Birka chamber grave Bj.5812019In: Antiquity, ISSN 0003-598X, E-ISSN 1745-1744, Vol. 93, no 367, p. 181-198Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The warrior woman has long been part of the Viking image, with a pedigree that extends from the Valkyries of Old Norse prose and poetry to modern media entertainment. Until recently, however, actual Viking Age evidence for such individuals has been sparse. This article addresses research showing that the individual buried at Birka in an 'archetypal' high-status warrior grave-always assumed to be male since its excavation in 1878-is, in fact, biologically female. Publication, in 2017, of the genomic data led to unprecedented public debate about this individual. Here, the authors address in detail the interpretation of the burial, discussing source-critical issues and parallels.

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  • 29. Rodríguez-Varela, Ricardo
    et al.
    Moore, Kristjan H.S.
    Ebenesersdóttir, S. Sunna
    Kilinc, Gulsah Merve
    Kjellström, Anna
    Papmehl-Dufay, Ludvig
    Alfsdotter, Clara
    Berglund, Birgitta
    Alrawi, Loey
    Kashuba, Natalija
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, Archaeology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Human Evolution. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Stockholm University, 10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sobrado, Verónica
    Lagerholm, Vendela Kempe
    Gilbert, Edmund
    Cavalleri, Gianpiero L.
    Hovig, Eivind
    Kockum, Ingrid
    Olsson, Tomas
    Alfredsson, Lars
    Hansen, Thomas F.
    Werge, Thomas
    Munters, Arielle
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Human Evolution. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Bernhardsson, Carolina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Human Evolution. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Skar, Birgitte
    Christophersen, Axel
    Turner-Walker, Gordon
    Gopalakrishnan, Shyam
    Daskalaki, Eva
    Omrak, Ayça
    Pérez-Ramallo, Patxi
    Skoglund, Pontus
    Girdland-Flink, Linus
    Gunnarsson, Fredrik
    Hedenstierna-Jonson, Charlotte
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, Archaeology.
    Gilbert, M. Thomas P.
    Lidén, Kerstin
    Jakobsson, Mattias
    Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Human Evolution.
    Einarsson, Lars
    Victor, Helena
    Krzewińska, Maja
    Zachrisson, Torun
    Storå, Jan
    Stefánsson, Kári
    Helgason, Agnar
    Götherström, Anders
    The genetic history of Scandinavia from the Roman Iron Age to the present2023In: Cell, ISSN 0092-8674, E-ISSN 1097-4172, Vol. 186, no 1, p. 32-46.e19Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigate a 2,000-year genetic transect through Scandinavia spanning the Iron Age to the present, based on 48 new and 249 published ancient genomes and genotypes from 16,638 modern individuals. We find regional variation in the timing and magnitude of gene flow from three sources: the eastern Baltic, the British-Irish Isles, and southern Europe. British-Irish ancestry was widespread in Scandinavia from the Viking period, whereas eastern Baltic ancestry is more localized to Gotland and central Sweden. In some regions, a drop in current levels of external ancestry suggests that ancient immigrants contributed proportionately less to the modern Scandinavian gene pool than indicated by the ancestry of genomes from the Viking and Medieval periods. Finally, we show that a north-south genetic cline that characterizes modern Scandinavians is mainly due to the differential levels of Uralic ancestry and that this cline existed in the Viking Age and possibly earlier.

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  • 30.
    Ögren, Anders
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History, Uppsala Centre for Business History.
    Hedenstierna-Jonson, Charlotte
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, Archaeology.
    Ljungkvist, John
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, Archaeology.
    Raffield, Ben
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, Archaeology.
    Price, Neil
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, Archaeology.
    New institutional economics in Viking studies: Visualising immaterial culture2022In: Archaeological Dialogues, ISSN 1380-2038, E-ISSN 1478-2294, Vol. 29, no 2, p. 172-187Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we argue that closer engagement with the field of new institutional economics (NIE) has the potential to provide researchers with a new theoretical toolbox that can be used to study economic and social practices that are not readily traceable in material culture. NIE assumes that individual actions are based on bounded rationality and that the existence of rules (institutions) and their enforcement – the institutional framework – influences agents’ actions by providing different incentives and probabilities for different choices. Within this theoretical framework, we identify a number of concepts, such as collective identity and mobile jurisdictions, that seem to fit what we know of Viking age economic systems. In applying these models to the available archaeological and textual data, we outline the ways in which further research could provide a new understanding of economic interaction within a rapidly evolving context of diaspora and change.

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1 - 30 of 30
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